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DEVELOPMENT OF GUJARATI LITERATURE 
A. D. 1907 - 1938 

[ Being Reviews of Books, by Diwan Bahadur 
K. M. JHAVERI, m. A., xx. b., j. p. ] 


Reprinted 

with an Introduction and Indexes 
By 

M. R. MAJMUDAR, m. a., ll. b. 
Professor of Gujarati, Baroda College, 
Post-Graduate Teacher and Research Scholar, 
University of Bombay. 


1941 



Price Rs. 4-0-0 


1st September 194 a 


Printed at Arya Sudharak Press, Baroda by M. M. Gupta 
for the Publisher. 




PREFACE 


— :o: — 

The idea of reprinting the 6< Reviews and Notice*, 
of Gujarati Books 99 contribdute to the columns of The 
Modern Review in English, by Diwan Bahadur 
K M. Jhaveri, since its inception in A. D. 1907 was 
prompted by two considerations : 

Firstly, as it promises to give a fairly good idea of 
the literary output in Gujarati during the “ Thirties ” 
( A. D. 1907-1938 ). As such,' however, it does not 
claim to be exhaustive. 

Secondly, as the collection bids fair to be a sort of a 
continuation of a similar-though connected performance- 
in Gujarati by the late Barrister D. P. Derasari, who took 
stock of Gujarati publications during the “Sixties” 
( A. D. 1850-1910 ), and drew his own conclusions 
regarding the growth and evolution of Gujarati literature 
in modem times. 

Though the connected, yet the concise account of the 
next period ( A. D. 1910-1934 ) given by the Diwan 
Bahadur as his Bombay University Thakkar Vasanji 
Lectures for A, D. 1934 under the title “The Present State 
of Gujarati Literature” is already there, there is still, in 
the writer's opinion, scope for a collection of the various 
Notices of Books which formed, as it were, the basis of his 
conclusions on the “ Development of Gujarati Literature ” 



as manifest in the illustrations spread over the various 
literary forms. 

I have to record my feeling of gratitude to Diwan 
Bahadur Jhaveri for the promptness with which he gave 
me permission to undertake such a task. I have 
been laid under an equally great obligation by Shriyuta 
Babu Ramanand Chatterjee, the Editor of The Modern 
. 'Review , who acceeded to my request to reprint the 

Reviews that had appeared in his Journal, for the purpose 
mentioned above. 

But Babu Ramanand, has laid me under a deeper 
obligation by contributing a special Editorial Note in this 
connection to his Bengali Monthly “Prahdsi’’; and I must 
admit, ‘that has heartened me in carrying the work 
through to its finish, whatever may be its worth as a 
publication for purposes of reference. 

I cannot resist the temptation to reproduce this Note 
in its English rendering, as it fully sets forth the utility 
and the importance of the present work, as viewed by a 
well known literary man of a Province, other than our own, 

“ Love of Gujarati Literature among the Gujaratis. 

Uptil now The Modern Revhv has had 377 
issues. In only a few of these numbers, there were 
no reviews for books written in Indian Languages. 
Excepting that,reviews of some Gujarati books have 
appeared in all the issues for the last 32 years. On 
the whole, it may be said that The Modern Review 
has been giving Notices of Gujarati books at least 
for the last 30 years. 

The reviewer has all alongrbeen the retired High 
Court Judge of the Bombay High Court, Shrijut K. M. 
Jhaveri. His say on Gujarati Literature is authori- 



tative. His love for literature and bis regularity 
are simply wonderful. The Editor and Assistant 
Editors of The Modern Review had never an occasion 
to say : “ We have no reviews of Gujarati books 

for this month in our stock. ” 

Gujarati writers and publishers have so 
much regard for their literature that as soon as the 
book is out they send it on to Mr. Jhaveri for review- 
ing it in The Modern Review. 

Recently we have received a letter to the effect 
that thirty-years* reviews of Mr, Jhaveri will be 
classified and published in a book-form by a 
Gujarati Liter ateur. We have very gladly given him 
our permission. 

This book will be like a history of Gujarati 
Literature for the last 30 years. ” 

— Editorial Notes : Prabdsi for Jyestha 1345. 

( Sen, Era. ) 38th. Part : VoL I No, 2, ( June 1938 ).” 

Even though no apology is necessary for writing 
about Gujarati literature in English; yet a slow tendency 
to make Gujarati publications known to other provinces 
of India through the via media of English is in evidence 
as early as the times of Narmadashankar (Vide his English 
Introduction to his edition of Premanand’s 6 Bahama 
Skandha* ), Nandashankar ( Vide the Title-page 
of his novel, where he gives an alternative title as 
‘Karana Ghelo or the Last of the Rajput Kings of Gujarat) 
and even Govardhanram, who contributed bi-lingual Pre- 
faces to all the four volumes of his magnnni opus 
(i Sarasvati Chandra . 99 Diwan Bahadur JhaverPs conti- 
nuation of this medium for expression of his literary 
views, keeping the interprovincial viewpoint in the fore- 
front, needs therefore no explanation, 



It is evident that the individual length of these 
Notices varies with the importance or otherwise of the 
subject-matter, or with their being pioneers in new fields 
of literature. Some of these are far too short; yet they 
are reprinted just with a view to preserve a record of 
Gujarati publications during the period under review. 

The responsibility about the classification scheme 
adopted in arranging the different Reviews under various 
forms and their sub-sections is entirely mine. It will be 
noticed that the Reviews are arranged in order of time 
and that separate chronological order is maintained even 
within a single literary form. 

An attempt has been made to give a brief Resume of 
the Evolution of Literary Criticism as a form in Gujarati 
literature, with a view to offer the reader proper 
perspective with which to see for himself and assign a 
niche worthy of Diwan Bahadur Jhaveri’s quota in this 
field. 

To facilitate the work of the reader, who may care 
to refer to this bulky volume of over 700 pages, two 
Indexes-one for the Title of Books, and the other for the 
Names of Authors-haye been appended, which, I hope, 
will be found useful. 


Chaitanyadham 

Pratapganj 
Baroda. y 
Krisna Jay anti, Samvat 
1997 


M. R. MAJMUDAR 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Preface 

A Review of Literary 
Criticism in Gujarati 


Literature- 1-40 

Poetry : 

-Modern 1-67 

-Mediaeval 68-104 

Drama: 

-Original 107-123 

-Translations from 
Sanskrit 123-136 

-Translations from 
English 136-140 

-Translations from 
Bengali 140-143 

Dialogue: 144-147 

Novel : 

Historical : 

-Original 151-165 

-Translations 165-170 


Socio-religious: 170-173 


Social : 

-Original 174-194 

-Translations from 
Bengali 195-202 

-Translations from 
English 202-207 

-Translations from 


Urdu etc. 

207-208 

Romantic : 

209-212 

Short story: 

-Original 

215-230 

-Translations 

230-236 

Juvenile: 

236-244 

Folk-Sore : 

247-260 

Biography: 

-General 

263-301 

-Literary 

302-310 

Essay: 

-Literary 

313-319 

-Philosophical 

319-328 

-Social 

329-337 

-Didactic 

337-345 

Literary Criticism: 

319-378 



(S ) 


Wit & Humour : 

381-388 

Religion: 

-Hindu 

391-412 

-Jaina 

413-426 

-Buddhistic 

426-428 

-Islamic 

428-431 

-Christian 

432-434 

Philosophy&Ethics 

-Philosophy 

437-448 

-Ethics 

449-453 

History : 

-History 

455-483 

-Topography 

484-487 

Economics: 

489-497 

Politics: 

499-512 

Sociology: 

513-532 

Education: 

533-548 

Grammar & Lexicon: 

549-554 


Speech es & Letters : 555- 
-Speeches 557-56-1 

-Letters 565-568 

Travel: 569-577 

F i n e A r t s : 579-586 

Sciences: 

-Health & Hygine589-597 
-Astrology and 
Agriculture 598-600 

-Botany 601-608 

-Arts & Crafts 609-612 

-Libraries 612-61 5 

Special Issues: 

-Special Issues 617-631 

-Reports etc. 632-636 

Index: 


-Of Titles of Books 1-27 
-Of Proper Names 28-11 



A REVIEW OF LITERARY CRITICISM 

IN 

GUJARATI LITERATURE 

I 

The realm of literature is occupied by the activities of 
three distinct powers; the power to create, the power to 
enjoy and the power to criticise. The chief thing that 
distinguishes the power to criticise from the other two is 
the fact that it can be acquired. Criticism thus assumes 
the existence of literature : for the person who can neither 
create nor enjoy literature, all criticism must be entirely 
meaningless, that is to say, criticism assumes the fact that 
literature exists, and it then proceeds to enquire into the 
nature of that fact, to expouud it, to assess its value, and 
in a word to think clearly about it. 

The chief function of criticism is to enlighten and 
stimulate : a great critic makes us partakers of his higher 
sense of the meaning of literature, its utility and its 
importance. The critic sometimes gives us an entirely 
fresh point of view; often, too, rendeis particular assistance 
by translating into definite form impressions of our own, 
dimly recognised indeed, but still too vague to be of 
practical value. He is sometimes a path-finder, sometimes 
a friendly companion, indicating hitherto unperceived 
aspects of even the most familiar things we pass together 
by the way. Thus he teaches us to reread for ourselves 
with quickened intelligence and keener appreciation. He 



2 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


helps us most by challenging our own judgments and also 
when he cuts across our preconceived opinions, gives us not 
instruction but provocation. However, we always gain by 
contact with him in insight and power. 

The critic's work is that of an interpreter, an inter- 
mediary, or to indulge in a classical simile, that of 
a duti, a confidant of two lovers-here the lovers being the 
author and the reader, -who brings about an ultimate meeting 
and understanding between them. 

Explaining, unfolding, illuminating, the critic shows us 
what the book really is-its contents, its spirit, its art: and 
this done, he leaves it to justify and appraise itself. A 
critic's one aim is to know and help us to know the book in 
itself. 

But a critic may write with an honest desire to under- 
stand his author, to interpret him, to do justice to him; or 
he may write with the too evident purpose of exhibiting his 
own learning and cleverness at his author’s expense; 
may be sympathetic, temperate, and anxious chiefly to see 
what is good; or he may be carping, censorious and 
determined to hunt out faults and dwell on failings. 

The duties of a reviewer in criticising the work of an 
author, whether new to literature or of established 
reputation, should, after all, be to convey Jto the public 
whether the book is worth reading, and if so, to what extent 
its authority, its style or theme is a reliable basis for 
.consideration and study. 

Raja^ekhara (10th century A. D.) in his Kdvyami?ndnsd 
( Adh. IV ) has classified critics or Bhdvakas into four groups 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-193$ $ ' 

according to their respective functioning: Firstly are critics- 
to whom nothing appeals from a literary composition and 
are known as arocdki ' Secondly are those who admire even, 
writings which are as light ( i. e., worthless ) as a straw- 
called satriwabhyuvahari; Thirdly are those who are 
malicious and fault-finding - matsari : and Lastly are those 
real critics who concentrate their gaze on the real worth of 
the composition -tattvabhinives’i. 

Rajalekhar broadly makes another classification of a 
vagbhavaka , i. e., to say, a critic who seems to appreciate 
poetry and who expresses his appreciation; and a 
hrdayabhavaka who appreciates at heart but does not 
give out. The real critic, however, he writes, while going 
through a composition discovers simultaneously the 
existence of qualities that are to be praised, and the non- 
existence of the blemishes to be condemned. 

Kanaialal Munshi ( bom A. D. 1887 ) enunciates seven 
types of perverted reviewers who err in discharge of their 
duties for several reasons : Firstly are those who look upon 
all compositions good, bad and indifferent -with selfsame 
scanty attention and deal them out in a stereotyped way - 
these are like simple children. Secondly comes the group of 
critics, who like the bard at the court or on the battle-field 
has vainglorious praise for everybody and everything s the 
Third batch consists of men, generally business-minded, whose 
criticisms are governed by considerations of personal profit 
and loss of howsoever a trifling nature; the Fourth are the 
advertising critics, whose sole business it is to depreciate 
every stuff that is not liked by them; the Fifth are those pre- 
tenders like the eldermen in villages, who in the name of 



4 


A He view of Literary Oriticiam 


their established wisdom and experience pass judgments on 
compositions by declaring them good or otherwise, and are 
keen on seeing that their verdicts are accepted as universal 
truths; the Sixth group believes in throwing mud at 
everybody, and their writings are fuli of nothing but 
abuses; the last and the Seventh group is of those beautiful 
hut poisoned damsels, who under the pretext of holding out 
high;ideals of religion, ethics and truth stand out to stifle 
the undefiled joy that flows out of a fine composition. 

Behind this realistic classification of erring critics is 
discernible a kind of sneer, which nevertheless, gives a 
faithful idea of the outlawry of these free-lances in the 
field of literary criticism 

Poet Khabardar (born A. D. 1887) has referred to tie 
same narrow group-feeling that prevails among contempo- 
rary critics in Gujarati literature, with a rare sarcasm in his 
couplets styled “ Lakha bhagat nd chhappa”, a few of which 
ate published in Madhuri for September 1940 wherein he 
has used the simple yet pointed diction of poet Akhdbhagat 
( Samvat 1640-1710 ), a past master in the art of 
exposing all kinds of shams, both in religious as well as 
worldly life. 

Khabardar complains ; “ Scholars are divided into 
different camps and editors who hold a very influential 
position, praise the compositions of their friends, and 
utterly run down those of others. But let them not forget 
that the privileged position of a daughter enjoyed by her 
at her father's house will soon be exchanged for the exact- 
ing and humiliating position of a daughter-in-law at her 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


5 


; husband’s house/'* 

It would be better to illustrate with two concrete 
examples of literary criticism in Gujarati literature, the 
utter diversity in expression of opinion regarding the work 
©f one and the same author by critics of established 
reputation. 

A conflict between the views expressed by the new and 
old schools of criticism, is finely recorded in connection 
with the estimate of “Kusuma mala”, a collection of poems 
by Narasimhardo, published in A. D. 1887. While Navalram 
noticed it merely as a collection of readable poems in rather 
a cultured style, meant to introduce Shelley and Words- 
worth to Gujarati readers, Sir Ramanbhai, brought up in the 
traditions of English reviewers, warmly welcomed it by 
praising it and describing it as “a. green Oasis in the dry, hot 
, desert of Gujarati poetry". A third reviewer.-Prof. Mahildi 
Nabhubhai, with a great leaning towards things Indian and 
Oriental, dubbed the same book of poems as “a collection of 
flowers, exotic and English, though bright-coloured yet 
, scentless; hence, artificial and far removed from spontaneous 
and natural vein, and as such not fit to be enjoyed by the 
man in the street". 

Another queer illustration of a book-review about thirty 
years later, is now remembered more for the diverse 
criticism it excited from two powerful writers than for its 
real worth as a collection of prose-rhapsodies : I mean 
Prathu Sukla’s "Fulapdndadi" which appeared simultaneous- 

* c< $5 i ^rr ti 

feff ftrartat z&c *mvn \ ^ n 

j ^ mm gg it ’> 



A Review o! Literary Criticism 




1 7 with a most laudatory ‘‘Introduction’" from Kavi NanalaJ, 
who made it a peg upon which to hang several of his preju- 
dices against contemporary writers, and another deprecatory 
^Preface’’ by Sir Ramanbhai who denounced downright the 
unbridled and fanciful ejeculations of the Romantic school of 
writers headed by NanalaL These two Forewords show 
when juxta-posed which way the wind blew with regard to 
the dirty waters of the currents in Gujarati literary criticism 
of those times. 

One of the most curious and discouraging features of 
current newspaper and magazine criticism during the last 
thirty years in Gujarat, at any rate, has been its general want 
of sense of proportion, sobriety and perspective. A new book 
of one-Act plays is published~a book perhaps with various 
admirable qualities and well deserving a word of cordial 
recognition. We turn to a notice of it in this or that journal, 
and we find the reviewer almost beside himself in a frenzy 
of wonder and excitement, declaring the publication to be 
epochmaking The work is hailed as a masterpiece, 

its author pronounced instantaneously to be a consummate 
artist if we were to take the critic’s language at anything 
like its literal meaning. A few years go by : the great 
book and its author disappear from sight or drop back 
into obscurity and the reviewer who seems to be 
incapable of learning from experience unblushingly breaks 
forth into another rhapsody over the arrival of another 
masterpiece from the pen of another genius of the first order 1 

* This has reference to the remark of the Editor of ^aum-adi’ 
Quarterly on Mr, (Jnmrva&ia’s book 4S< Matsysgandha and Gangeya ” 
published in A. IX 1925. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


7 


These vagaries of periodical criticism point, of course, 
to a general laxity in contemporary taste. The average 
reviewer is so little impressed by the responsibilities of his 
office, and so little solicitous of the true interests of 
literature that he does not pause to weigh his words oj? 
to consider the real significance of his opinions, while a 
public which reads current literature with the object of 
getting through as much as possible, as quickly as possible, 
and then forgetting it, naturally imposes on him no 
restraint. 

At least the "study of criticism can be no substitute for 
the study of the literature introduced or criticised. At 
worst, it may stand in the way of such study by inducing 
us to rest content with that superficial sort of knowledge 
about books and their authors, which is a very different 
thing from personal knowledge of the books and authors 
themselves. 

But then it is far better to know something about a 
book or its author from the briefest sketch of it than to 
know nothing about it at all. Life is short, our margin of 
leisure generally limited, the special line of our individual 
interests often of necessity narrowly defined; and thus of 
the enormous mass of monthly and yearly publications, 
short notices of books become also really informative. 

To many of us to read books, for example, noticed 
here in their entirety for ourselves is mainfestly impossible, 
and we may thus be grateful to the intermediary in the 
form of these Reviews and Nptices of Books by Dewan 
Bahadur K. M. Jhaveri; and we may thus be grateful tg 
such an intermediary who extracts the honey for us, and 



8 


A Be view of Literary Criticism 


sets it before us in an available form. Modest such service 
may be; but it is of inestimable value and we have every 
right to take advantage of it. 

The whole mass of literature which is written about 
literature, whether the object be analysis, interpretation 
or valuation or all these combined can be expressed by 
the name ** Literature of Criticism Poetry, drama, 
novel deal directly with life. Criticism deals with 
poetry, drama, novel, even with criticism itself. If 
creative literature be defined as an interpretation of 
life under the various forms of literary art, critical literature 
may be defined as an interpretation of that interpretation, 
and of the forms of art through which it is given. One is 
the principal form of it, the other is the adjective. 

II 

In order to be able properly to assess the value of 
the individual quota of writers to the evolution of literary 
criticism in Gujarati, we will presently proceed with a 
chronological account of this form of secondary or supple- 
mentary literature. 

Literary criticism, as we understand it now, though in 
Europe it is as old as the days of Aristotle who wrote his 
classic work on Poetics , and in India as old as the various 
works on Alavikaras' astro, in Sanskrit, is a comparatively 
modem feature in Gujarati literature. 

Sir Ramafibhai had tried to trace the germs of literary 
criticism in Mediaeval Gujarati poetry in his Essay on 
" Vivechana Sahitya na aukura *'* wherein he refers to 

* Proceedings of IY Gujarati Sfihitya Parishada, Ahmedabad 
{A. D. 1920). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 9 

stray criticisms on verse indulged in by poets like Akho, 
Premanand, Carnal and others. 

But the proper vehicle of critical thought is prose; and 
accordingly the growth of modern criticism and the 
evolution of literary prose are almost concurrent. 

Narmadasfaankar (A. D. 1833-1886) the pioneer of many 
new movements in Gujarati literature during the modem 
period, was an encyclopeadist in miniature, and as such was 
the first to initiate the idea of literary criticism. His love for 
Mediaeval Gujarati poets and his researches into their works 
(his critical edition of Premanand’s Dashamaskcmdha , and • 
his collection of Davaram’s songs, for example) lead him to 
express his opinion on their quality also. His life-sketches 
of Gujarati poets in Kavi chciritra were mainly meant to be 
a review of past achievements in order to assess the turn 
out of his times. 

It is true, that he was not conscious of there being any 
canons of literary criticism for the critic to follow. He, 
however, tried to judge Premanand and Dayaram from their 
works, the times when they were written and the public 
for whom they were written. In the hot discussion, not 
without ill-feeling and bad-blood, set afoot by Narmada- 
shankar with Dalpatram (A. D. 1820-1898) as to who excell- 
ed whom as between Premanand and Carnal, an early growth 
of the form of literary criticism is discernible. Because it is 
such advocacy and argument on the part of critics that lead 
to the slow evolution of the art of criticism. Narmad tried 
his hand at various experiments in the realm of literature, 
and accordingly we are able to pick up only stray pieces of 
solid gold from his rather diffused literary mine. 



A Review of Literary Criticism 


U 


It was, however, at the hands of Navalram ( A.D.1836- 
1888) that conscious criticisms and reviews of books came to 
be written; because he had formulated scientific canons to 
guide him in discharging his duties as the Editor of Gujarat 
S'dldpatra , a periodical meant to be the mouth-piece of 
primary teachers of Gujarat. Here he had unrivalled 
opportunities to utilise the books sent to him for purposes 
of review, though even Narmada also reviewed some books 
in Dandio; but they were few. 

The mode of reviewing as enunciated by Navalram is seen 
in several of his notices of books, clearly pointing out 
the particular standards for judging books pertaining to the 
various forms of literature : to say it in other words, he 
made every book he criticised a basis to indicate lines 
of further progress. To review a book, he writes at 
one place, was to know and make others know the good 
points thereof, separating the wheat from the chaff. A critic 
ought first to comprehend the design of an author and then 
show and judge about its execution. Navalram made a 
thoughtful coordination of the different views on literary 
criticism held by Narmadashankar and Dalpatram, with 
views formulated by him, and he discriminated 
between the various qualities of literary productions 
in Gujarati. 

Navalram’s critical essays are not like the diffused writ- 
ings of Narmada, but are well-thought out views expressed 
in a scientific way. His criticism of the rising authors of his 
age was essentially creative, always encouraging, conscien- 
tious and enlightening and of definite assistance to them; for 
mature writers he tried to discover the author’s purpose in 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


11 


writing the book, then judge its worth and ultimately to 
criticise the technique in the light of that purpose, thus 
affording an evaluation of the performance from within the 
book itself. 

Whatever otherwise we may think of Navalram’s 
criticism, we must at least acknowledge that its tone is 
admirable. Navalram’s reviews, which created a tradition 
of literary criticism in the language, were characterized by 
sobriety and judgment. Neither snobbery nor one-sidedness 
ever marred his criticism. A true critic, according to him, 
ought rather to seek excellences than imperfections and it 
was his principal duty to discover the concealed beauties 
of a writer, and communicate to the world such things as 
are worth their observation. The tone of Manilal's, 
Narasimharao's, Ramanbhai's and Balvantrai’s criticism, on 
the other hand, is too frequently the reverse of admirable. 

While Navalram instinctively followed the accepted 
canons of criticism in his book-reviews, having had no 
opportunity to study them at College, his successors who 
had studied at the University had access to the best books 
in English and Sanskrit on the subject. In consequence 
their reviews were systematised and scientific. 

They however, betrayed one drawback : their language 
was difficult and pedantic : and the principles laid 
down were generally above the head of the ordinary 
reader; consequently much of the better part of their work 
could not be followed by the masses, it being mainly limited 
to the few College-educated readers. Sometimes their reviews, 
replete with technical terms and high-flown language grew 



12 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


to such a length that they merged into essays, and though 
good in themselves did not interest the ordinary reader,, 
who generally happened not to be acquainted with the 
work reviewed. 

Navalram's reviews, on the other hand, became 
popular because he made no such assumption : he gave a 
short outline of the work under notice, and , shaped his 
criticism in such a way as to induce the reader to take up 
the book and read it. 

The high level of style and the scientific and critical 
method of reviewing adopted by the cultured graduates, 
somehow or other did not achieve popularity. 

Both Narmad and Navalram first took their inspiration 
and lessons for writing criticism from English literature, 
and then they took to the study of Sanskrit poetics. But 
with the dawning of the new age a reaction set in 
against all reform movements as is evidenced by the 
4 Dharmavichara * ( Reflections on Religion ) of Narmad, 
and a love for things Indian and Oriental seized the 
minds of the cultured. 

There is a clear effort visible on the part of Prof. Manila! 
.. Dwivedi (A. D.1858-1898), who was the Editor of two month- 
lies * Sudars’ana ' and * Priyamvadd * - to divert the trend of 
literary criticism towards canons and standards of Sanskrit 
poetics. He gave a new turn to the Essay; he made it a 
learned discourse. His robust and vigorous out-look im- 
parted a new tone to criticism. His prose was distinguished 
by stately rhetoric. His sonorous sentences were piled 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 13 

up with great effect; and with a judicious use of Sanskrit 
words he carried the language to great heights of eloquence. 

Manila], a man with a sound grounding in Sanskrit, and 
an avowed leaning towards orthodoxy and ancient Indian 
culture, was a conservative in views social, religious and 
metaphysical, and in literature, too, was a keen advocate 
of the standards fixed by the Sanskrit Ars Poetica. The bulk 
of his literary criticism, comprises a series of articles on 
“ Writers of Gujarat, ” Essays on poetry and the reviews 
and notes which he contributed to the two monthlies 
started by him. 

'Manila!, had, like Navalram, formulated certain rules 
for criticising the various forms of literature, poetry, drama, 
novel et cetera. He had also laid down that both a poet 
and a critic ought to have a close acquaintance with the 
science of poetry. A critic, according to Manila!, before 
he can review a work about its propriety or otherwise, 
should acquaint himself with the following four fundamen- 
tal requisites ( which are known in Alankara 6astra as 
imubandha-chatus’taya ) viz., : the subject-matter, relation 
of the writing to the author or the subject-matter, the 
cause or motive for writing the book, and lastly the 
audience for whom it is intended. Manila! prefers the word- 
* Review ' to * Criticism 9 and tries to distinguish between 
Criticism i. e.. Commentary or Tiled in Sanskrit, wherein the 
critic is restricted or bound down to the subject-matter of 
the composition only, and the ( Review ’ where he has got 
ample scope to discuss its contents from every conceivable" 
point of view. He also insisted that over and above 
discussing the four fundamentals regarding a literary 



14 A Review of Literary Criticism 

production, the critic should introduce the book to the 
reader as a whole* and from a comprehensive point of view* 

These functions of a critic enunciated by Manila! are 
sadly lacking in our current criticism, because they are 
prone to be very eloquent on seeing a novel feature in a 
book of howsoever a minor character; they have no patience 
to evaluate the intrinsic value of that novel feature. The 
critic should therefore always keep before him a high ideal- 
of literary forms. 

ManilaTs quota in the devolpment of Gujarati criticism 
was thus due to give it a scientific bias based on Sanskrit 
poetics. His criticisms* collected in the Sudars'ana gady avail 
v^ere never partial to any body on personal grounds; though,, 
sometimes, they were prejudiced on account of certain 
preconceptions. 

» While Manila! consecrated Gujarati criticism with the 
purity of Sanskrit poetics. Sir Ramafibhai Nxlkantha ( A, D. 
1868-1928 ) at that very moment was allowing it to indulge 
freely on the lines of Western, mostly English criticism. In 
other words, it was his endeavour to bring the canons of 
Western criticism to bear upon the methods of reviewing in 
Gujarati. He did not, however, ignore or reject the Eastern* 
or Classical standards. 

Ramafibhai has discussed the connotation of the word 
1 Review * while reviewing ' Sarasvati- chandra ’ where he 
says : ** The English word * Review * predicates the aim 
to examine the good as well as the bad points in a literary 
production, and also to discuss the points of interest raised 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 




by that work : Sanskrit * Tika 9 or commentary, on the 
other hand, aims to explain the author’s intention and its 
meaning, and to expound the scope of the subject. ” 

The bulk of Ramanbhai’s criticism is collected in four 
volumes of c Kavitd arid Sdhitya. 9 Ramanbhai had the 
rare gift of analytical faculty innate in him, which he utili- 
sed in explaining the beauties either of a poem or its metre. 
His analytical style of reviewing, combined with a broad 
out-look and versatility of knowledge, stands by itself* 
though at times it errs on the side of lengthiness and has 
the appearance of a treatise, owing to profusion of 
quotations. 

The controversy on literary topics in journals and books 
that was set afoot both by Manila! and Ramanbhai had a 
healthy effect on the growth and development of literary 
criticism in Gujarati. Ramanbhai tried to formulate in his 
essays a theory of artistic and literary beauty, which* 
however, had very little influence on the ' output of 
contemporary literature. 

There are authors who have not followed regularly the 
work of literary criticism, but with whom, it has been one 
of their many activities. Govardhanram’s ( A.D. 1855-1907 ) 
Essay on “ Classical Poets of Gujarat 99 partly incorporated 
later in his Presidential Address at the First Gujarati Lite- 
rary Conference, and his treatise on €t Dayaram’s Immortal 
Body in Literature,” as also his work on " A scholar’s 
life ” are good literary Essays, showing his attitude towards, 
literature which is more metaphysical and philosophical 
than literary. . His prose style in these discourses is> 



16 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


far from popular and is, to say the least, cultured and 
high-flown. 

Prof. Balvantrai Thakore (bom A. D. 1869) is the accre- 
dited exponent of poetry, which, according to him, should 
have an intellectual appeal to which the beauty of emo- 
tional treatment should be subordinated. His keenness in 
hitting upon a suitable form of expression in longer poems, 
resembling * blank verse ' in English poetry has given us 
thought-provoking criticism, wherein he insists that in 
order to make verses flowing and fit to take turns according 
to change in thought, the Classical metres should be 
stripped of the endingrhymes and the inevitable caesura or 
the pause. 

He has established from various experiments that the 
Prithvi metre has the necessary capacity to undergo the 
operation of evolving a mode of blank verse in Gujarati. The 
adoption of Prithvi in composing sonnets in Gujarati has 
also been brought into vogue by him. 

Thakore is the leader of the School of Poetry which can 
be named realistic or intellectual, as distinguished from 
the romantic and the emotional. He is a clever stylist in 
literature, holding very progressive views about diction in 
Poetry* 

The concentrated and pointed style of writing preferred 
by Navalram, as opposed to the diffused and inverted style 
both in prose and verse, is held out as a model by Prof. 
Thakore, who has specially extended this connotation of the 
style of poetry, which he says, should possess connectedness 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 17 

and unsingability, so as to add to the depth of thought in 
modern verse. 

His several writings-his Essays on * Lyric 9 and on 
f Sarasvati chandra 9 illustrating various styles of criticism, 
deal not only with novel theories in literature but also treat 
.of bold experiments in their support, while discussing and 
opining on the merits and demerits of extant literature. 
Wh’ie engaged in this work of reviewing and criticising, he 
formulates new theories in literature. Firstly, he thinks in 
terms of canons and standards, and then surveying either 
the want or neglect on the part of writers to conform to 
them, he gets bold enough to make practical suggestions 
which can, according to him, be adopted with advantage. 
To speak, in a phrase, about his style, one can say that his 
various literary criticisms reflect the experimenting and the 
experiment-loving attitude of his mind. 

Prof. Thakore's reviews are full, even overflowing; they 
do not err on the side of brevity; they betray signs of deep 
study and are never superficial. His criticisms are 
characterised by scholarship, ingenuity. He is an unflinching 
upholder of classic models with splendid attempts to his 
credit to emancipate poetry from rhyme, assonance and 
time-measure, both by way of writing poetry and Essays on 
literary criticism. Thakore's views on literary criticism 
may be summarised here before we pass on to another 
writer. The main function of criticism, according to him, 
is to see that the stream of literature remains undefiled. 
Criticism is the handmaid or the companion both of fine 
arts and of normative sciences. 

Our modern literary criticism is being moulded not on 

2 



18 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


lines of Sanskrit poetics, but is developing after the canons 
of Western criticism. The noteworthy feature of this 
Western criticism is that under it a critic is free in his 
criticisms and reviews which assume the form of “ Literary 
Essay Such a form of literary essay once brought into 
vogue by Narmadashankar is fast getting congenial to 
Gujarati, and after Ramahbhai, at! the hands of Narasimha- 
rao it has assumed quite a remarkable shape. 

Accurate and precise in literary execution. Prof. 
Narasimharao Divatia ( A. D. 1859-1937 ) used his learning, 
power of analysis and critical faculty to constitute himself 
the censor of the literary world. Prof. Narasimharao’s 
literary activities spreading over half a century during his 
long life, fostered literary criticism side by side with his 
poetry; and his literary output on Criticism in four volumes 
of “ Manomukura ” — ‘ The Mirror of the Mind * and his 
Essays on the authorship of Premanand's dramas go to 
make up his essays in this direction. He had not done any 
reviewing work as popularly understood. 

It was he who wrote that a poet and critic are twin 
brothers : both fly together in the realms of imagination 
and realism : but their functions differ. Both should 
possess the wings of genius and fancy. The task of one is 
that of synthesis, of the other, analysis. Otherwise the 
mental make up of both of them should be identical, in 
order that they can function well in their duties. 

Narasimharao was a strong advocate of the view that 
the subject-matter of poetry should be high and sublime, as 
opposed to the popular view which allows even simple 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


19 


themes for the purpose. And this view he has illustrated 
through his poems and his criticisms. 

Narasimharao’s method of criticism proceeds from a 
review of the external form of a literary production, leading 
ultimately to the inner meaning, the beauties or otherwise 
of the performance. But at times his criticism assumes 
the state of dissection carried on with the coldness of a 
scientist. He examines literature with bold yet the heartless 
and fearless method of a scientist; and has neither the 
liberality of Navalram nor the sweetness of Ramahbhai; 
and at times he is splitting hair on minor points, leaving 
aside the main issue. He was also very fond of quoting 
profusely from others as well as from his own compositions 
in support of his statements. * Narasimharao's worshipping 
of too high a standard and the severity of literary standards 
imposed by him, have thus, often stifled the creative art of 
the critic in him, and in trying to be a competent judge, 
he has never shown any indulgence and often no courtsey to* 
authors in his judgments. 

It was, however, at the hands of Principal Anai.dsankar 
Dhruva (born A. D. 1869) that a happy co-ordination of 
both-the Western and the Eastern styles of criticism-was 
brought about. Anandshankar himself a happy blend of 
Western and Eastern scholarship, and ‘‘ the high priest of 
Sanskrit ic revival in its best form ” as he is called, has given 
us reviews in the columns of Vasanta , a monthly, which have 
a scholarly bent. Sobriety and sedateness are reflected in his 
reviews, which are always temperate and brief. His criti- 
cisms are instructive, informative, couched in unoffending 
language, yet pointing out at the same time the defects of 



2 ® 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


the work under review. 

Anandshankar in neither only a critic nor even 
principally a critic : his is the forte of a thinker and a philo- 
sopher. Accordingly his criticism is not made in a purely 
literary manner, but his are literary reviews invariably 
combined with either a historical outlook or a philosophical 
colour. 

His “notes” on current topics in the pages of Vasanta 
a monthly started by him, his criticisms embodied in his 
speeches and his reviews of books as an Editor, contain 
the most balanced exposition of its philosophy as applied 
to modern life, and constitute the volume of his quota in 
the field of literary criticism, now made available as 
t6 Kdvya Tattva Vichdra ” ( A. D, 1939 ) and “ Sdhitya 
Vichdraf ( A. D. 194b) 

His style condensed, pointed and marked for its brevity, 
at times assumes the form of a treatise based on a single 
central thought. He is never vehement nor over-enthusias- 
tic in expressing his views. He is not a supporter of 
literature for its own sake; for he says : “ It is not possible 
to separate the sweetness and the instrucion which are in- 
separably mixed up in the speech of the loving wife : all 
art and literature should be designed on these lines, as 
suggested by Mammata, the reputed author of Sanskrit 
poetics. ” 

If one were to speak of Anandshankar’s criticism in a 
word, it can aptly be expressed by the word “ well- 
balanced ” or t€ equipoised . 99 This characteristic of his 
reviews is more significant when we take into consideration 
the time of his literary activities, when his powerful contem- 
poraries-all of them stout critics like Manilal, Ramanbhai, 
Narasimharao, Balvantrai and Nanalal-had created and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


21 


fostered an atmosphere of hot controversy in the literary 
field. 

On one hand there was Manila!, with his bold advocacy 
of the canons of Sanskrit poetics and philosophy : on the 
other hand was Ramanbhai expounding and exhorting all 
to follow the standards of literary criticism obtainable from 
examples in Western literature. In different directions were 
camped Narasimharao, Nanalal and Balvantrai, with their 
pointed and controversial statements attacking others or 
sometimes one another in turns. During this clouded 
atmosphere of literary criticism among the various parties 
wedded to certain notions, it was the discriminating and 
merit- finding tendency of Anandshanker that kept him 
aloof, without deterring him from expressing candid truth 
couched in sweet language. 

The inclusion of three dramas, modestly styled 
<~jlJchyanas 9 in the Prachina Kavya Mala series, published 
A. D. 1890-9*?, raised a heated controversy over their 
genuineness and whereas Narasimharao had raised 
his powerful voice challenging the authorship of Premanand 
on external as well as internal evidence, Haragovinddas 
Kantawala ( A. D. 1844-1931 ), the sponsor of the series, 
their commentator Chhotalal Bhatt and Kantawala's son 
Matubhai remained loyal to their camp, trying to establish 
the issue in the affirmative. 

It was at this stage that Matubhai Kantawala ( A. D. 
1880-1933 ) came to indulge in literary criticism and wrote 
a series of articles to refute the points raised by Narasimha- 
rao, under the assumed name of ‘ Jna ' ( ). But his chief 

work lay in the reviews published from month to month in 



22 


A Ee?iew of Literary Criticism 


4 Sdhitya 3 a monthly started by him in A. D. 1912. 

The appreciation and the commentaries of authors and 
their works, subscribed to the series of 35 Volumes of 
Mediaeval Gujarati poets ( three of which are the disputed 
dramas ascribed to Premanand ) styled " Prachina Kavya 
Mala ” by Chhotalal N. Bhatt ( A. D. 1850-1937 ) himself a 
good poet and author may be remembered at this place. This 
veteran scholar, bred up under the old traditions of Sanskrit 
poetics, has given us * Prefaces 9 by way of general intro- 
duction to the poem, and a detailed commentary on the 
lines of Sanskrit annotators discussing the grammar, syntax, 
vocabulary, figures of speech and metre, interspersed with 
quotations from other poets to support the interpretation of 
a single verse or stanza. 

This style of reviewing suffers from the want of a 
comprehensive view regarding the author's work and his 
art. However Chhotalal's separate treatise on “ Ram 
S'astra " the first of its kind in Gujarati gives the canons of 
Sanskrit poetics in a very racy and easy style, with 
illustrations at times from Gujarati literature. 

Among editors of monthlies who individually carried on 
an uninterrupted occupation of reviewing month by month, 
Matubhai Kantawala's name is worthy of note. Having 
served his Journal Sahityafor twenty-one years (A.D.1912- 
1933) he maintained a fairly good level of criticism, its 
prominent features being its out-spokenness and stout, bold 
advocacy for literature which could be enjoyed by the 
masses. 

His 4 Notices of Books ' though usually short, used to be 
fully significant. He managed to say a great deal in a few 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 


23 


words and an avowed apostle of the masses as he was, his 
reviews had no bias behind them and they were full of 
frankness, and hence very popular as compared to those of 
others which were marred by heaviness of thought and 
diction, incidental to pedantry and scholarship. 

Matubhai’s reviews were remarkable for their regularity; 
and the frankness and unbiassed attitude maintained 
throughout by him in reviewing a work either by a novice 
or a man of established reputation, gave a deserved popu- 
larity to his reviews. These reviews and editorial Notes 
lying buried in the pages of * Sahitya 9 deserve to be 
collected and printed to enable us to assess his real quota 
to the development of literary criticism in Gujarati. 

Matubhai was also a staunch exponent of social ethics, 
worldly wisdom and purity of language which should be 
allowed to prevail in literature. He welcomed the use of 
tadbhava^sthalodbhava or talapada and deshi words in 
preference to pure Sanskrit words, as he maintained that 
that tendency would bring composition more within the 
reach and comprehension of the masses or the men on the 
street, to the majority of whom the cultural influence of 
literature was desired to be conveyed. 

R. B. Kamalashankar Trivedi (A. D. 1857-1925), primarily 
a grammarian and a Sanskrit scholar had entered into several 
literary controversies with Narasimharao on the question of 
the purity of language in the columns of “ Gujarat 
Shalapatra”, whose Editor he was for about a generation. 

His criticisms on poetry and literature in general are 
collected in ", Kavya-Sahitya-Mimansa ” (A. D„ 1930), but his 



24 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


book-reviews are not available in book-form. In his running 
commentary on Gujarati authors-both dead and living-in 
his Presidential address at the Seventh Gujarati Sahitya 
Parishad, there seems to have been no definite effort made 
by him to add to our knowledge of scientific principles of 
literary criticism either Western or Eastern, such as would 
suggest the application of Sanskrit poetics to Gujarati 
compostions. 

Diwan Bahadur K. H. Dhruva’s (A. D.;1559-1937) quota 
to literary criticism was of a different type. He has not done 
reviewing work of books as such, but his Introductions to 
his translations of Sanskrit works, mostly dramas, and his 
critical edition of Bhalan’s t Kadambari\ and his Thakkar 
Vasanji Lectures on the “Critical Review of the evolution 
of Verse-making Prosody of vernacular metres through 
Apabhram^a and Prakrit and Vedic metres” are monuments 
of literary acumen and profound and thorough-going 
scholarship, with regard to the technique of the art of 
dramaturgy, the composition of verse and the scientific 
study of old Gujarati literature. And it appears, he 
subscribed to the view that in the Gujarati language which 
is a language derived from Sanskrit, standards of Sankrit 
poetics would be more suitable for adoption in literary 
criticism. The second Volume of his * Sahitya ane Vivechana ' 
(A. D. 1941) published posthumously gives a good idea of 
his literary performance. 

Barrister Dahyabhai Derasari (A. D. 1857-1937), Diwan 
Bahadur K* M. Jhaveri (born A. D. 1868) and Himatlal G. 
Anjaria (bom A. D.1877) may be referred to together at this 
stage in the development of literary criticism, as each of 



Development ol Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


25 


them has contributed to the criticism of literature in the 
form of historical reviews. 

Derasari’s "Literature during the ‘Sixties (A. D. 1?50- 
1910)” ( 4 Sathinu Sahitya, 9 A. D. 1912 ) gives a fairly good 
picture of the times, reviewing the growth of new forms in 
literature that came into being under the various social, 
religious and educational influences working on the society 
of the times. His lecture on the '‘Reminiscences of. Naval- 
ram” and on the "Delineation of sentiments by Prema- 
nand ’* are good appreciative essays on the art of these 
writers. 

Anj&ria’s short review of the growth and evolution of 
modern verse appended to his first representative collection 
of modern poetry under the title “ Kavyamddhurya ” 
designed on the lines of the “ Golden Treasury of English 
verse, ” is specially noteworthy; because he showed by 
juxta-position the new tendencies that were s)owly but 
surely coming into vogue. This was the first book to be 
reviewed in the columns of the “ Modern Review ” in A. D. 
1907 by Mr. Jhaveri. 

Anjaria’s “Primer of Gujarati Literature” (' Sahitya 
PravesHkd ’ (A. D. 1922)being not ambitious enough, rests 
satisfied with giving a bird’s eye view of the Gujarati 
literature for about . 700 years, noticing briefly the main 
tendencies and characteristics of the authors and their 
works. His lecture on the “ Makers of Modern Prose ” is 
a good treatise on the subject. 

Diwan Bahadur Jhaveri, like Arnold in English 
literature and Navalram amongst the Gujarati critics, is found 
to be for the most part, anxious to understand and interpret 
than to distribute praise and blame. That spirit of eclecticism, 



26 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


which is one of the salient features of the criticism of 
the Diwan Bahadur, has combined to give his reviews a 
breadth of outlook and a catholicity of comprehension and 
sympathy. 

K. M. Jhaveri's Ct Milestones in Gujarati Literature ” 
( A. D. 19 14-2nd edition 1938) and “ Further Milestones” 
(A.D. 1924) written primarily in English, since translated by 
him into Gujarati, were undertaken with the avowed purpose 
of introducing readers, who did not know Gujarati and knew 
English, to Gujarati literature. His reviews of Gujarati books 
in the Modern Review ; contributed with the same frank and 
unassuming purpose, are now made available in book- 
form, constituting a valuable record of notices of books 
published during the ' thirties * (A.D. 1907-1938). 

The Thakkar Vasanji University Lectures delivered by 
him in A. D. 1934 on “The Present State of Gujarati 
Lit erature”pur port to give a brief survey of the main tenden- 
cies in modern Gujarati literature in a most general way. 
The treatment in these lectures, if wanting in amplification 
of the subject, is supplemented by these Notices of books on 
diverse subjects under various literary forms. One might 
as well say that the Lectures form the general enunciation 
of currents in modern Gujarati literature, of which the 
Reviews are the particular illustrations. At any rate, 
the bulk of his Notices of Books, bids fair to form a 
necessary supplement to his University Lectures. 

JhaverPs Essay on the “Influence of Muslim Contact on 
the Culture of Gujarati Society and Literature” ( A.D, 1927) 
is also very illuminating and thought-provoking. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


27 


The Diwan Bahadur’s policy and method of reviews in 
the columns of the Modern Review since its inception in A.D. 
1907 uptodate (with a slight break of two years) to quote 
his own words, is like tbis: 

“My method was to give a short outline or summary of 
the subject-matter of the publication and my opinion as to 
how the writer had acquitted himself. A few words of 
encouragement were given to young writers and wherever 
necessary, flagrant short-comings were broadly pointed 
out.* Elaborate criticism was not considered necessary in 
view of the object of the publication of the review, which 
was to make students of other vernaculars acquainted with 
the progress or otherwise of Gujarati literature '\f 

His notices of books,-he can be proud of them, -have 
more than served their purpose. 

Poets Manishankar (Kanta) (A.D. 1867-1923), Nanalal 
(bomA.D.1877) and Khabardar (born A.D.1S82) are primarily 
and mainly poets: and their literary criticisms are mostly 
dissertations and appreciations of beauties which they 
were capable of discerning in literature. They have 
further tried to express and expound their points of view 
through such writings, regarding several controversies in the 
realm of literature and also their experiences as creative 
writers in their individual field. 

Manishankar‘s appreciation of new poetry in Gujarati 
from Narmad to Nanalal and his Introduction to his edition 

* See, for example, his Reviews on pages : 21, 24, 29, 33, 109, 
111, 174, 178, 182, 199, 204 r 216, 226. 232, 265, 303, 353, 361, 462, 463, 
472, 487, 511, 552, 577, 605, 625. 

■f “The Present State of Gujarati, Literature’ 1 Bombay Univer- 
sity Thakkar Yasanji Lectures (1934). p. 60-61. 


28 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


of Kalapi (another poet)’s poems show his sympathetic 
treatment of the poets and their art. 

NanalaTs writings on literary criticism are bulky as 
compared to others, and hence are of greater importance 
also. His literary Essays, mostly ‘‘Studies” or efforts at 
creative interpretation, and his elaborately prepared speech- 
es are collected in “ Sdhitya Manthana” (A. D. 1924). His 
homilies to several writers in “ Aparid SdJcshara ratno >> 
(A. D. 1934-35 ) and a tribute to his father Kavisvara 
Dalpatram, along with his thesis on the ‘‘ Place of 
Sarasvatichandra among the best novels of the world”- 
constitute his principal quota to this section. 

Nanalal has nothing but praise for the work of Navalram 
as a critic, who, he points ont^ was above prejudice and 
partiality, and was one who stood for fairness, uprightness 
aud justice. He has also discussed in this connection the 
styles of literary criticism prevalent in Gujarati literature. 

Generally, Nanalal very much likes to indulge in giving 
the historical background of the subject under criticism, 
which, though in its own way is very interesting and 

informative, at times grows into a mannerism marring 
the effect of the main theme by its length and 

diffusiveness. His digressions, his florid style flooded with 
similes and metaphors, throw his main criticisms into the 
background. His generally appreciative and broad outlook 
of literature seldom suffers from preconceived notions-first in 
reference to his theory of high-flown impassioned prose, 
which according to him is an approach to blank verse, and 
secondly his immense partiality for D alp at ram-come in the 
way of his generally impartial reviews. The verbosity of his 
style obscures both his expression and thought. 



Development of Gujarati Liierafcure : 1907-1938 


29 


Ardeshar Khabardar first figured in the field of literary 
criticism in connection with the views set forth by Nanalal 
as to whether metre and rhyme are essential to poetry or not. 
Khabardar resorted to the method of making adverse 
criticism by ridicule i.e., by means of a parody. His 
“ Prabhata no Tapasvi ” is a mock-heroic piece 
calculated to bring into ridicule the novel theory of style 
and diction in poetry inaugurated by Nanalal. 

His Presidential address in the Literature Section at the 
Seventh Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, dwelling on the function 
and scope of literature was very well received. 

His Thakkar Vasanji Lectures on the Form of Modern 
Gujarati Poetry ”, only summarily reported in magazines, 
claim to give a fairly good idea about the lecturer's patient 
study of the subject, from the points of view of prosody and 
poetic art. 

Ranajitram (A, D. 1882-1917), a man of versatile genius 
and the founder of several literary Societies exercised 
considerable influence on literature, though his literary 
output was limited. He wrote Essays, the most remarkable 
being his two Essays; one on the “Glimpses into the 
Society of Gujar&ta as depicted in Samalbhatt's metrical 
romances” pnblished in the Budd Mprakdshct and the other, 
taking stock of all the literary activities during the year 
A. D. 1908, styled “Isu nu Varas 1908”. 

The provision of historical background in explaining 
literary phenomena noticed in Nanalal, was furthered by 
Ranajitram by bringing social, political and literary 
tendencies to bear upon the elucidation of a literary 



30 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


phenomenon without in any way minimising the value of the 
main discussion. His Essay on “Gujarat ni Ekata” analysed 
the national characteristics possessed by Gujarat, and 
pointed out their line of development. 

He made it a point to disillusion Gujarati readers 
about blemishes in the much extolled verse of 
Narasimharao and gave a warm reception to the then highly 
promising verse of Nanalal. Ranajitram’s Essay on 
‘‘Folk-songs’* (A.D. 1916) is the first of its kind on the subject. 

The place of Kanaayalal Munshi (born A. D. 1887) and 
Ramanarayana Pathak ( born A. D. 1887 ) both almost 
contemporaries in the history of literary criticism-lies 
between scholarly-minded critics like Narasimharao 
and Balvantrai on one side and the new batch of rising 
critics on the other. Their criticisms have succeeded in 
i ttracting the attention both of the veterans and also of 
- 1 e younger generation. 

Munshi is pre-eminently a creative artist and h*s criticis- 
ms are based on the specific ideals and imagination of an 
author. 

Pathak is more of a critic and a scholar than a creative 
artist. Accordingly his criticisms have acquired a grace 
and compactness consequent to the close study of poetics. 

Munshi like every great writer has his own theory of 
life and literature. Munshi’s writings on literay criticism 
have grown to a considerable size. His Speeches both 
at the Sahitya Sansad and at the Sahitya Parishad and 
his other writings collected into two volumes, voice his 
thoughts, ideals ar.d conceptions on literature. His 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


31 


‘Ketalak Lekho’, (A.D. 1926) ‘Adi Vachano* (A.D.1933) and 
* Thodank Rasadarsano’ ( A.D. 1933 ) form a valuable 
compedium of literary, historical and biographical studies. 
His addresses brilliantly articulate his revolt against 
the prevailing conventions in literature. 

But his connected views regarding Gujarati literature are 
made available by his work on “Gujarat and Its Literature’* 
(A.D. 1935) which is a chronological exposition in English of 
the evolution of Gujarati literature based on a geographical 
background, Munshi seems to believe, as expressed by him 
at one place, that “literary criticism can only be subjective 
and creative, that is, it can only be a creative effort at 

interpreting beauty of art as it strikes the critic’s imagina- 
tion/’ 

The remarkable point in almost every one of his writings 
is his reading of Gujarati consciousness, which he has styled 
4 Asmitd 9 the the self-reverence due to self-knowledge of the 
glories and the greatness of Gujarat. His infinite love for 
Gujarat has made him a powerful exponent of this individu- 
ality of Gujarati culture as a whole, which should be kept 
as an ideal before our eyes for the renaissance of the past. 

Ramanarayana Pathak. is first a critic and then a creative 
artist; and is thus the reverse of Munshi, both forming the 
complement of each other. Pathak’s criticisms and literary 
Essays are collected in “ Kdvya ni S'akti ” (A. D. 19-^9) and 
in “Sdhitya Vimars'a” ( A. D. 1939 ), which include among 
other things his lectures at the Sessions of the Sahitya 

Parishad, and his reviews of books written as the Editor of 
PrastMna . 

His first Yearly Review of publications for A. D. 1929 was 
remarkable for enunciating a tradition of literary canons to 



32 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


evaluate the various forms in literature^ His lectures on 
Modem Gujarati Verse *’ deal with the evolution of 
external forms in poetry and the various experiments in 
prosody. His Thakkar Vasanji University Lectures on 
“ Currents in Modern Gujarati Poetry ” attempt to trace the 
enlargement of the scope of the subject-matter or themes 
for poetry from time to time, realism giving way to idealism 
in the domain of poetry. He has examined poetry from the 
view point of sentiment and figures of speech also. 

The real force of Pathak’s criticisms lies in his sound 
study of Sanskrit poetics and his investigations based on 
those lines. Like the late D. B. Kesavalal Dhruva, he 
firmly believes that the most natural course for putting 
criticism on a scientific basis is to acquire a close acquain- 
tance of the science of poetics, and of the methods of 
appreciating a composition. This standard may be 
corrected or improved upon by adopting canons prevailing 
in other literatures, whenever necessary. If our criticism 
be not allowed to take root on the indigenous founda- 
tion of Sanskrit poetics, it will merely echo the 
changing notions and theories of Western literature, 
and will never thrive on independent lines. Pathak's views 
on the import of poetry are very ably expressed in his Essay 
on ** Kdvya ni S'akti. 19 His writings appeal to present day 
writers and wield considerable influence, 

Kaka Kalelkar (born A. D. 188G)'s prose style is flexible, 
direct, expressive of fine workmanship, and indulges in 
Sanskritic graces without effort or pedantry. He began 
writing in Gujarati after A. D. 1920, and accordingly his in- 
fluence on Gujarati literature came to be felt later than that of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 33 

Munshi and Pathak. His essays on literature and arts, and his 
“ Introductions to several books are based on his chief 
canon that literary art directly tends to moral or social good. 
His philosophy of life is reflected in the various articles 
published in the ** Jivana-bharati ” ( A. D- 1937 ). In 
other words, he is a critic not only of literature and books, 
but also of the phases of human life in general. 

Ramahlal Desai (born A. D. 1894)’s excursions in the 
field of literary criticism are collected in two volumes styled 
“ Jivana ane Sdhitya * dealing with essays both sociological 
and literary; and they appear to be a continuation of the 
style of NanalaFs literary essays; especially facts culled 
from history and observations obtained from real life make 
them pleasant reading indeed. 

The raising of the status of Modern Indian Languages 
by the Bombay University, and the inauguration of Honours 
Courses in Gujarati at the B. A., since A. D. 1935 has result- 
ed in a tendency for a serious and scientific study of litera- 
ture. This is discernible from the significant activity of 
authors, who hurried up collecting their scattered writings 
in order to give them a permanent-form. 

It is after A. D. 1930 that their stray diffused papers 
on literary criticism are made available in book-form 
by writers like Prof. Vis'vanath Bhaty Prof. Vijayarai 
Vaidya, 2 Sjt. Munshi, 3 Prof. Ramanarayana Pathak, 4 

(1) 4 Sahitya Samiks’a (1934) and 4 Vivechana Mukura ’ (19391 

(^) 4 Sahitya Manthana ’ (1937) and Jui and Ketaki 5 (1938). 

(3) 4 Thodanka Rasadarsano ’ (1935) and 4 Adivachano 9 (1935) 

(4) * Sahitya Vimarsa 9 (1939) and * Ka^ya ni S'akti * (1939) 

3 



34 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


Prof. Vishuprasad Trivedi, 5 Prof. Navalram Trivedi, 6 Sjt. 
Ramachandra Shukla, 7 Sjt. Kaka Saheb Kalelker, 8 Sjt. 
Ramatialal Desai, 9 Prof. Mohanlal Dave, 10 Sjt, Jhaverchand 
Meghahi, 11 Prof. Kes’avalal Kamdar/ 2 Sjt, Batubhai 
Umarwadia, 18 the late Mrs. Chaitanyabala Majmudar 14 and 
others. 

It is not possible within the limited space at our disposal 
to offer individual comments on the style and method of 
criticism evinced by several writers during the current 
decade. So it is done in a collective manner with an 
apology. 

It is also a noteworthy sign of the times that both the 
literary essays and criticisms of veteran writers, who started 
their career several decades earlier-like the late Sir Ramana- 
bhai, 1 the late Prof. Narasimharao Divatia, 2 the late Diwan 
Bahadur Prof. K. H. Dhruva, 3 and Acharya Dr. Ananda- 
shanker Dhruva 4 came to be collected and published during 
this decade ( A. D. 1931-41 ) of scholastic activities at the 
hands of a conservative institution like the Gujarat 

(5) fi Yivechana 7 ( 1939 ) 

(6) • Ketalanka Viveehano ’ ( 1936. ) 

(7) * Gujarati Sahitya nun Manana ane Yivechana 7 ( 1935 ) 

(8) 4 Jivaua Bharati * ( 1938 ) 

(9) * Jivana ane Sahitya 7 Part I ( 1935) & Part II (1938) 

(10) « Kavyakala 7 (1937) and 1 Sahitya kala 5 (1938) 

(11) ' Loka Sahitya 5 ( 1939) 

( 12 ) 4 Svadhyaya Vol I. II ( 1939; ’40 } 

( 13 ) * Kirtida ne Kamal na patro 7 ( 1940 ) 

(14) 4 Lalita kala and other Literary Essays’ ( 1937 ) 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


35 


Vernacular Society cf Ahmedabad.* 

We may pause here for a while to recollect the reviewing 
work of some Editors of Journals, who fully availed 
themselves of the opportunities that came to them, 

Ambalal Jani ( born A. D. 1880 ) who started his literary 
career as the editor of si Samolochaka ” has not done any 
regular review-work of new publications as such; but having 
had more or less specialised in the history of medieaval 
Gujarati literature, has written solid criticisms on the life 
and times of Narasimha Mehta, Bhlma, Akho, Premanand 
and S'amalbhatta, which serve as a landmark for those 
particular periods in Gujarati literature. 

Hiralal parekli (A.D. 1882-1938) associated with several 
literary Societies of Gujarat for life, did valuable work by 
compiling biographical materials for his eight volumes of 
4< Qrantha and Grmithahara 9t — a Gujarati Authors’ Whos’ 
Who — to which he generally appended a critical review of 
yearly publications, noting the main tendencies in contem- 
porary literature. His Reviews appended to the volumes 
for A, D. 1929, 1930, 1931 and 1933 show catholicity 
of views, and are mainly creative and appreciative in spirit, 
It is noteworthy that he carried on his work simul- 
taneously in a line with other yearly reviews. His ‘ Outline 
of the Making of Modern Gujarat ” in two volumes supplies 
a very informative survey of the various forces that reacted 

*(1) 4 Kavita arte Sahitya ’ Vcl, I to IV. 

(2) * Manomukura 1 Parts II, III, IV. 

(3) 4 Sahitya ane Viveehana 5 Vol I, II. 

(4) 4 Sahitya Vichara * and 4 Kavya Vichara 



36 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


on the growth and evolution of modern Gujarati Society 
and Literature. His critical essays and reviews published 
mainly in the “ Buddhiprakas’a ” may well be made 
available in book-form, 

Chunilal Vardhamana Shah ( born A. D. 1887 )-another 
reviewer of considerable force in the columns of <l Praja - 
bctndhu ” Weekly under the assumed name of ‘Sahityapriya/ 
has indulged in several literary controversies with Narasimha- 
rao, Nanalal, Balvantarai and Khabardar, and success- 
fully ventilated the views of the majority of readers regard- 
ing the general taste for current literary topics. His literary 
•' Notes ” await collection and publication; but his Yearly 
Review for publications in A. D. 1930 and 1931-two mo- 
mentous years in the political and social life of the 
Gujaratis is a well balanced presentation, with an advocacy 
for classic standards in evaluation and criticism. His views 
on how far imagination can be brought to bear upon inci- 
dents and characters figuring on the canvas of history espe- 
cially in planning a historical novel are really thought- 
provoking. 

We can make but a passing reference to the literary acti- 
vities, of Natvarlal Desai ( born A. D, 1888) associated with 
the Gujarati Weekly for more than a generation.His literary 
essays and criticisms limited to the interprtation of mediea- 
val poets and their poetry are illuminating and authoritative 
in themselves. But it is not possible to say the same thing 
about the functioning of the Gujaraii Weekly in general, in 
spite of their publishing special Divali issues with literary 
materials, which has not been able to establish a standard 

of criticism of works both old and new for the general 
^reader* 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 37 

Jhaverchand Meghani ( born A. D. 1897 ) who wields a 
powerful pen in almost every field in literature has played 
also the role of a literary critic through the “Weekly Page” 
in the Janmahhumi Daily, styled ** Kalam and Kitab . ” 
It promised to be a very influential forerunner of a Journal 
exclusively meant for literary notes and comments. These 
columns forming the literary diary of the times, promise 
to be of considerable use when put in book-form, as the 
discussions are generally pointed to fixing the canons of 
general criticism 

There are numerous other lesser critics who contribute 
to the many dailies, weeklies and monthlies : High- 
class monthlies like the ' Vasanta / e Kaumudi / * Prasthana / 
and the recent appearance of 'Manasi,’ 4 Urmi / 4 Madhuri / 
and others, exact a high literary standard from writers, yet 
nevertheless review the books rather pretentiously with 
varying quality. The stuff that is appearing periodically 
cannot be said to be free from bias. 

The system of Yearly Book-Reviews of Gujarati 
publications viewed as a whole, started by the Gujarat 
Sahitya Sabha, Ahmedabad, since 1929, is designed on 
different lines. These volumes of { ‘ Vars'iJca Samiks’a” afford 
a good understanding of the literary tendencies of the year 
under review as reflected through outstanding compositions, 
interpreted by an individuial reviewer,who is replaced every 
year by another. However, this kind of work affords no 
comparison with the steady, regular and well-chalked out 
work of a veteran reviewer like Diwan Bahadur Jhaveri. 

The thesis of Miss Hira Mehta P, A. on sc Our Literature of 



A Review of Li lex ary Criticism 


58 

Criticism” (A. D.1939) takes a very informative and compre- 
hensive review of this kind of literature in Gujarati confined 
primarily to the historical account of the evolution of this 
form of literature. She has divided the subject into two 
divisions : ( i ) literature of pure criticism, and ( ii ) litera- 
ture allied to or supplementary to criticism. The inquiry 
proceeds upto a certain period according to individual cri- 
tics of accredited worth, and after that critics who are 
still in making or whose styles have not yet settled down to 
a fixed policy are mentioned in a group The performance 
is a good model for similar spade-workers in the different 
fields of Gujarati literature. 

After having attempted to take stock of reviewing 
work done by illustrious individuals, we shall notice the 
literary canons and traditions that are wielding influence 
in the literay world. 

For the last few years i.e., after A.B. 1930, only the most 
modem currents in criticism can be noticed as various styles 
and methods of criticism are developing through the various 
monthlies, in a form equally variegated. Some review lite- 
rature through letter-writing ( like Mr. Umarwadiai 
1 Kirtida nd Kamal ne fiatro* ) others by way of yearly 
reviews. Some prefer to review in groups, books per- 
taining to a particular literary form ( as in Kaumudi and 
M&nasi ), whereas some criticism is made available through 
set lectures. This manysided growth of literary criticism 
is now leading to a future, which can not be said to be 
without any promise. 

The vagaries of newspaper reviews and the various 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


39 


factors combining to stifle the expression of an honest review 
regarding a publication make a “ Quarterly for Reviews ” in 
Gujarati a still more urgent necessity. When all the conflict- 
ing views on publications are allowed to be ventilated in 
the columns of a common Journal, .readers will feel them- 
selves well-guided and well-advised as to their intrinsic 
value. 

In order to raise literary criticism to the height of a res- 
ponsible pursuit in literature, with the fullest knowledge 
of its far-reaching effects, reviewing should-to speak inWords 
-worth's words-be * like a phantom of delight ' competent 
4 to warn, to comfort and command. ’ 

The cry for starting a Quarterly exclusively devoted to 
the work of Review, was first raised by Navalram as early 
as A. D.1869 and reiterated several times after, because the 
columns of Gujarat S’alapatra were quite inadequate for 
doing justice to publications. 

As the Yearly Reviewer of Gujarati publications for the 
year 1938-39 the writer of this Note had the privilege to 
point out, with all the emphasis at his command, the utility 
of inaugurating a Quarterly Journal of Review, under the 
present circumstances when the yearly output of publica- 
tions is continuously growing, giving at an average more 
than one publication per day. 

In conclusion we may say, " Gujarati Criticism ” 
to quote Diwan Bahadur Jhaveri's words, ‘‘ has begun, 
though in a little way, to lead the way: but the 
pity is that criticism like literature, is becoming more of 
a personal art, and individuality of product is becoming now 



40 


A Review of Literary Criticism 


the rule,and production by the pattern the exception. Literary 
criticism is tending to reflect in the main, a corresponding 
movement in English literature.The style of this foreign-born 
criticism has a pronounced tendency to be verbose preferring 
sound to sense, stooping to verbal tricks to cover lack of 
truth and beauty. Erudition is generally felt to be of a 
superficial kind. Higher literary traditions are in the pro- 
cess of being formed and a step towards the establishment 
of unbiassed publication of views regarding literary pro- 
ductions would go a long way to improve the morale of 
reviewing in Gujarati, on classical and indigenous lines. 


* 44 The Present State of Gujarati Literature. ** p. 19. 




POETRY 
( Modern ) 




POETRY { Modern ) 

is 

“KAYYA MADHURYA” by Himatlal Gaces'aji Anjaria, M. A., 
Bombay op. 352. Price Re. 1-8-0 ( 1906 ) 

This book is a collection of some of the best songs 
sung by the Gujarati singers of the present day. It is an 
anthology of poems, modelled on Palgrave’s Golden 
Treasury, and resembles its last volume in so far as it 
contains the poems of modern writers. 

It might be said that the idea of such a collection is 
not a new one, because even so far back as the early 
fifties, we find collections of the poems of the older 
Gujarati poets like the Kdvya Dohana, made and published 
by the Educational Department; but a book where all 
that is best in the present poetical Literature of Gujarat 
is brought together was a distinct desideratum, and we 
congratulate Mr. Anjaria on the happy manner in which 
he has met the want. 

The collection consists of 155 pieces of varying 
length, the fruit of about 50 poetical brains of varying 
capacities. It is prefaced by an Introduction in which 
the writer gives a short but very interesting sketch of the 
current tendency of the verse literature of Gujarat, clearly 
marking where the parting of ways has begun from the 
older poets. It ends with several explanations and com- 
ments on the;poems themselves. 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


The great value that we attach to the book is that 
it enables the reader at a glance to see what effect 
modern education has produced on Gujarat. Whilst the 
older generation revelled in the imitations of Sanskrit and 
Hindi, Western culture has stamped on the present gene- 
ration indelibly the mark of Shelley, Wordsworth and 
Tennyson, to a very great extent, though it has not made 
it forgetful of Sanskrit, and at times of Persian at the 
same time, Wordsworth’s “To the Cuckoo *’ and Shelley’s 
H To the Skylark* * have proved the inspirers of companion 
poems in Gujarati. 

And we think, that if this book instead of being print- 
ed in Gujarati type, had been printed in Devanagari, cul- 
tured readers throughout India would have at once recog- 
nised in several poems sentiments and ideas familiar to 
them as those of the great English masters, common to the 
Gujarati and English pieces. We have seen similar poems 
in .Bengali breathing the same sentiments, and our Bengali 
brethren would at least have noted the common element, 
and seen also how English education is leavening the 
whole mass in India in this matter, as in several others. 

The collection unlike its prototype, includes the work 
of several living writers and has served to bring to light 
several others whose work though good, was still hidden 
in obscurity. The reproach that our Parsi friends are try- 
ing to cut away their moorings and create a special 
language for themselves, or adopt English as their mother 
tongue, is in some degree, falsified by the fine collection 
which we see here, of the verses of several old, and new 
hands, like Mr. Malabari— of Social Reform fame— and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


5 


Mr. Khabardar, whose handling of the language is simply 
phenomenal for a Parsi. The fact that the book has in a 
very short period run through the first edition speaks 
volumes for its popularity. In short, it shows as in a 
mirror, the epoch-making tendency of the present Guja- 
rati poetry. 

☆ 

“YIDHAVA’^a poem in three Sargas, by “Vasanta Vinod!,” 
Praja Bandhu Printing works, Ahmed abad : pp. 31. Price 0-4-0. 
( 1906 ) 

Under the nom-de-plume of “Vasanta Vinod^’ many 
little songs and poems appear in Gujarati periodicals, now 
and then. In this poem the writer has attempted a 
longer flight on the miseries of Hindu widowhood, divid- 
ing it into three parts : Remembrance, Bereavement, and 
the final Resolution by the widow to devote her life to a 
purpose of public utility. 

The incidents narrated are prosaic, and there is 
nothing very heroic in their poetic delineation or setting. 
The metre is at times marred by defects; but all the same 
there is the promise of something better to come, after 
the pen of the writer becomes matured. 

☆ 

u DHARMAGUPTA rT ; By Mrs. Harisukhgauri Yamanram 
Kapilram, pp. 261. Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 1907 ) 

In Gujarat and Kathiawad, the Nagar Brahmin com- 
munity from historical times has stood at the top in every 
walk of life, social, political and literary. From the days 
of Madhava, the Prime Minister of Karana Vaghela, when 
the sun of Hindu Sovereignty in Gujarat set, by the 
successful invasion of Ala-ud-din Khiiji, down to tbi$ 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


very day, successful ministership of Native States has 
been one of the fortes of the Nagars. Similarly in lite- 
rary matters from the days of Narasimha Mehta down to 
the present times they have held the field. 

It is only but natural that without intelligent 
mothers, such an intelligent progeny could not have 
come into existence and so we find Gujarati literature 
dotted with the works of Nagar Brahmin ladies too. As 
is usual all over our country with the creations of the 
fair sex, their efforts have followed in the direction of 
religion. 

The present generation has produced a small crop of 
educated ladies, we mean educated on modern lines, 
but there are other ladies in this community, who, 
without going to school or college, have responded ad- 
mirably to the home-education received by them. Besides 
the author in question, we have in mind a group of seven 
ladies from Surat- and it might he said parenthetically 
that Surat always leads in such matters-who have only 
lately published a book on religious songs and prayers. 

Mrs. Harisukhgauri has already distinguished herself 
in the field of literature and she has shewn in her previ- 
ous book-Sati Simantini and various other contributions, 
that she wields a facile pen, and writes in an attractive 
style, without being told about it. It will be impossible 
for a reader to find out that he is perusing the work not 
of a cultured and college-educated male writer, but of a 
home-educated lady. 

The book consists of various stories taken from 
the S'iva Purana, and retold by the writer in prose 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938: 7 

and verse. Like many Purana stories, they lack 
logicality and reason. The story of a woman, for instance, 
who all her life took the greatest pleasure in annoying 
her husband, and hence being full of sins, while being 
conducted to hell by the myrmidons of Yama, being 
accidentally rescued from that punishment by the dis- 
covery of her having involuntarily fasted on an E'kadas'i 
day, on account of a quarrel with her husband, or the 
story of a sinner lying under a tree, and of the acciden- 
tal blowing of a Bilvapatra to his mouth, and being 
therefore saved by S'iva from the torments of hell, 
are not calculated to give one a good impression of the 
mental attitude or the breadth of views or extent of the 
logical horizon of the writer's mind. 

She is aware of the weakness of her performance, 
and tries to explain it towards the end of her woirk, 
by saying that her object is to inculcate domestic 
morality and she has as being herself a follower of 
S'iva, resorted to the S'iva Purana without meaning 
any offence to the Vais'nava and other creeds. She 
tries to combat the view that these stories are mere- 
ly idle stories and so much fiction, by pleading that 
the modern works of S'ankaracharya, Mrs. Annie Besant 
and others might equally be stamped by future genera- 
tions as so much fiction, though really they are not so. 
But it must be said, that the pleading is poor and carries 
no conviction. 

It might even be doubted whether there was room 
for such a book, which lacks a healthy and robust religi- 
ous tone, such as can stand the test of logical reasoning. 



Poetry ( Modern } 


But looking to the present condition of our society, we 
may not be wrong in inferring that numerous ladies and 
children will find the contents palatable and not be loth 
to while away a spare half-hour with it pleasantly. 

☆ 

“LAGHU BHARATA” : Part IV, Parvas VI to XI (in verse) 
by Ganapatram Rajaram Bhatt; Nirmala Printing Press, Ahmedabad. 
pp. 505. Price Rs. 2-8-0 ( 1907 ) 

This is the fourth part of a work begun nearly 
a decade ago. It has condensed in verse the story of the 
Mahabharata, in a way in which no Gujarati writer of 
present times has done or could do it. The tendency of 
modern Gujarati verse has been running towards English 
classical poetry like that of Shelley and Tennyson and 
Wordsworth. 

Three generations ago it was not so. It followed 
older writers like Premananda and Giradhara and in 
this production we seem to hear the pleasant echo of those 
far-off times again. Indeed, while reading it, we feel waft- 
ed back to the age of those classical poets : we forget we 
are perusing the verse of a modern poet. The charm, 
the grace, the easy flow, and even the peculiar diction of 
the older generation is there, and what is most striking is 
that all this seems to be no imitation, but comes as 
naturally out of the Kavi as water from a spring. 

The influence that the Mahabharata exercises over our 
lives and our every day affairs, hardly needs recital. Every 
vernacular of the country has its Ramayana and Maha- 
bharata, in prose and verse, and the words of the popular 
writers have been burnt deep into the hearts of the 
Indians. 



Development of Gujarati literature : 1907^—1938 $ 

Kavi Ganapatram has written much, but we 
think that this work, on which he is spending the closing 
years of his life-devoted more to literature than anything 
else-is bound to exert an abiding influence on this class 
of the literature of Gujarat. It is a book which deserves to 
be kept and read by every family. It is cheap enough at 
the price, and a sine qua non of a good library. 

☆ 

41 S'RI KAYYA V1LASA ” : Part, I. by Bbagavan 
S'ivas'ankar Bhatt, Assistant Master, Mission High School, 
Surat, pp. 74. Price Re, 0-5-5 ( 1906 ). 

The author professes that this is an imitation of the 
late Kavi Narmadas'ankar’s poetic style and subject, 
specially the Ritu-Varnana. As an imitation it is vain to 
expect in it the beauty of the original, but we say without 
hesitation that even as an imitation it is poor and bad. 
To suit his purpose, the author has coined several words 
even. Beyond the humdrum turn-out of the ordinary 
versifier to be found in every language, there is not much 
merit in this book. 

☆ 

“S'lVAJI AND ZEB-UN-NISA” By Hargovinda. 
Prems'ankar Trivedi. pp. 156. Price Re, 1/- ( 1907 ) 

The alleged love of Zeb-un-Nisa, the daughter of 
the proud Aurangzeb, for his most hated foe S'ivaji, is 
one of the most thrilling of traditional incidents, hard- 
ly bearing the close scrutiny of historical research. 
Marathi and Bengali literatures have prepetuated this * 
love-episode, and it has now been the turn of Gujarati to 
recount it in the form of a poem. To those who are 
acquainted with the various phases of the unfruitful deyo? 



id 


foe try ( Modern ) 


tion of the Princess to the Lord of her heart, it tells noth- 
ing new; but to others it conveys the narrative in simple 
Gujarati verse, relieved at times by commendable flights 
of imagination, and we are of opinion that after perusal 
of the work, the reader would not consider his time 
as lost 

☆ 

“RAYACHANDRA JAIN A KAVYAMALA GUCHCHAKA 
I ” by M. R. Mehta. ( 1908 ). 

The editor, a merchant-jeweller by profession, ha sin 
him a happy combination of deep and earnest love for 
letters with business instincts, and ever since he tried to 
prove by a public lecture that Ravana was a Jaina in 
creed, his name has bren before the public. He has 
been unremitting in his efforts to bring to light and discuss 
to advantage all Jaina subjects, secular and religious 
and the monthly 4 Sanatana Jaina 9 which he conducts 
single-handed bears ample proof of it. 

His deceased brother S'rlman Rayachandra who 
died very young, had his many-sided achievements 
noticed by the Indian Spectator and the Pioneer , which 
called him a prodigy of intellect and memory. 
It is the love for this deceased brother which has 
diverted and diverted with profit, the energies of 
Mansukhlal, into the field of literature. 

Jaina literature till now has been almost ignored by 
Gujarati scholars, no doubt, and they have given it but 
a back seat in their estimation. In the Kavya Dohana, 
e* g.» of Kavi Dalpatram, you find only two or three Jaina 
poets noticed, and it is only very recently that scholars 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 ll 

of the calibre of the ]ate Manila! Nabhubhai, 
Govardhanram Trip&thl, and the eminent educationist 
Mr, Kes'avalal Dhruva have found out the proper place of 
the handiwork of Jaina Sadhus in the history and crea- 
tion and the continuity of the literature of this province. 
The strong prejudice against this community is crystal- 
lised in the Gujarati proverb : — 

Chanchad, Mankad, Ju ne Jati, 

T& Maryanun papa ja nathi. 

** There is no sin in killing a flea, a bug, a louse and 
a Jaina Sadhu 

The Brahmins had carried their spite against it still 
further by saying that if you encounter a mad elephant 
on the road and if you find a Jaina Upds'raya (temple) near, 
you had rather be killed by the beast than seek refuge 
in the temple. With this sentiment uppermost in people's 
minds, small wonder if they paid no attention to the 
good work done by this class of their compatriots. 

But during the darker hours of the literature of 
Gujarat, it has now been definitely shewn that the torch 
of learning and poetry was kept alive by Jaina Sadhus. 
Thanks to the activity due to philological studies and 
the agitation of several Jaina graduates the place of this 
literature has now been ensured both in the public and 
the University. 

Mr. Mansukhlal says he has found out a very trea- 
sure-house of Gujarati Jaina literature-a part of the literary 
hoarded wealth of the community-far exceeding in volume 
anything published till now of the whole of the Gujarati 



n 


Poetry ( Modeffc ) 


Literature and is prepared to place the same at the dis- 
posal of the Gujarati readers at a comparatively trifling 
cost and looking to the exceedingly low price of the 
volume under review* he bids fair to hold to his promise. 

In an exhaustive and detailed Introduction which is 
the best part of this book, the author examines the claims 
of his co-religionist writers to have a niche in the Temple 
of Letters, and sets out ably the part played by them 
in the enrichment of the language. He has at present 
published the poetical works of three Yatis : Ananda- 
ghanji, N&ma Vijayaji and Dharmamandirji, who all 
flourished between 1650-1700 A. D. They composed the 
Stavanavali in the S’ilavati Rasa and Moha and Viveka; 
of the three perhaps the most important is the middle one 
which has now been recognised as a Text-book for Guja- 
rati Language and Literature of the M. A. Examination of 
the local University. 

The various points of view, philological, biographical 
and historical, from which in his Introduction the author 
has commented on the poetry of Anandaghana leave 
little to be desired. He has put his conclusions, some 
of them bold enough, in such a way and in the spirit of 
such an humble learner, that they disarm all oppo- 
sition; though none the less they should not go un- 
challenged or uninvestigated at the hands of those who 
have made this branch of science their duty. 

Side by side with works of earlier poets there is 
much to be learnt from these three poems and we only 
wish that to assist the lay reader to fully understand it, 
enjoy and if so minded, to assess the value of this volume 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 IB 

it had been annotated in various places, specially where 
the technique of the Jaina Religion is touched or enlarged 
upon by the poet, and where obscure or foreign words 
or terminations prevalent three centuries ago, have been 
used. This would have made.it more popular. 

☆ 

( 1 ) “VIDURA NO BHAVA” by Madh&dakar Nagar. (1907) 
( 2 ) “ YAMUNA GUNADARS'A ” „ „ (1908) 

( 3 ) “ STLAR KAYYA ” u „ (1909) 

All the three pamphlets are written in verse. The 
use of English words like “lamp” and of mispronuncia- 
tions like s'ikJcar spoil, however, the good effect of 
the verses. Still they promise plentiful and praiseworthy 
work in future. The aim and the ideal of the writer 
being of a high order, we wish him success. 

☆ 

“ LAGHU BHARATA ” Part Y. by G. R Bhatt. ( 1909 ) 
In 1907, we had an occasion to review a former Part, 
Part IV, of this admirable labour-of-love which the poet 
had set to himself. The Part under review represents 
the coping stone placed in the construction of the noble 
edifice which should stand as a monument to after-gene- 
rations to show that even in the age of the New 
Gujarati versification brought on by the study of Shelley 
and Tennyson it was still possible to have in our midst 
men who could write in the style of Premananda and 
Samala. 

The present Part begins with the S’anti Parva and 
ends with the Svargarohana Parva. The most difficult 
Parva to condense has been of course, the S'anti Parva, 
inculcating as it does some of our most important politi- 



u 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


cal, social and religious tenets. But it has been very well 
handled, and almost each line contains a sutra. 

The preface, also, is very instructive and enlightening 
and: altogether we congratulate the author, who in his 
old age has been able to have the satisfaction of seeing 
his lifeworklcrowned so well. 

“S’RI ANUBHAI S'RI YANA-TATTY A YICHARA” oy 
M. 1ST. Besai (1909) 

This is a collection of verses on varipus religious to- 
pics written in the style of old poets. The subjects consfet 
of Bhakti, Vairagya, Jnana, and several episodes from the 
Bhagayata of Krishna Lila. They are certainly inferior 
to the similar padas of Dayarama, Narasimha Mehta and 
other well-known old poets. 

The composer has caught merely the outward style 
of those old veterans, but lacks the real spirit that lay 
underneath. Still they are proof of the religious spirit 
which is still very much alive in our people and prompt 
them to indulge in these rhapsodies. 

☆ 

(1) •• S’RI KRIS'NA ” by K. C. Gandhi (1910) 

(2) “ ARYA PANCHAMRIT ” by X. C. Gandhi (1909) 

The first is a poetical composition narrating the birth 
of Kris'na, and the second sets out in verse the virtue of 
self-introspection, self-realisation., mercy, &c. 

☆ 

u KAYYA-KALIKA ” by Ambuja and Bhramara (1910) 

The words Ambuja and Bhrarnara-represent the 
nom-de-plume of Messrs Ambalal Maneklal Mehta and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1968 


15 


Jayasukhalal Purs'ottamrai Joshipura. It is a collection of, 
short poetical pieces composed by them in what is called 
the modern style. As a whole* we think the compositions 
of the latter are inferior to those of the former both in ex- 
pression and spirit and are further marred by Kathia- 
wadi provincialisms, which somehow or other appear out 
of place in verses modelled on those of Mr. Narsimharao 
B. Divetia. 

In fact the whole collection seems to have 
been written on the basis of his verses and everywhere 
one comes across either faint echoes of his handiwork or 
something very near to it. We must, however, say that 
in some places we do find real flashes of the poet’s genius, 
which relieves the otherwise flat monotony of the whole 
performance. 

☆ 

“ SANGITA SAMGRAHA ” by N. K. Vais'nava (1910) 

This is a collection of songs, intended for the instruc- 
tion and dilectation of ladies, selected from modern 
writers and ought to prove of interest to the class for 
which it is intended. 

☆ 

«S , RI-HARI-SNEHA-SUDHA-SINDHU ,, by Ambas'ankar 
Samal Shukla pp. 698, Price Rs. 5 '8-0 (1911) 

This substantial volume of nearly seven hundred 
pages is devoted to a description in verse of the several 
aspects in which Hari or Kris'na is seen by Hindus. It 
it written in the style of the older Gujarati poets, and 
is an index of the old spirit still surviving, although Shel- 
ley and Tennyson baye come into vogue and thrown them 



16 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


into complete shade. It is likely to find favour, still 
with a large number of readers. 

☆ 

“ RAJA--RAJEJSTDRA NE' ” : A Poem by N. D. Kavi (1911) 

This little oblong book is printed on fine art-paper 
and garnished with artistic pictures. As its name 
implies the poem is one of welcome to their Im- 
perial Maj esties on their visit to India. 

The Illustrations and ideas are both in keeping with 
each other, in a word they are both fine. This dainty 
little work is fit in every way to be laid at the feet of 
Their Majesties. To be appreciated, it ‘ has to be seen 
and read, and we think every library, private and public, 
would be the richer by possessing a copy of this illus- 
trated rhapsody. 

☆ 

“ SATI SANGITAVALI ” by M. A. S'arma (1911) 

The object with which the songs in this collection 
are written is to purify the present atmosphere of female 
education or rather non-education. The author says that 
such prurient erotic songs as of Dayarama and Vallabha, 
so much in vogue amongst Gujarati ladies are sure to tell 
on their morals and therefore it was necessary to provide 
them with something on the same lines, but in a purer, 
more decent form and eliminate therefrom all the love 
phraseology used in connection with Kris'na and Radha, 

Whether these excellent songs have ever told or would 
ever tell on the morals of our ladies is another question; 
so far the ladies have survived the sordid element in them 
and the personal note in the S'mgara contained in the 



Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


17 


verses has fallen flat on them. In singing them they 
only think of the Lord Divine and not the libertine. 

The attempt made in the Preface to run down 
the ideals of Gujarati Poetry should not pass without 
protest* As for he contents of the book we must say we 
are greatly pleased with them. They are well set, and 
when sung by the fine musical voice of the author, must 
furnish a treat. The instances given of the lives of 
ladies like Jodhaba, are of great use in making their 
heroic deeds known more widely. 

There are some slips in the book*, like ‘S'iri* for 
4 S'irin', and ‘Farasad* for ‘Farhad', due to the 
secondhand knowledge of the writer, about this 
Persian couple; but they do not detract from the value 
of the compilation. 

☆ 

“ HRIDAYA ZARaNAN OR OUTPOURINGS OF THE 
HEART, ” by the late Mrs. Sumati, daughter of the Hon. 
Mr. Lallubhai S'amaldas ( 1911 ). 

Mrs. Sumati died about a year ago, when she was 
hardly out of her 'teens, a martyr to chronic illness* 
Connected on one side of her parentage with wealth and 
on the other with learning, she took full advantage of her 
position. Her mother belonged to the family of the late 
R, B, Bholanath Sarabhai, whose progeny with hardly 
any exception have been well-known in Gujarat as the 
votaries of song and Sarasvati, and it would not be called 
a mere assumption, if Sumati's literary tastes and ability 
be traced to her mother. 

2 



18 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


For a very short space of life-only two or three 
years-did her poetical inspiration , find time to grow. 
The flower withered before the bud had time to open out 
all its petals to the sun. Her verses are not of a high 
order, but the promise that lay in them, never came to 
be fulfilled. 

A strong devotee of Browning almost all her poems 
are Browningese. To some it might appear as if a 
factitious importance has been tried to be given to her 
work by means of the Introduction contributed to it 
by a very close relative of hers, Mr. Narasimharao Bhola- 
nath Divetia, a distinguished Gujarati scholar and poet. 

But really it is not so. A perusal of it would convince 
any one, that he has rated her work at its proper value 
and distributed praise and blame even-handedly. The 
sum total of his appreciation is : that she was a child of 
nature ; that much of her work is crude, not free from 
faults, but all the same full of promise. Had it pleased 
Him to spare her longer, she would have greatly surpassed 
herself. 

☆ 

“ LALITA NAN KAYYO,” by Kavi 4 Lalita ’ ( 1912 ). 

* Lalita * is the nom-de-plume of Mr. Janmas'ankar 
Mahasankar Buch. For the last fifteen years, his songs 
have been made familiar to the reading public of the Pro- 
vince by means of monthlies; and from almost their very 
appearance, they have met with a hearty welcome* 

They have now been collected in a small book 
with just a short Introduction by Mr. Nanalal D. Kavi 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


19 


setting out in a series of suggestions, rather than direct 
statements, the merits and the defects of the poems. 

* Lalita J has got a style peculiar to himself. He 
handles his words, not in the manner of a fullgrown indi- 
vidual speaking to another full grown individual, but as 
a mother talking to a lisping child, to a child rocking 
in the cradle. He would not say ‘good* but * goody 
goody \ 

This gentleness, bordering at times almost on 
effiminacy, wedded to a stream of expression peculiar 
to Kathiawad from where the poet hails, is the 
outstanding feature or call it the charm of his poems, 
which are meant more to be sung than read. When 
you hear them recited by the writer himself accompanied 
by the ting-ting of the little cymbals he carries with him, 
you are reminded of the Bhajanas of Mirabai and at times 
the furor of Narasimha Mehta, the two great pioneers of 
Bhajctna poetry in Gujarat. 

For ourselves we have great pleasure in stating that 
we like them and look forward to continued and better 
work from 4 Lalita \ The poems are very short. There 
is no room there for the full working out of an idea. 
They are mere flashes of lightning, but during the time a 
flash lasts, it illumines everything. 

☆ 

” KaLLOLINI ,4 By D. K. Botadakar ( 1912 ). 

This is a collection of several poems written by Mr. 
Botadakar. They are very promising performances, many 
of; them being full of pathos and feeling. 



20 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


The poem * As ! rumati \ for instance, where the 
Ks'atriya father of As'ru, forbids her to love the 
Mahomedan prince Salim, and the consequent struggle 
in her heart between filial love and the passionate love 
for her lover, is well depicted by the writer. 

-A* 

14 

“ HAMIEJI G-OHE'L ” Edited by M. B, Bhatt (1913). 

Prince Surasimhaji, the late Thakore Saheb of Lathi, 
in Kathiawad, is more known to Gujarati readers as a 
poet than a prince. He wrote under the nom-de-plume 
of ‘Kalapi^ and his poems have now taken a fixed and 
a high rank in literature. The poem under review comes 
from his pen and is published by his friend and admirer, 
another poet of known qualifications writing under the 
assumed name of * Kdnta \ 

This work versifies a romantic incident in the chro- 
nicles of the Lathi State. Hamirji Goh&l, a remote an- 
cestor of 4 Kalapi ", while starting on a campaign of resis- 
tance to Mahamud Gazanavi, was captured by a band of 
Bhil robbers who before doing away with him, thought 
fit to take him to their chief for orders. The chief recog- 
nising him at once offered hospitality and his daughter's 
hand, while promising to accompany him with his Bhil 
corps in their campaign against their common foe, the 
destroyer of Somanatha. 

At a previous stage love at first sight had sprung up 
between the couple, and although the bride and her 
father knew that Hamirji was to be engaged in a strug- 
gle where death was sure, they thought that a Bhil's 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


21 


daughter, could have no better husband than a Rajput 
prince. Hamirji married her and was killed in the ensuing, 
campaign but later, a son was born to the Bhil Rani, and 
he continued his line. 

Though the publisher considers that this is not one 
of the successful attempts of ‘ Kalapi still we venture to 
opine that containing as it does many passages in the 
happy and smooth style of ‘ Kalapi \ it was not proper on 
his part to note in his Foreword only those verses which 
he considered inferior, omitting to draw the attention of 
the reader to many others, which abound in force 
and beauty. 

The poem very well illustrates the rough but hospi- 
table life lived by the Bhils and the customs and manners 
which they have imitated from the Rajput rulers* The 
Interlogue introduced by the court-bard of * Uttar a and 
Adhimanyu 3 is a fine piece of reading and has given op- 
portunity to the poet to indulge in his best. It is a short 
poem, but well worth perusal. 

☆ 

“SRI JNANA-YATIKA,*’ by Akhanda Saubhagyavati Hari- 
sukhagauri Yamanrama : (1914). 

Mrs. Harisukhagauri requires no introduction to 
those who are acquainted with Gujarati literature. Her 
two Natakas * Satisimantini 3 and 4 Ris’yas'ringa \ have 
already established her reputation as a writer of religious 
subjects, in prose and poetry. 

The present work is an attempt wholly in verse, 
to bring out those elements of morality and virtue which 



22 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


are the main objects, with which the several Pauranic 
stories and incidents are narrated. Her verses are 
clothed in language, which is simple and popular, and 
we are sure that the work of this lady-writer would be 
appreciated wherever it is read, but especially by her 
sisters. 

☆ 

44 SNE'HANKUR ” : — By Chandras'ankar Narmadas'ankar 
Pandya. Pp. 30 : Price Rs. 0-2-0 ( 1914 J. 

In Mr. Pandya’s opinion the whole creation tends 
to love, and these little poems contained in the little 
booklet-offered as a New Year's gift to his friends-all 
revolve round some manifestation or other of love. They 
are certainly very readable poems, and mirror forth the 
sentimental and poetic side of the composer's nature. 

☆ 

44 SEVJKA : PAST I ” by K C. Gandhi. < 1915 ). 

This is a long and continuous poem portraying with 
considerable feeling the position of the Hindu woman, 
downtrodden, miserable, never understood, and always 
uncared for. He calls her Sevikd, as in his opinion, she 
ever serves and is never served, 

44 GUJARATI GAZaLESTAN, ” by J. D. Tripathi. ( 1915 ). 

A Garni is an exotic in Gujarati Literature. It began 
to be imitated only very recently and in spite of its 
foreign origin, its spirit has very well been absorbed by 
men like the late Prof. Manila!, Mr. Derasari, and the 
late Mr. Balasankar, who in their turn have found a host 



Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


23 


of imitators, good, bad and indifferent, on account of 
the resemblance of Sufism to Vedantism, 

Unless one has an intimate knowledge of the same 
in either Persian, Urdu or Arabic, it is difficult to prove 
to the core th - principles of Sufi philosophy, and very 
few Gujarans possess that; hence their effusions which 
are named ‘Gauds’ are here dubbed imitations. 

Even with a superficial acquaintance with tho 
phraseology of the Sufi poet, one can string together 
words and sentiments depicting Es'ka ( love ), Wasla 
(union), Hijra (separation) etc. No very great effort is 
required for a juxtaposition of these words or to put 
them in the form of a metre in which a Gazal is often 
cast. 

However, whatever the merits of the different com- 
positions ( and some are mere doggerel ), here collected, 
Gamlestan has done a service in its complete and collect- 
ed form. Those in search of it, will find here, near at 
hand, a fingerpost directing them to the new channel in 
which Gujarati poetry has flowed. 

In a highly exuberent and effusive Introduction Mr. 
Tripathi has tried to explain what Sufism is and means. 
The information is apparently taken from various non- 
Persian sources and is secondhand. Notes at the end add 
to the usefulness of the book. 

☆, 

“ PRAMADA P RAN ARP AN A ” :-by Maniklal Mahadeo 
Yora. Pp. 47. Price Re. 0-4-0 ( 1915 ): 

The subject-matter of these verses is the miserable 



h 


Poetry ( Modern > 


life led by an ill-matched couple, and the longing of the 
wife for a cultured companion. The writer is an advocate 
of Atmalagna as opposed to Dehctlagna. Some of the 
verses betray great feeling. 

☆ 

“ BASA-MANDIBA ” by Gokuldas D. Baichura, Pp. 78. 
Be. 0-8-0. (1915). 

This book contains songs which the writer has 
intended to be sung by Gujarati ladies as Qarlas . The 
subject-matter of the songs is necessarily moral. We 
however are a little sceptical about the capacity of those 
for whom they are written to understand the words and 
sentiments conveyed by them. 

☆ 

^PBAStJNANJALI”. by S. J. S'arma, ( 1915 ) 

Effusions finding their way out in poetry : this is 
the only way in which this book can be introduced. The 
writer thinks that he has been able to turn out some 
good work and he certainly has been able to follow in 
the wake of those who poetise after Shelley or Tennyson. 

☆ 

“BALA-PBABTHANA”, Collected by K. V. Mehta ( 1915 ). 

As its name indicates this little book contains 
a collection of some of the very finest songs in Gujarati, 
meant to be used as matutinals or morning prayers, and 
vespers or evening prayers. 

☆ 

“ BALA-RAM AYAN A by Prabbas'ankar Jay as 'anker 

Pathak, Pp. 128, Price Bs. 0-6-0, ( 1916 ) 



Development) of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


25 


As its name signifies, this book is meant for children. 
It is the Ramayana versified. We think that it will 
prove of interest to those for whom it is written. 

☆ 

“ L AGIST A GITA by K. H. S’eth. ( 1916 ) 

These few wedding-songs are written with the view 
of inducing those ladies who live in the interior of Gujarat 
and are still addicted to break out into unseemly song to 
give up their habit and come into line with their reformed 
sisters. 

☆ 

« HRIDAYA BAMSI ” : by Vallbhaji Bhanaji Mehta. ( 1916 

It is a collection of poems, on various topics, written 
with some feeling, and shewing acquaintance with the 
trend of modern poetic literature. The poems are 
couched in the vein of Mr. Narasimharao Divetia. 

☆ 

"RAMAYANA NO RASATMAKA SARA” by H. K. Bhatt. 
( 1916 ) 

As its name implies this book gives the substance 
of the Ramayana in verse. As the writer of the introduc- 
tion, Mr. C. N. Pandya says, the book is of the ordinary 
type, and possesses both faults and good points, 

☆ 

"S'RI ANUKRAMANI RAMAYANA.” byM. K, Desai(1916; 

This summary of the Ramayana in verse was written 
by Mr. Desai in response to an advertisement published 
by the last Gujarati Sahitya Parisad for condensing the 



26 


Poetry ( Modem ) 


epic into a certain number of verses ( 1000 ), The writer's 
zeal has no doubt accomplished the task, but whether 
the book would live or not is problematical. 

☆ 

^HARI-YAS'A-GrlTA’^-Edited by Jayendralal Bhagavanlal. 
Price, iws. 1-8-0 ( 1916 ) 

This is a collection of poems written by a lady, Ganga- 
svarupa Jasaba, on such subjects as Jnana, Bhakti, 
Vairagya etc. They are published by her son, who has 
written an Introduction in which he defends the diver- 
sion of the energy of Indians towards such subjects as 
have furnished materials for his mother's work. The 
poems themselves are couched in the old orthodox style 
and bear testimony to the study and thoughtfulness of 
the lady-writer. The price is out of all proportion to 
the work. 

☆ 

“ RAJA-PADYA »* Published by M. P. Mehta. ( 1916 ) 

‘ Raja-padya ' is the name given to several poems 
written by the late Rayachandra, a Jaina philosopher and 
a friend of Mr. M. K* Gandhi, who puts him much higher 
than Tolstoy in religious perception. They are poems 
written while Rayachandra was very young, and concern 
Bhakti, Charitra, Vijnana and other cognate topics. 

Their chief beauty, is that though they are written 
by one who was in his 'teens, still they are pregnant with 
spiritual meaning, and a knowledge of religion as well 
as of the world scarcely to be expected in one so young. 
The language is so simple that one does riot find it at 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


27 


all difficult to follow their meaning or understand them. 
Mr. Mansukhalal has certainly done a bandhu-lcrtya by 
publishing them. 

☆ 

DIWAN-E-SAGAB ” :-by J. D. Tripathi, ( 1916 ) 

For the last several years Mr. J. D. Tripathi 
has assumed the nom-de-plume of * Sagar * and has work- 
ed himself into the belief that without a knowledge of 
Persian or Arabic, he has thoroughly grasped the spirit 
and secrets of Sufism, and has been able to combine them 
with the doctrine of Vedantism. Under that belief he 
has written a number of poems, a hotchpotch of An-ul- 
Hakk ( the Sufistic formula for oneness with God ) and 
Om ( a mystical Vedantic phrase ). 

The book under review is a collection of many such 
poems. They are more or less in the nature of rhapsodies 
at times wanting in a central, intelligible thought or 
idea, at times leading nowhere, at times incorrect in 
representing situations on lines found in Persian Litera- 
ture ( see p. 415 where the author speaks of a ‘‘bed- 
wound” when in Persian you would never find the bed of 
a Beloved referred to in that gross fashion ), at times an 
odd mixture of English Persian, and Gujarati words 
( e. g., p. 416 the Garni beginning with, ‘‘Dear, 0 yes ? 
Come on, Yes ? Yes ? *’ where he uses words like Laylan 
( in place of the correct form Layla ) or Laylat-ul-Kadar 
( instead of Laylat-ul-Kadra ) one feels how the igno- 
rance of the original language, in spite of the author's 
best endeavours to be as correct as possible, has given a 
colour of artificiality to his work. 



28 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


These are but the first three parts of his large collec- 
tion, and hence immature and imperfect. The later 
compositions we are sure, •would show maturer thought, 
and less verbosity. As an introduction into Gujarati 
Literature of this sort of Persian composition, viz., the 
Diwdn the book is the first of its kind; and hence likely 
to prove attractive at least for its novelty, if nothing else. 
Where this imitation of Persian poetry is discarded and 
the author has written on other subjects, he has been 
able to make a good show. 

☆ 

“ YIS'UDDHA PBEMA-PBAVABINI Pp # 184. Price 
As. 10/- ( 1917 ) 

This is a collection of poems on Love composed by 
a Jaina Muni, who it seems did not think it quite proper 
to recite them in his Apas’ara (temple) as that would not 
quite be in form there. One of his pupils, who found 
solace in them, however, has given the selection a book- 
form. 

☆ 

“ BHANAKABA ” ;~By Prof. Balavantarai K. Thakore, 
Pp. 180 : Price Bs. 2 /- ( 1917 ). 

This dainty little volume contains a collection of Mr. 
Thakore's poems, which were scattered over the pages of 
different magazines. 

The frontispiece appropriately illustrates the title of 
the book; a small boy, sitting on the edge of a lonely 
lotus-flowered pool, on a full-moon night, under a tree 
in a wilderness, all by himself, with his left hand to his 
ear, trying to catch some distant sounds. 



'Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


29 


Some of the poems have a historical background, 
some are lyrics, while some are sonnets. There is a 
Prefatory dissertation, long and entirely technical, of no 
interest to the ordinary reader^ in which Mr. Thakore 
defends his system or ral.ie; node of writing metrical 
compositions. It is taken up fudy with the technique 
of prosody, where he has tried to reply to his critics. 

His verses can be understood with the Notes given at 
the end; but even then we are not sure that their full 
purport would ever dawn on the minds of those who have 
not followed the trend of poetry modelled on English 
ideas. They will commend themselves to only a limited 
circle. 

ft 

“ K A VITA KALAPA ” by C. V. ITd&s'i (1918) 

Champsh Vitthaldas UdesT is long since known in this 
part of the country though he resides at Calcutta, by the 
verse-contributions he seems to have made a point of 
•sending to several magazines 3 notably to the Jnana Sudka, 
the organ of the Ahmedabad Prarthana Samaja, Hardly a 
single issue of it is published without some verses or 
other, good, bad or indifferent from Mr. Champs'i. 

It must be said that his work is not of a high order; 
and in the volume under review, several liberties taken 
with the mechanical part of his work-i. e., rules of prosody- 
would be found. The dominating note in his verses is 
devotion to Govinda and in a subsidiary way, Patriotism. 



30 


Poetry (Modern ) 


“ RASIKA JHAGADO ” by Mr, M. T. Sattawala. (1918) 

This is a delightful little book of verses. Though 
primarily intended for those Vais'navas who are lovers 
and worshippers of the rustic gambols of Kris'na it is sure 
to appeal to lay readers too. 

Based on that mode of the best Vais'nava singer 
Dayarama, it depicts ‘ a quarrel between the eye and the 
eyelash \ The latter requests the former to give it a 
share in the feast enjoyed by it, in its constant and 
uninterrupted gaze of Kris'na, v/hen he returns home in 
the evening driving his herd of kine. 

The eye is unwilling to do so, because it says that 
when it does not get its fill of enjoyment how can it 
share it ? The eyelash thereupon comes in the way of the 
eye seeing Kris'na. The eye seeks the assistance of the 
Gopis and the quarrel proceeds merrily involving others. 

The love of the Bhakta for Kris'na is brought into 
great relief by these verses; and we do feel that in pub- 
lishing them, Mr. Motilal has done well. But for it, very 
few would have come to know of the talent lying latent 
in him. 

☆ 

“SWaDE’S'A G-ITAMBITA”: Collected by Kantilal Amritlal, 
Pp. 76 ; Price As. 0-4-0 ( 1918 ) 

It is a collection of verses^ poems and songs in 
Gujarati, concerned with patriotism and devotion to 
one’s province and love for it. Some well-known and 
some obscure lines find a place in it; but on the whole, 
it is a collection well worth keeping in one’s library. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 


31 


« SWADES’A GITAVALI ” : by Kes'av H. S'eth, Pp. 89 : 
Price As. 14 : ( 1918 ) 

This little book contains songs and poems, as its 
name implies, of a patriotic nature. It is an emblem of 
our times, and the songs are set to that tune : so far 
they would attract attention. 

☆ 

“TARANGAYALr’. Part X”;-by Bamamohaniay Jasvantaray 
( 1918 ) 

This collection of poems written by two brothers is 
mostly intended for ladies. The poems are explained by 
means of Notes of equal bulk. The sentiments expressed 
are noble, the ideals worthy, and the language in which 
they are couched is simple and sweet, 

“PRANAYa MANJARI PREMAGITA”:~by Padrskar. (1918} 
This dainty little book is in its get-up in keeping 
with the subject that it has rhapsodied : Love is God: 
God is Love. 5 ' This is the young versifier’s text; and he 
has let himself go unrestrainedly. Love is made to do 
duty in every stanza of this book of verses, and not every 
where successfully. 

“ NATAN LOKAGITO ’Vby X D. Teda ( 1918 ) 

This little pamphlet contains little songs in which 
the writer sings of the duties of Indians, their patriotism, 
and their awakening. Some of them are very well adapt- 
ed to collective singing and in that way impress with 
greater force on the minds of the hearers the commend- 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


32 

able sentiments they express. 

☆ 

“SKOTASWINX” by D. K Botadakar. (1918) 

About six years ago a collection of poems called 
‘ Kallolini ' brought into publicity the merits of Mr. 
Botadakar. The present collection marks an advance, in 
so far as the ideas expressed in the poems appear to be 
maturer. To one who has raised himself from a school- 
teachership by means of self-culture to the position of a 
poet, esteemed and admired by many friends ( vide his 
Preface ), the situation is no doubt worth congratulat- 
ing oneself upon. 

The poems themselves breathe sincerity in every 
verse; there is no artificiality about the sentiments nor 
their expression. He expresses what he feels, and he 
expresses that with a directness which leaves no room for 
misapprehension. On the whole the collection invites 
perusal, and as a result of the perusal is bound to give 
pleasure. 

☆ 

“LALITA NAN KAVYO” Published by R. a. Tripathi. (1918) 

‘Lalita’ is the nom-de-plume of Janmas'ankar Maha- 
sankar Buch, whose poems and songs have so long delight- 
ed the people of Gujarat and Kathiawad. While reviewing 
the first edition of the collection of his poems, which 
have reached in this book a second edition, we have 
already remarked on their sweetness and innocence, and 
above all, the delight that they radiate, particularly when 
sung by the author himself to the accompaniment of the 
little pair of brass-cymbals, he carries with him. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 8S 

His poems, even when they do not relate to Bhakti 
or a cognate subject always remind one of the Bhajan* 
sung by the wandering minstrels of Kathiawad, on 
account of their language, and a certain inimitable trick 
of provincialism special to natives of Kathiawad. 

Lalita’s performances are sure to live long. 

☆ 

‘‘SMARANANJALr’ by J. P. Jos'ipura (1919). 

The subject-matter of this little poem and the occa- 
sion of its composition are so sorrowful that one does not 
feel oneself at liberty to say much about it. The death of 
the writer’s wife the memory of her last days, days spent 
by the husband and their children together, in the Bunga* 
low at Visanagar, has prompted him to pour out his feel- 
ings in verse; and the description of the innocent babble of 
the young ones is one of the best portions of th 0 book. 

To express the sense of the word ‘topheavy* in 
Gujarati, we say that the turban is larger than the head t 
something like this has happened in this case. The bare 
text, printed on about 14 to 15 pages, is hedged round 
with a preface, an udghatana , and a dyotcmikd : where 
two other writers have in the spirit in which they have 
conveyed the high-sounding headings of their perfor- 
mances expatiated on the different aspects of a composir 
tion, which is cast in no unusual or extraordinary mould. 
They try to give it a fictitious importance and serve more 
to overload some of the feelings and simple verses than 
lift them up to the gaze of the reader. The best portions 
should be read as they are. 


3 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


M 


“PRASANGA RANGA” by Dr, 1ST, P. S'etfma (1919) 

There are about twenty-eight small sections in this 
hook* consisting of Gazals addressed by a pining love?r 
to his Beloved. We find nothing in them which wouldr 
take them out of the ordinary rut of such emotional out- 
pourings* Perhaps growing age would mellow the feel- 
ings of the youthful composer. 

☆ 

“PRABHU BHAKTINAN KAYYO” by H. T. Parekh (1919> 
This is a selection of poems and verses, old and new, 
to be found in Gujarati bearing on the subject of Prabhu- 
bhakti - Devotion to God. The selection is certainly 
ivell made and also representative. The collection will* 
therefore, to a great extent serve the purpose with which 
it is made. 


☆ 

; ‘TAHUKARA’ by C. M, Desai (Yasanta Yinodi) (1919) 

This is a collection of poems, called by their writer* 
*The Voice of the Cuckoo/ The writer is a dentist by pro* 
lession, having learnt his work in England for five years* 
Thereafter he gave up a lucrative practice in Bombay and 
has just joined the band of volunteer social workers in 
Gujarat. 

From his earliest days he had a penchant for poetry 
and even before he proceeded to England, he had been 
afele to secure some fame for his productions and from 
the volume under notice it appears as if the stay in 
England and the lure of his profession have not made 
him forsake the Muses. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


The poems are written on all burning topics of the 
day, and it must be said to Mr. Desai’s credit that in 
trying to make them popular he has not sacrificed his 
art. They are very well written; the sincerity of the poet 
lies on the surface; and on the whole we think that we 
have no reason to be ashamed of his handiwork now" 
presented to us; this cannot be said of a majority of 
those who in the present days court the Godess of Poetry; 

☆ 

“BHARAT A NO T ANKARA” by Arc^s'ir Framji Khabar- 
<Jar t Pp. 74. Price As, 12/-( 1919 ). 

One of our most popular poets, translates the words* 
in which he has named this book, containing a collec- 
tion of his latest productions “ The Call of India 9 \ The 
leaven of political aspirations which is leavening the 
mass of our country's mind, the stir and the restlessness 
that have been lately moving our hearts, these are the 
themes of the poet's song, and in no uncertain words 
does he speak. 

Indeed when everything is in the melting pot, when 
we are struggling towards a goal, it is the duty of the 
poet to encourage his brethren and pour into their ears 
and their hearts heartening words, and of all our poets, 
who could do it so well as Khabardar ? 

The scheme of this work is that he first sees a dream, 
then cogitates over it, then hears a gentle murmur and 
then a clap of thunder, which of course means the present 
awakening. The allegory is well-chosen, the songs are 
spirited and still sober. They are thoroughly suited ta } 
the heroic vein which runs through them. 



Poetry ( Modern ) 




Patriotism, burning patriotism is their key-note; 
but they are all kept within the bound of sanity; nowhere 
do they overrun the boundary or degenerate into fanatic 
heroics. His love for Bharata is peeping out from every 
vei and though we realise that his is not the first 
attempt in the direction of patriotic poetry, we have no 
hesitation in saying that his work stands head and shoul- 
ders over that of the lesser lights. 

IX 

“GAZAR-E-RAKJTJR.” by B. P. Ranjur. ( 1920) 

This is a collection of Gazals, written by one who 
has been at pains to leam his subject-matter and mode 
of writing this kind of Persian composition. 

It is in no way remarkable or distinguishable from 
the common rut in which such compositions move, except- 
ing for the fact that the beloved or Sanam is made to 
give utterance to her sentiments, a feature rarely met 
with in original Persian or Urdu verse. 

“ME'GHA SANDE'S'A.” by Ravi Popatlal S'arma. Price 
0-34) ( 1919 ) 

This is a tiny poem, a copy of the Sanskrit Meghaduta . 
The poet had gone to call his wife at his father-in-law's 
place away from Bombay and the latter disappointed 
him. He therefore made up his mind to send her 
a message through the Cloud in imitation of the old way 
and in describing the route the Cloud should take and the 
whereabouts of his young bride's father's house, he turns 
out good poetic work. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


37 


☆ 

“YADALI.” by Yallabha. ( 1920 ) 

This is a Khandakavya. Its title is ‘ Ckrad * and it 
is an echo of Kalidasa's Meghaduta. 

☆ 

“HRIDAYA RANAKARA.” By Ramnika R. Mehta. Pp. 22. 
Price Re. 0-4-0 ( undated ), 

These are a few sad songs by the author, in memory 
of a friend, feelingly written. 

☆ 

“PRANAYANADA” by Yallabha. 

It is a poem on Pra*aya expressing grief at the 
death of one dear and near to the poet. There are 
passages expressing deep pathos. 

& 

“HRIDAYA RA.NGA : THIRD RAY.” by B. K. S'ukla. 

This is a collection of certain poems written in the 
modern style by the author, and a drama, called BMsma 
Vrata Gharita Nataha which is written in the old style. 

The verses are good and intelligently written; but it 
is difficult to resist the conclusion that at times there has 
been a slavish copy of the style of others. 

V 

“NIRZARINI” By Damodar Khus'aldas Botadkar. Pp. 149. 
Price As 12/- (1921). 

This is a collection of poems, from the pen of one 
who has already distinguished himself in this branch of 
literature. His two former collections, the Kallolini and 
the Srotasvini, were deservedly well received, and this, 
third collection, if anything is superior to them. 



38 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


Beyond the vivid pictures of pastoral life in Kathia- 
wad painted from first-hand acquaintance, there are 
. other beautiful pieces, such as the ‘‘ Return of Buddha/* 
the meeting of Laksmana and his wife Urmila before lie 
starts for the forest journey, the gratefulness of E'bhala, 
the ravages of plague, &c., which are sure to appeal 
to the reader, and also earn a very high place for the 
poet, in the rank of the existing writers. 

.☆ 

“SWADES'A G-ITA” By Sitarama P. S'armfc. Pp. 76, Price 
0-12-0 ( 1921 ). 

This illustrated and nicely printed little book contains 
patriotic songs, some from the pen of Mr. S'arma and 
some based on those from other Indian Vernaculars. On 
the whole they are both stirring and full of feeling. 

☆ 

“PUKYA-PAVANA AKHYANA” By the late Bhavanis'an- 
kar Narottama Dwivedi, Pp. 22. ( 1921 ), 

In memory of certain deceased relatives the publi- 
sher. has reprinted the book with the permission of the 
heirs of the late Mr. Dwivedi, who had versified the 
Akhyana-which is a chapter in the Yoga- Vasts' tha, -nar- 
rating the incidents in the life of the two ris'is, Punya 
and Pavana, one of them being full of knowledge ( Jnana ) 
and the other half-full. It is an interesting little poem* 
And the publisher proposes to send it gratis to those who 
care to apply to him, 

☆ 

“SAMUDRA KANTHE SMAS'ANA-YAIRAGYA ” by 
29“. P. Pandya, B. A, ( 1921 ). 



Development ,of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 39 

This is also a very small book containing verses qn 
the lines of Gray’s Elegy , inspired by the sight of a burn** 
ing ground on the sea-shore. 

☆ 

“AJITA KKITL” Published by the Tile Parle Sahitya 
Sabha ( 1921 ). 

This book contains verses written by deceased Ajita, 
a young man with great aspirations, who had devoted 
himself to national education. 

t( 

“FASHION ANE' SWADE'SI YKATA” By Lalaji Nanji 
Saras wat, of Cutch Tera. Pp. 43. Price As. 4~( 1921 )* 

This little work is a diatribe in verse against the 
imitation and adoption of pernicious Western usages. It 
repeats all the claptrap, in vogue at present, inveighing 
against the mode of life of those who do not please the 
orthodox. 

☆ 

“JAYA BHARATl.” oy S'ayada. Pp. 112; Price 1-4-0 (1922)J 

A most spirited poem written in a heroic vein, in the 
form of Musaddas , i. e., six line stanzas as written in 
Persian and Arabic, it brings out very feelingly the love 
of the poet for India and recalls her past with an exhora- 
tion to all her sons to unite in bringing about her regene- 
ration, without distinction of caste or creed. 

The writer is a Mahomedan but he is equally at home 
in the religious Literature of the Hindus as of his own 
community. The ;stanzas err very often when viewed 
according to the canons of prosody, but when we remember 



40 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


that the composer has received education of the most 
elementary kind we should be prepared to overlook this 
fault in view of the composition being very powerful. 

☆ 

“RASA ” by K. H. S'Mfc, Pp. 64, Price 0-12-0 ( 1921 ). 

This collection of poems written with a high ideal* 
viz., to give ladies some popular songs in the new style* 
contains compositions good, bad and indifferent; but all 
the same many of them can be sung well and that is at 
least a favourable feature of this book. 

☆ 

“NAVAGlTA” by G-. D, Raichura. Pp. 35 Price 0-6-0 (1922% 

Mr. RaichurS, is a constant contributor of his short 
poems to Gujarati monthlies and dailies. They are aB 
connected with the recent National movements and this 
book contains thirty such poems. The author says that 
some of them have become very popular and that even 
little children sing them. 

☆ 

“RUPALlLA,” by B. L. Maakad, M. A B., T. Pp. 176 Price 
2-0-0 ( 1922 ) 

It is a collection of original songs and poems relating 
to the loves of Kti^na and the Gopis and scenes of nature 
couched in sweet language, with just a flavour of Kathia- 
wadi dialect; the book is well worth reading. 

☆ 

“RAS'TRIYA GITANJALI” By Eamaniklai Girdbarial 
Modi M. A. Pp. 3*?. Price Re 0-5-0 ( 1922 ), 

It is a collection of songs, devotional, patriotic and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


41 


na lonalist, in Hindi and Gujarati and furnishes pleasant 
r ading. 

☆ 

“BALAGlTA JMANJARI” Collected by Chunilal Kuberda* 
Shah. Pp. 32 Price Re. 0-4-0 ( 1922 J. 

Songs written by various modern writers and fit for 
the instruction of little girls have been collected in this 
little -book, published in memory of his deceased wife by 
the collector. 

☆ 

“RAS'TRA-GITA.” collected by I. EL Yajnik. Pp. 260 Price 
0-10-0 ( 1922 ). 

This book represents the activities of the National 
Literary Karyalaya at Ahmedabad, which has till now 
published about a dozen books. This collection of songs 
has run into a second edition in a very short time; and 
the editor has availed himself of the opportunity to bring 
out a fresh edition by adding to the number of songs. 

We have already noticed this first edition sometime 
back, and are glad to see that a second one has been 
called for in so short a time, a sure indication of its 
popularity. 

☆ 

“PTTRVALAPA’ 5 by M. R. Bhatt Pp. 124 Price 0-12-0 (1923) 

A collected edition of Mani^ankar's early poems- 
poems which brought him name and fame, was a desidera? 
turn and the publisher has done a distinct service to 
literature by bringing them out in this form. 



42 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


☆ 

* “KIRA NATALI” i s a very small book written.by Abdul 
Latif Ibrahim of Cutch at present in Europe. Although 
a Mahomedan by religion, he is steeped in the philosophy 
of the Upanis'ads and the verses in the book are a result 
of such studies. He is barely twenty-five. This work of 
his is very promising. 

☆ 

“HEIDAYA DHVANI” by G. H. Patel. Pp 38. Price 0-8-4) 
( 1923 ). 

The mythical love-story of &iv&ji and Princess Zebu- 
un-nisa and the mythological story of Aniruddha and U3a 
are poetised. A lot of enthusiasm is shown in the 
composition. 

☆ 

“THE POEMS OF A PRISONER” By ‘Munadi.* Printed at 
the Natwar Printing Press, Bombay. With an illustration of Mau- 
lana Mohammad Ali behind the prison bars. Pp. 47. Price As. 12. 
( 1923 ). 

Maulana Mohammad Ali is a fine Persian and Urdu 
scholar. He has written Ga%als at various times of his 
crowded life. They are given here in Urdu ( printed in 
Gujarati characters ) with a prose Gujarati translation. 

The full force of the original cannot be felt by the 
Gujarati reader, nor can it be conveyed intelligibly, as the 
genius and idiom of the two languages differ considerably. 
These limitations, therefore, come in the way of their 
adequate appreciation. 

☆ 

“RAS'TRA GITA” Edited by Indulal K Yajnik. Pp. 29|1. 
Prioe 12 As. ( 1923 ). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 


.43 


This is the third edition of the collection of national 
songs, called forth, within ten months of the second. 
Advantage has been taken to add to it several new songs, 
and make it more representative and up-to-date. We 
wish such a word as Sarapharctzi was explained and 
wrong equivalents like S^^^m-time on page 86 been 
weeded out. Saman means jessamine, a flower, and 
not time. 

v *- 

“HRIDAYA DHVANI” Kada 3-4. by G. H. Patel. Pp. 79 
Price 0-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

We have noticed the former parts of this book. The 
present part describes in verse two imaginary incidents of 
Urva^i being enamoured of Arjuna and his rejection of her 
love and her ( consequent ) curse; and ol Hamir, a descen- 
dant of the Maharana of Chitod being given the hand in 
marriage of a widowed daughter of Maladeva the Suba of 
the Mahomedan King, and his forgiving the innocent vic- 
tim of her father’s machinations. Both are presented in 
the heroic verse. 

“KE'KARAYA Nl PURAYANl.” Edited By R. K. Mehta, 
pp. 60. price 0-8-9 ( 1923 ) 

This is a supplement to the Kekarava ( collection of 
Thakore Surasimhaji’s poems ) published by Manisankar 
Bhatt. It contains some unpublished poems of the. Prince 
of varying poetical values, and is preceded by a Foreword 
written by Kavi Nanalal, wherein he vigorously and one- 
sidedly attacks the pioneer writer of Gujarati verse 
modelled on English lines. 

☆ 



<44 


Poeiry ( Modern ) 


☆ 

“RASA TAR AN GIN!” By'.Damodar Khns'aldas Botadkar*. 
Printed the Saurastra Printing Press, Rajkot. Pp. 88. Price 
Aa. 0-8-0 ( 1928 ) 

This is a collection of songs principally depicting the 
happy relations prevailing-or rather which in the opinion 
of the poet ought to prevail-amongst the different mem* 
bers ( specially females ) of a joint Hindu family. 

The songs are simply charming and they etherialise 
the various everyday incidents in the life and conduct of 
a Hindu household. It is not possible to convey their 
sweetness and joyfulness to those who cannot read them 
in the original. They infuse a freshness in our life which 
was sadly required. 

☆ 

“RAYANA” By Jugatram Chimaalal Dave Pp. 12348 Price 
Re. 0-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

Rdya^a is a luscious sweet little fruit obtainable in 
Gujarat in the hot season. As a collection of songs, 
ancient and modern, intended for little girls and to serve 
as a continuation book for a predecessor called Chayi 
Bora this little volume is sure to win the heart of every 
child, so aptly has each song been selected. 

☆ 

“NATAN GlTQ.” by Tribhuvan G. Yyas. Pp. 80 Price 0-3 -0 
( 1924 }. 

Delightful little songs for children, we think they 
are sure to please them; our only doubt is whether they 
would be able to “ catch " the fine conceits conveyed by 
them. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 19Q7-1938 


4 * 


“TTBMI.” by Yog&adra Pp. 167. Price 2-0-0 ( 1924 ). 

Dr. Surendranath Das Gupta once asked Mr. Yogen- 
dra as to which were the readable books in Gujarati 
Literature, and he said practically none, with the excep- 
tion of one or two. This collection of his own poems* 
with self-made comments, seems to have been published 
toith a view to remove that blot from our literature. Na- 
tural scenes, birds, flowers, and like subjects have furni- 
shed the material and it is sought to show that emotion 
has inspired the verses. 

☆ 

“MAHATMA GANDHI NE PTTS'PANJALL” by Latif 
of An jar in Cufch, Pp. 68. ( 1924 ). 

The writer says he is a young man of twenty and his 
work must be full of defects and so it is. The Anjali con- 
sists of poems eulogising Mahatma Gandhi written in 
blank verse which reads like prose, 

☆ 

"KASA TARANGlNl.’* by D, K. Botadkar. Pp. 96 Price 
0.10-0( 1924). 

We had only lately noticed the first edition of this 
remarkable collection of poems on the homelife of a Guja- 
riti girl, as a daughter, a daughter-in-law, sister, wife 
and mother. We noticed the halo with which he had 
surrounded it. 

The second edition shows four more poems added, 
which if anything, make the halo glow more brightly. 

☆ 

“STAYANA MANJAKL” by Mrs. Dipakaba Desai. Pp. 8 
Price 0-10-0 ( 1924). 



46 


Poetry ( Modern y 


Belonging to the well-known and cultured, family of 
the late Diwan Bahadur Manibhai Jasabhai, Minister of 
Baroda, Dipakaba had in early life essayed the writing 
of poetry. A visit to the temple of goddess Aruba, on 
the Abu hills, where the worshipper has to recite the 
usual prayers in verse as part of her Dadana and which, 
verses are generally old compositions, the idea came to 
her that she can pray as well to the Mother, in her own 
words. 

This revived the old faculty which was lying dormant 
and the result is this book which, contains verses not 
merely in praise of the goddess, but of many others, his- 
torical and mythological personages and incidents. 

Though there is nothing remarkable about this work, 
the even level of ability that it maintains and the intelli- 
gence that it shows, arrest the reader's attention and he 
feels that he is perusing the work of a really cultured 
lady, even though belonging to the older generation. 

☆ 

“CHANI BORA/’ Pp. 197. Price Bs. 0-5-3 ( 1925 ). 

This is the third edition of a very useful juvenile 
publication. The collection of poems is eminently suit- 
able for the young-folk for whom they are intended and 
the gradation is also thoughtfully made. The book has 
already attained deserved popularity. 

☆ 

“NAY AN GiTO” Part II. By Tribliuvan Gauris'ankar Yyaa. 
Pp. 84. Price Rs. 0-4-0 ( 1925 ). 

This is a second collection of verses written by Mr* 



Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 47 

Vyas. 'They are simply charming and he has fully entered 
into the spirit of the little juveniles for whom he has 
Written them. The flavor of Kathiawad life and phrases 1 
adds to their delightfulness. They require to be read 
to be appreciated. 

☆ 

“PETALS OF A FLOWER.” by P. H. S'ukla. Pp. 98. Price* 
0-5-3 ( 1925 ). 

The poetic flowers of Rabindranath Tagore are sought 
to be followed in the prose-poems of this little book. The 
Foreword written by Rao Bahadur Ramanabhai is remark- 
able for the trenchant criticism it makes of such abnor- 
mal attempts at rhapsodical writings. 

Another Foreword written by Mr. Nanalal Kavi is in 
the opposite direction and invests the writings with an 
ethereal interest. For a novice the out-turn is certainly 
creditable. 

☆ 

“KAVYA SAMUCHCHAYA” Edited by R. Y. Pathak. Pp* 
187. Price 1-0-0 ( 1924 ). 

To introduce the students of the Vidyalaya to the 
best poems and songs to be found in recently written 
Gujarati verse-literature is the purpose of this collection 
and it is literally well carried out. 

This is the first part and the second one is promised* 

☆ 

1 ‘SMARAWA SAMHITA-.” by N. B. Diretia. ( 1924 ). 

This grand and the best elegy in Gujarati owes its 
origin to the sad bereavement that the poet suffered some 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


48 

time ago by the death of his young son. As the best 
exponent of lyrical poetry* Mr. Narasimharao till now 
holds a high place, but this lyric of mourning f9 exceeds 
in its beauty and pathos, all his former poems. 

The inspiration came from a very living source and it 
has made him utter words, which surely appeal to his 
readers as nothing else appealed before. Human nature 
being what it is, a wave of sincere sympathy at once rea- 
ches out from the heart of the reader to that of the poet, 
who in spite of the reserve of his spiritual strength on 
which he falls back for support as on a rock, cannot still 
shake off the state of mind of a sorrow-stricken parent. 

The event of a death in one's family is an ordinary 
incident, but it requires a poet’s pen to exalt it to the 
pitch of the sublime and the beautiful. The ascending 
notes of a funeral song, and the dying, whispering wail 
of an autumn wind, the > soothing sentiments of one who 
extracts comfort from a comfortless event and the silent 
resignation of one who believes in the eternal goodnes® 
of things, all these one finds here. 

The * Foreword 9 by Prof, Anandagankar Dhruva, 
M. A. LL. B. is in every way worthy of the poem and the 
writer. The history of this kind of poem is very accura- 
tely traced while all the beauties of this particular poem 
are well brought out. The Notes at the end are scholarly 
and calculated to advance the value of the work. 

The only draw-back are the pictures, which some- 
liow or other are not what they should have been. A few 
lines from one of the best gems of the poem, a pathetic 
appeal by the departed Innocent Soul to his Father in 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


49 


Heaven, to open the doors of His temple and get him in, 
now that he has finished ( alas too soon ) his wandering 
in the Desert of Life,- are here extracted; they are so 
simple that any Indian can understand them. 

☆ 

“SANDE'S'IKA’ ’ by Ardes'ar Framji Kbabardar. Pp. 190 
Price Rs. 1-0-0. (1925) 

This collection of the short poems of the well-known 
poet Mr. Khabardar, bears a very significant title. He 
calls the book Sandts'ika, as it carries a message from him 
to his countrymen, the message of Brahma . The poems 
as usual are bright songs, and stir the reader's mind with 
their graceful expression of feelings, pathetic, patriotic 
and personal. 

☆ 

“S'AIVALINL” by the late D. K. Botadkar. Pp. 110, 123* 
11, Price 1-0-0. ( 1925 ). 

Kavi Botadkar took his place amongst the well- 
known modern poets of Gujarat by his RasatarawgiTtfi, 
which by now has run into a third edition. 

The collection of poems appearing under the above 
heading represents his work prior to the wave under the 
influence of which he produced poems in the Rasatara 
gini and as such represents a different feature of his work. 
The poems are all of a high order all the same. 

The great value however of this book consists in the 
long Introduction of nearly no closely-printed pages on 
Botadkar’s poetry, contributed by a brother poet Narasim- 
harao B. Divatia. His whole work is submitted;!to an 
intelligent analysis, and its beauties brought out in a way 

4 



50 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


in which only a master-hand can do it. It will for all 
time remain a finger-post for guiding the reader in the 
way he should go in appreciating this poet, who knew 
much Sanskrit and little English and still could come up 
to the standard of a scholar educated on modern lines. 

☆ 

"S'APA-SAMBHRAMA AND OTHER VERSES.” by the 
late N. P. Bhatt. Pp. 58. Price 0-12-0 ( 1926 ). 

The verses are modelled on Sanskrit and English 
poems. A successful attempt of the former class is seen 
in those headed ‘Pus' pa Bd^a-Vildsa’ which with the 
commentaries make good reading for those who like 
poetry of that kind. The verses are distinctly of a high 
order containing promise of better work, but the writer 
unfortunately died young. 

☆ 

“KAVYA VILASA.” by B. K S’ukla. Price Rs. 1/- (1926) 

This is a collection of long and short poems written 
by one who is serving the Railways of Kathiawad as a 
Station Master. For such a person the outturn is certainly 
creditable. The verses about the interview of Nachik6ta 
and Yama, for instance, are undoubtedly of a superior 
order. 

☆ 

“KALIKA.” by A. F. Khabardar. Pp. 128. Price 2-0-0 (1926) 

‘Kalika’ is a long poem consisting of 395 stanzas, 
( and ten more subsidiarily extended as a farewell), writ- 
ten by the well-known Parsi poet, Khabardar, whilst 
lying on a sick-bed in a Hospital at Madras, writhing 
with excruciating pain, 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


51 


He claims that the moments he describes in the life 
of his hero, a lover plaintively singing away the different 
stages of his love-life and addressing his beloved, come 
at one time or other in the hearts of all worldly beings, 
and that from them emanates as from the buds of a flower, 
invisibly a divine fragrance, indirectly giving proof of the 
love of God that every being entertains. 

The road of the lover leading to the final destination 
is divided into the seven petals, of D arcana, Saundarya 
etc. right upto Vijaya. The number of the stanzas is 
significant. It corresponds to the number of days in the 
year, and one stanza a day recited by the lover can carry 
him through the year. 

Like the Qazals of the Persians wherein each verse 
contains the expression of one idea or thought only, the 
“different stanzas of this poem also clothe our single idea; 
the expression thereof has not to run on into the follow- 
ing one to be completed. Apparently a Sufistic vein seems 
to be running through the poem. Love and God are taken 
to be the goals, one is thought to be synonymous with the 
other. He who can merge himself into Love can 
merge himself into Godi” This is the poet’s theme. 

In spite of this psychological background the poet 
has been able to put forth his best, in his best vein, in 
the poems and added one more laurel to those already 
won by him. He has contributed a Preface on the tech- 
nical side of Gujarati Versification, which is no doubt 
.very interesting and also thought-provoking, 



52 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


☆ 

“S'ARADLNT” ;~by Janardan Prabhaskar. ( 1928 ) 

A collection of original songs, such as would suit 
Rasa and Garba singers of the modern type of girls and 
.women, this book is adorned with a typical coloured pic- 
ture of the Rasallla of Krisna. 

A Preface short but informative and appreciative of 
the writer's work by Mrs. Lilavati Mun£i brings out the 
beauties of the contents. The quality of the work shown 
in the writer's Viharirii is maintained here also. 

“BHAJANIKA”. :-By Ardes’ir Framji Khabardar. Pp. 14B. 
Price Re. 0-14-0 ( 1928 ). 

The Muse of Mr. Khabardar, the wellknown Parsi 
poet has now entered on a new phase of activity. She 
;has, as often happens with us Indians when ageing, turn- 
ed her face towards philosophy, and produced poems, in 
the vogue of Narasimha Mdhta. 

The verses contained in this volume are of a superior 
order and betray intimate knowledge of Indian philosophy 
Tm which the poet has now taken refuge* Just as .by his 
Bhakti, Narasimha Mehta was able to see the Beatific 
Vision-see Kri&ia face to face, the poet seems to have 
been blessed with the same bliss ( see his poem- 
“Welcome” at p. 129 ). 

The production is worthy of the poet's pen and 
reveals him in a new aspect altogether, viz., his power of 
absorbing the ideas and concepts of Hindu philosophy 
and expressing them in happy verse. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 


53 


“ “DARS'ANA*’ ( 1928 ) A tiny little booklet of ten 
pages, by Chandravadan C. Mehta b. a. contain feel- 
ing verses on bereavement. 

☆ 

“TWO AKH YANAS” -by G. L. Pandya M. A. B. T. (1928) 

Vallabha, a well known poet of Gujarat vas distin- 
guished as a “Thunderer ' 9 Mr. Pandya has a soft corner 
for him and has written out a play with him as a hero 
and called it Vallabha-Qurjanakhy&na. 

* The other Akhyana is called Gurjari Prasanna- 
Jchpdnn and is written in the vogue of old Gujarati wri- 
ters. They are both readable performances, 

it 

“ KOIL NIKUNJE' ” :-by Mahavir Prasada Dadhich (1928) 

Though a Marwadi by birth Mr. Dadhich has acquir- 
ed a very good hold over Gujarati. He is saturated with 
the spirit of English and Sanskrit poetry and hence has 
been able to compose, short poems breathing the joyous- 
ness of the cuckoo in springtime. His work is certainly 
admirable. 

☆ 

“PULOMA AND OTHER POEMS” s-by A. N. Bliatt, (1929) 

Mr. Bhatt’s verses show a good handling of human 
feelings and emotions and have a promise of still better 
work in future. 

iv 

“ZAENAN, TADHAN. AND UNHAN” :~by Prof. 
Durkal. m. A. ( 1929 ) 

Prof. Durkal has already won his spurs in the field 
of literature. This book with a characteristc title, Springs; 



54 


Poetry ( Modern j 


Cold and Hot, consists of verses, on various subjects 
such as patriotism, Sringar, nature &c. and contains a 
long poem called Sneha Sarita, a feeling composition, 
narrating sad family-bereavements. 

" KUSUMANJALI ” :-by Barrister Maganbhai Chaturbhai 
Patel. (1929 ) 

The first edition of this collection of Mr, Paters 
poems was published in 1909 and well received then. It 
has since been recognized as a work fit for study in 
schools and colleges by Government. The poems are 
written with great feeling and those dealing with old 
incidents in the history of Gujarat are stirring. One of 
them, a patriotic song, anticipating the ( Desired ) Day 
in the history of our country was sung with great effect 
at the Indian National Congress Meeting of 1917. 

V 

“SlNDHtTpO** :~By Jhaverchand M&ghani. Pp # 30 Paice 
0-8-0 ( 1930 ). 

Jhaverchand Meghani is in Jail as a Satyagrahi. 
While being sentenced he asked permission to sing a 
song of prayer, and it was given, and he selected one out 
of the collection published in this book and sang it 
in his loud and sonorous voice, which produced good 
effect allround. There are about fifteen songs in this 
collection and they give a very good picture of the pre- 
sent stirring times; they are all couched in Mr. M&ghani's 
virile language. 

* 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 55 

“ GALAGOTA” .-Price As. 10/- ( 1930 ). 

u Galagota ” means marigold and this little book is in 
its literal sense a children's book. It is nicely got up. 
There are sketches illustrating maxims, catch-words, 
catch-phrases and catch-sentences, such as attract juve- 
niles and impress them. It does not differ in the slight- 
est degree from wellknown European productions on the 
subject. 

☆ 

“CHANDARNAN” :_by C. C. Metha (1930) 

Forthy-three short songs for very small children, 
which they may sing, while romping, playing or jump- 
ing, with a peculiar lilt. This in short is the work done 
by Mr. C. C. Mehta and displayed in this little book. 

They take the place of songs which the children in 
old times were supposed to learn sitting on their mother's 
knee, but which in these times they have to learn at their 
schools. 

☆ 

“PATANG-IYAJS” by Jamu Dani, ( 1931 ) 

The title of this small and attractive little volume 
means “ Butterflies . ” It contains 40 songs on all sorts 
of subjects dear to small children. They are composed 
after considerable experience of the requirements of child- 
ren by one who has lived with them, and the success of 
his undertaking was assured when he found the little 
ones singing them with great gusto. Publication was 
ventured only after this test was passed. We therefore, 
hope that other juvenile institutions will also find them 
useful. 

' ir 



66 


Poetry ( Modern j 


“ ME'GrHA SANDE'S'A ” :-by V. B. Ganatra. ( 1921 ) 

This is an imitation of the well-known Megha Duta 
by Kalidasa. A student leaving his college studies as the 
result of Mahatma Gandhi’s propanganda, and joining the 
Satyagraha movement, is supposed to send a message to 
him at the Yervada Jail from Bombay. The actual mes- 
sage clothed in the language of an enthusiast, is stirring. 

The absurdity of the whole performance, however, 
has not escaped the contributor of the preface, Mrs. 
Ramib&i Kamdar who notices that Poona is to the South 
of Bombay and the Monsoon clouds travel up from the 
South to the North and it would therefore be an unna- 
tural incident for a rain bearing cloud with a message to 
go in the opposite direction. 

☆ 

“ KOI-NO LADAKAVAYO & OTHER POEMS ” :-by J. 
Meghani. ( 1931 ) 

“ Somebody's Darling and other songs 99 are galloping, 
emotion exciting, patriotic songs written by Mr. Meghani 
in and outside the jail during the Civil Disobedience 
period. Although published recently, they have already 
become popular. 

“PU S'P AN J ALI TO THE LATE POET BOTADKAR”:- 
by A. N. Joshi. ( 1931 ) 

The late Mr. Botadkar was a poet of no mean order, 
although his merits were not recognised at first. Later 
in life, i. e., on the eve of his death he came across many 
admirers some of them being well-known authors and 
poets themselves. This “I > us'pwjali” is an In Memorium . 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 57 

poem, recording the feelings of a youth, who early in life 
was impressed greatly with the poetical faculties of the 
deceased. 

“RASES'YARI” :-by 0. M. Oza. B A, B. T. ( 1931 ) 

This is a collection of sweet songs ( Rasa ) composed 
by Mr. Chandrakant who is not a notice in the line. 
They are meant to be studied and sung by women and 
because of that are concerned with such domestic inci- 
dents in their lives as touch them most. The ornaments 
used by them to adorn their persons such as their fore- 
head ornament (Tiladi), their hair ornament made of 
flowers (V&ni), are skillfully utilised for making the verse 
more attractive and interesting. The present collection 
keeps up the reputation of its predecessor Rasamam. 

“ FULAWADI ” :-by Y. R. S'elat. B. A., LL. B. (1932) 

Rasa or songs sung by women, forty-six in number, 
some republished and some published for the first time 
are to be found in this collection. They are well compo- 
sed and give promise of better work. They show an 
amount of pathos and feeling suitable to the present 
stirring times. 

y> 

“KALAPI NO KE'KARAYA’* by the late poet Kalapi. (1932) 

The late poet Prince Thakore Saheb Sursimhaji of 
Lathi is the most popular of the Gujarati poets dead or 
living, or to put it more accurately, is a poet of the masses. 
The first eddition of the eqllected works of Kalapi, the 
popular nom-de-plume by which the poet was known, was 



&8 Poetry ( Alodehi 5 

published in 1902; and it has since then run into six more 
editions. 

The seventh edition is much enlarged and 
revised. Besides, a • long introduction and explanatory 
notes enhance the value of the work. A good selection 
of photographs are also inserted in this eddition. 

☆ 

‘‘SWA RAJ NAN GITO” by Kalyanji M&ta* <1932) 

This book of patriotic songs is divided into seven 
parts such as Prabhata Ph&ri songs, songs for meetings, 
processions. National songs, Rasa and songs for "Vana- 
rasa/' Poets M&ghani, Khabardar, Sn&harasmi, Jugat- 
rama, Mrs. $ukla, Dr. Desai and others are amongst 
those whose songs have been included in the selection. 
The book presents at least one aspect of the renaissance 
that we are passing through and will be a good seller. 

☆ 

“RANA RASIYAN NA RASA” by M. P. Shah. (1932) 

This is a collection of poems and describes the present 
state of the feeling of our countrymen who are thirsting 
for independence. They are written by one who is try* 
ing to enter the province of being a poet and necessarily 
suffer from being common-place and other like defects. 
Time however will do its own improvement. 

☆ 

“AVADHOOTI ANANDA” by A. N. Modi. (1932) 

Brahmachari &ri Panduranga known as Eanga 
Avadhoota , who left service and lived as a Sannyasi at 
NareSvar on the banks of the Nerbadftrhas composed a 



Development of Gujarati "Literature : 1907-1938 . 59 


large number ol Bhajans ( devotional songs and religious 
Verses ) which have been collected and published with 
the title of “Avdhooti Ananda’’ by the present publisher. 

He was a follower of Dattatreya and hence the 
songs bear the colour of that creed. They are wrirtten in 
Gujarati and Hindi, and show good signs of inspiration 
and learning. U's'ah-Prarthana or matutinal songs ( Pra- 
bhatiya ) and Atma-Chaitanya, both by the same Swami, 
fully keep up the spirit of the larger work. 

☆ 

“DAKS'ANIKA” by A. F. Khabardar. (1932) 

This long poem of 6ooo lines in which philosophy is 
woven into pretty poetry is remarkable for many things. 

In the first place it is an unusual thing for a member 
of a Parsi community to show such close acquaintance 
with correct Gujarati and that too in writing metrical 
verses. 

Secondly, it is difficult to weave philosophy success- 
fully into poetry, few poets like Tennyson and Shelley 
have been able to do so. 

Thirdly, for a Parsi, to be a student of Hindu philo- 
sophy and Yoga is out of the ordinary run, and Khabar- 
dar is nothing if not a philosopher and a Yogi. 

Gujarat has ovated him only recently on his complet- 
ing the fiftieth year of his life, right royally, thus giving 
an index of his popularity in this province. 

The poet lost his eldest daughter, aged ai, Tehmina 
by name; and instead of writing In Memoriam verses and 
thus obtruding his domestic sorrow on the public, he 



36 Poetry ( Modern ) 

diverted his feeling of sorrow into another channel and 
produced this highly valuable long poem. It deals with 
the ephemeral nature of the world and its enjoyments 
and after going through the gamut of life, its song and 
development, the fog of religion and the Yoga of Eternal 
life, merges into universal Love. 

We congratulate the poet on turning out such admi- 
rable work, lying on a sickbed, with racking pain, show- 
ing that the pain pained his body, but that his soul 
was free. 

☆ 

“GOYINDA-GIRA” by the late Govindji Kanji of Santa 
Cruz Pp, 350. ( 1983 ) 

Govindji who died early at the age of 30 belonged to 
a wealthy family of Bombay. He early took to literature 
and was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi. He had literary 
men as his friends, one of them being the able editor 
of the collection, Mr. Ramaprasada Baksi M. A. 

The collection consists of short stories and a few 
poems from the pen of the deceased. They are very well 
written in themselves, but what is more important is the 
fact that they contain in themselves the promise of still 
better work, which had but Providence spared his life, 
would surely have come to fruition. 

☆ 

“RASA-RUNJA” Edited By Mrs. S'anti Barfivala. Pp, 204 
Be, 1/4/— (1934). 

“RASA-RAJAOT* Pp. 314 Price R-. 1/8/- ( 1934 ) 

u RASA-RARDINX h By Janardan N&nabhai Prabhaskar, 
Pp* 100 Price As. 8 ( 1934 ) 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 61 

“RASA-NIKUNJA” By Muljibhai P, Shah. Pp. 82 As. 8 
( 1934 ). 

The very fact that we have to notice at one and the 
same time, four books on one subject, shows how popular 
JBasa-composition and i2asa-singing has become in 
Gujarat. The fact is noteworthy that the first two which 
are well-made selections from Rasa poems have run into 
two editions. 

The first is a selection from other Rasa poems by 
the author; and the fourth is a collection of original writ- 
ings. Rasa songs and poems now deal with a wide range 
of subjects and are not confined to the love of Radha and 
Kri^na only. Mrs. 6anti has been fortunate enough to 
secure two fine Forewords one from Mr. N. B. Divatia 
and a third from Mr. M&ghani, who has now made 
considerable progress in his study of this and allied 
subjects. We repeat what we said in reviewing 
Mrs. S'&nti’s first attempt, viz., Bdsa Kunja , that the 
compilation is one of the best of its kind. 

Bdsa Bajani presents a selection of 285 songs all 
worthy of selection; it has hardly left out any deserving 
. composition. 

Bdsa Natydini shows how well the composer of these 
72 pretty songs has entered into the spirit of the * subject 
and produced attractive work, 

Bdsa Nikunja contains a short introduction from the 
pen of Mr. Ramanalal Desai, a rising novel-writer of Guja- 
rgt, and the contents show Mr. Muljibhai at his best. 



62 


Poetry ( Modern ) 


“JYOTI RE'KHA” by S. G. BttSi M. A* ^1934) 

This is a collection of fine five Khanda Kdvyas by a 
very promising young poet. Its introduction is written by 
Prof. Narasimharao B. Divatia, who has very carefully 
brought out all its good points. Specially the graceful 
way in which he has treated of such appealing . topics as 
the ‘ Dream of Siddhartha’, the 4 Lochanadana . of 
Sulochana \ and the ‘ Disappearance into the sea of the 
golden Dwarka. * 

That the poems disclose the fact that there is great 
potentiality of better work in this early stage of Mr* 
B&tai’s craftsmanship, no one can dispute, and we extend 
him our cordial congratulations. 

☆ 

“KATYA KALAGI” by Manu H. Dave. ( 1936 ) 

Mr. Dave has published ninety-one of his poems 
based on “realism” as he says in his preface, a preface 
which betrays marks of deep study of Gujarati poetry. 
The poems are pleasant to read and show that the 
writer's ability will improve with time. 

☆ 

"S'ttl S'UKA-RAMBHA AKHYANA” by Rao Saheb P. J. 
Bhatt. B. A. LL. B. (1936) 

Mr. Bhatt is a practised hand at verse composition 
and a student of Sanskrit as his previous works show. In 
this poem he takes &ukamuni as his ideal of Brahma- 
chary a, which he does not use in its ordinary sense of 
celibacy, or abstentiou from women but in a wider sense# 
i.e.,' conduct answering the Vedic ideal. He paints a 
pleasant picture of the old time when there had been n q 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 63 

infant-marriages, and where students studied in Guru- 
kulas away from the inhabited places. 

“S'RI KRIS'NA BHAJANA. PART I” by Mrs. Indumatl 
D6sai ( 1936 ). 

Seventy-eight hymns all devoted to Lord $ri KrtiSna 
in the old style and in Vraja give credit to the composer 
Mrs. Indumati Desai who for the nonce turns herself into 
a devotee reminding one of Mira Bai, 

“KATHIAWADI KAMALA” by Pinaka. ( 1936 ) 

A collection of poems on different subjects and of 
ordinary type; the price far outweighs the worth of the 
poems. 

☆ 

“CHAMAKARA (FLASHES)” by Jahangir M. Desai M. A. 
( 1936 ) 

Amongst the very few Parsi writers who handle the 
Gujarati language and especially Gujarati verse, in 
the orthodox approved style followed by Hindu writers 
Mr, Desai takes a prominent place. 

This book is a collection of verses written by him on 
subjects all and sundry, beginning with Ghi^tana (cogita- 
tion) and ending with Va^dana (obeisance); in between 
he has thrown in Krandana ( weeping ) and Ma^thana 
( efforts ). 

The verses are of a high order and fully carry out 
the object ( u Poetry has been to me its own exceeding 
great reward ”, Coleridge, ) which tl*e author basset qv& 



Poetry ( Modern ) 


64 

f# accomplish. He is at home in thfe philosophy of the 
Hindus and known their customs and manners as well as 
themselves though belonging to an alien religion. We 
have nothing but praise for Mr. Desai’s work. 

☆ 

“PATAtf GIYAN” by Jamu Dani. ( 1936 ) 

This third and very cheap edition of “Butterflies” 
which contains songs for little children almost in the 
nature of nursery songs is a welcome addition to this 
branch of Gujarati literature. 

☆ 

“KIHARIKA” by R. Y. Desai M. A. ( 1936 ) 

This is a collection of about ninety poems on yarious 
subjects: epic, lyric, patriotic, devotional and so on. 
Very few persons knew that Mr. Ramanalal in addition 
to being an able fiction-writer also possessed the fancy 
of a poet. 

Of course, not all of the verses are of a high order; 
but whatever their shortcomings they show that the com- 
poser is seized of the imaginative faculty and a commen- 
dable power of delineation. Some poems like Buddha 
no Grihatydga , suffer by comparison with other composi- 
tions on the same subject-like Narasimharao Divatia's 
treatment of; the same theme. 

Put as against that the verses on the Jalidnwdla 
Bag tragedy or those headed '* Nirds’d ” are such as 
Arrest attention. The original Urdu poem on which the 
latter is based is comparatively very pathetic and full of 
feeling. It was not possible to translate those admirable 



Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 65 

traits of the Urdu Gazctl into Gujarati, that however 4 is 
the fault of the language, not of the writer. 

“RUPALE'KHA” by B. L, Mankad M. A,, B. T. (1937) 

Mr Mankad had published some time ago a collec- 
tion of his poems, called ts RupaUla, ” and the same had 
been well received. This second collection is also full of 
creditable poetical conceits. The songs show that the 
poetic spark is there, though glowing intermittently. 

# ' ' 

TAPOYANA. By Govind H, Patel, Printed at Vakil 
Brothers, Printing Press, Baroda. Illustrated. Paper Cover. Pp. 
110. Prj^e Annas Twelve ( 1937 ). 

This small book contains two very good poems Tapo- 
vana and Yajna &ikha - with explanatory notes and appre- 
ciatory prefaces. The first poem describes in feeling 
language the story of Savitri and Yama and the second 
the heroic sacrifice and martyrdom of the Sikh Gurus. 
Both incidents lend themselves to suitable treatment by 
poets and Mr. Patel has done ample justice to them. 
They sustain the reputation of Mr. Patel as a writer of 
great promise. 

☆ 

B, AT AKA : by Chandravadan C. Mehta, b. a,, Printed at 
the Kumar Printery* Ahmedabad, Thick Cardboasd.. Pages 91, 
Price Re a 1. ( 1937 ). 

Ratana is the name of a village girl, nurtured on the 
lap of nature a Ad brought up along with her uncle’s son, 
Hira, who later on, being sent to]a town to be educated 

5 



66 


Poetry (Modern) 


forgets in the pleasures of that life both Ratana and his 
village, except for indenting on her for moneys* She re- 
duces herself to a life of penury in order to support him. 
However, he at last comes to his senses and returns home 
and looks after his patrimony. But it was too late. 
Ratana had contracted T. B. ( Tuberculosis ) and she 
succumbed to it. 

The writer calls it Katha-Kavya - a narrative poem 
and it is composed in Prthvi Ghhanda which reads more 
like prose than verse. Pure verse in the popular sense 
would have brought out the beauties of the poem much 
better than tha present form which is used by very few 
writers. The subject-matter is not so well-adapted to it 
as that where it has been used by others. 

However, the production is an original one; so far as 
the description of Ratana and delineation of her character 
is concerned no such romantic picture of a village maiden 
has been drawn in Gujarati verse. It is graphic, telling 
and thrilling and raises the unlettered but highly sensi- 
tive village girl to a height to which, till now, she has 
been raised by none. 

Scenes of nature seen in villages, local affairs, and 
other matters are treated in a way which makes one 
think that the writer is a village-boy himself, though 
it is not so; he is a towns man. The present performance 
contains in it the promise of better work hereafter. 

it * in 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


67 


“BHARTRTHABINITI S'ATAKA” with annotations by 
J. J. Adil S'Sh, ( 1907 ) 

The NUis'citaJca of Bhartrihari requires no introduc- 
tion and more than one translation of the same is existing 
in Gujarati* The present translation is a Samas'loJci one, 
and is rendered by one who is known in the Gujarati 
literary circle of Bombay as a lover of literature, Sans- 
krit and Gujarati. 

The most important part of the work is, however, hot 
the translation which necessarily partakes of all the 
drawbacks and deficiencies of a S’amas’loki rendering, 
where the translator is hidebound by conditions self- 
imposed and which therefore fails to give an adequate 
idea of the original in simple language, but the Notes, by 
which he tries to explain and elucidate the different 
Alavk&ras used in the poem with the help of several w^ll- 
known Sanskrit works of which be says he has utilised 
about fifty. 

To a lay reader and to one ignorant of Sanskrit, 
neither thejNotes nor the translation convey the spirit or 
the significance of the original. It is too hard and too 
high for him; its use and appreciation would therefore be 
confined to only a select few, who perhaps may never 
stand in need of such second-hand and extraneous aid. 

☆ 

“AMARU S'ATAKA?’ by K* H. Dhruva. b. a. ( 1910) 

This is a Sama-s’lolci translation of the famous s'ataka 
of Amaru into Gujarati, and we have great pleasure in 
haying agair* have to revert to the literary work Qf 



f>8 Poetry ( Translation ) 

acknowleded scholar. While reviewing his translation of 
Mudrar ales’ as ( July 1908 ) we have already recorded the 
very high opinion entertained of his abilities in Gujarat, 
and this work, if it does nothing more, confirms it. 

. Amaru is the prince of erotic poets and his Muktakas 
challenge comparison with writers on the same- subject 
in India, such as Bhartrihari, and Juvenal and Hafiz, 
outside India, It is at all times difficult to translate such 
highly lyrical verses into another language and when to 
that difficulty is added the restriction of preserving the 
same metre in both, the task becomes enormously 
exacting. 

Mr. Dhruva with his vast knowledge of both the 
languages has had no difficulty in accomplishing the work 
successfully, but even be had to feel the full force of the 
ordeal, because all throughout, we find the translation 
strewed with words newly coined to meet the exigencies 
of the situation, or with words obscure and little known, 
at all times with explanations and commentaries to bring 
out the meaning and spirit of the translation. 

Therefore in spite of all these facilities offered to the 
general reader, the work is bound to remain known only 
to the select few. 

A great resemblance to this mode of poetry writing 
i. e. Muktaka-vtxitmg, where each S*loka stands indepen- 
dent and by itself is to be found in the Gazals of the 
Persians, where each Bet is complete in itself and 
expresses one single idea. 

The preface and the illustrative notes, it need not 
be said, are the best portions of the book; the former 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


59 


shows that the writer is bubbling over with an intimate 
knowledge of ancient history and specially of Gujarat, 
and the latter show what a master of Alankaras* dstra he 
makes himself out to be. 

The words in which he sums up the characteristics 
of a commentary called the Basika Savjivctni on the 
original of his translation are in every way applicable to 
him, viz., “ that the commentary is sufficient to show the 
wide extent, the depth and the accuracy of the know- 
ledge of its author/' 

☆ 

“GITA GOVINDA” Translated by Kes'avalal Hars'adarai 
Dhruva, B. A. Pp. 140 Price Re. lh ( 1912 ) 

Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda , describing the amours of 
Radha and Kri^na is a “ a gem of purest ray *’ in Sans- 
krit, and who that has read it in original Sanskrit 
is lost in admiration at the marvellous powers of the 
poet, at his grace of diction, at his melifluous numbers, 
and at the ease with which he handles his metres. This 
unique production of a Bengali poet of the Xllth century, 
A. D. has excercised a fascination over all who have 
come across it, and the desire to translate it into the 
vernacular of each province has therefore not been 
unnaturally entertained from the earliest times. 

There have been several translations of it into Hindi, 
Marathi and Bengali, and also Gujarati. But we doubt, 
if in Gujarati at least there is any translation which could 
be compared with the one under notice. It is rather 
Gila Govinda rewritten in Gujarati in the happiest, style 



Poetry ( Translation )’ 


1 tf 

of Jayadeva. But for one's being told that it is a trans- 
lation it would be difficult to make out that it is one, so 
felicitously has the spirit and the gracefulness of the ori- 
ginal been copied and preserved. 

As is usual with all works of Mr. Kesavalai the trans- 
lation is preceded by a scholarly introduction, which 
surveys Jayadeva, his time, his work, his perfections and 
imperfections (for strange to say even in his perfect poem 
critics have been able to find out certain defects) in such 
an ample way that it leaves little to be desired. 

The singer has been caught neck and crop into the 
meshes of the charming original. He has drunk deep at 
the fountain of Jayadeva and has consequently poured 
out with a lucidity equally charming as Jayadeva’s what 
the latter's soul would have done, had he been in Gujarat. 

☆ 

“ME'GHA DUTA 33 By Kilabhai Ghanas'yama, Pp. 147 Price 
1-4-0 (1913). 

Printed on fine antique paper, with an attractive 
cloth-cover and embellished by several coloured and 
artistic illustrations, picturing the different states of the 
characters in this poem, -we think this is perhaps the 
best work on Mhghaduta in Gujarati, 

In a scholarly Preface extending over one hundred 
and four pages Mr. Kilabhai has been at pains, after col- 
lating the various works of Bhasa and Kalidasa, a per- 
formance which evidences his extensive reading and 
patient research, to show how in his. opinion Bhasa seems 



development of fiujarati Literature : f90?-ftS38 It 

to have lived in the time of ChandraJGupta, i e., about 
the 3rd Century B. C. and Kalidasa in that of Agni Mitra, 
i. e., somewhere between 170 to 150 B, C. 

We think the matter is of worldwide interest and 
the writer would do well to start a discussion on it in 
English, where he would meet with greater recognition of 
his labours than in the circumscribed area of Gujarati 
literature. 

The translation is in verse, and the notes bear traces 
of wide reading, well digested and are couched in language 
which would make them intelligible to any ordinary 
reader. The work deserves to be popular all round. 

☆ 

"A TRANSLATION IN VERSE OF THE BHAGAVAD 
GITA.” by H. N. Vyas. ( 1913 ). 

There have been many translations of the Gita in 
Gujarati verse dating from the 16th or 17th Centuries. 
Many well-known Gujarati poets including veterans like 
Dayarama [ Gita Mahatmya ] have tried their hand at it, 
and in the face of such compositions we doubt if there 
was room for this fresh attempt. As it is, it merely 
adds to the number, and after all it is the prose-version 
that fully bears out the meaning of the original, j 

☆ 

“S'RI VALMIE.I BAMAYANA-BALAKANDA” by M. H. 
Mehta. B. A. ( 1916 ) 

This is a translation into GujarSti verse of Valmiki’s 
celebrated epic. Mr. Manharr&ma found the metre of % 



12 poetry ( Translation } 

original, viz, Anu&tubha , unsuited to the genius of the 
Gujarati language to convey the grand and heroic ideas 
of Valmiki. He has therefore struck out a new line and 
freed himself from the restraint of any prosodial metre 
whatsoever and tried the experiment of translating it into 
blank verse m 

To, those who have been used for generations to the 
shackles as well as the sweetness of rhyme and metre, 
the departure appears to be rather startling and irrecon- 
cilable, but if you once come to discard those preconceiv- 
ed notions or inclinations, the verse, read with proper 
punctuation and emphasis does not sound jarring; not 
only that, but in several places it rises to the grandeur 
of the situation depicted. There are passages where one 
would like to halt and read them over again. 

We are afraid, that in spite of all these things in its 
favor, the book will have to make a heroic effort to be 
popular. The translator calls his new arrangement of 
words in blank verse, Rama-chhanda . 

☆ 

‘‘SXDDHARTH A SANNYASA” By JagannatkHarinarayawa 
Oza. Pp. 80 Price Rs. 1-8-0 ( 1921 ). 

It must.be a stout heart blessed with an amount of 
confidence that can contemplate a verse-translation of 
Arnold's Light of Asia into Gujarati, at the hands of an 
amateur. Even seasoned souls and born poets like Mr. 
Narasimharao Divatia must be contemplating the task 
with trepidation. The gracefulness and the beauty of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 ^3 

the original are such a delicate plant that they always 
suffer in the process of transplantation more or less 
according to the skill and ability of the transplanter. 

The author of the book before us is concious of the 
drawback in himself and it is needless therefore to refer 
to it further. The translation is a first instalment and 
comprises the first five sections of the text in English. 
When compared to the translations of Mr, Divatia, one 
would find here a style, adapted to the capacity of those 
who have not soared high into the realms of poetry, in 
Sanskritised language, and hence likely to be read and 
understood by many more individuals than those scholar- 
ly people-of course fewer in number-who read “ high ” 
poetry. 

☆ 

"NAIVE ; DYA” By NT. Patel of S'antinikotaru Price As. 12 
{ 1923 ) 

A very cheap book looking to its fine artistic get up 
and printing. It is published in an oblong shape bound 
with silk tassels, and printed on fine paper. It has gone 
out of the usual way in either not numbering the pages 

or numbering them, whenever numbered, in an entirely 
novel fashion by means of strokes only. 

As to the original book of which this is a translation 
it requires no introduction. It is Dr.RabindranatlTs Collec- 
tion of Songs published at a very early stage in his literary 
career. We are glad this work has been introduced to 
Gujarati readers* 

¥ 



Poetry ( Translation ) 


n 


" SIDDHARTHA SANNSYASA KAYYA ” Part II. By 
Jag&rraatha H. N. Oza. Pp. 50 Price 0-8-0. ( 1923 ). 

This is a translation in verse of Arnold’s Light of Asia . 
It is a continuation; we have already noticed its first part; 
the present one keeps up all the good points thereof, 

4 

“S'RI GITAGOYINDA AND S’RI KRISNA GITA1J J ALT’ 
by D # K. S’astri Pp. 96 Price 1-0-0 ( 1925 ). 

This collection of songs and verses written in praise 
of Sri Kri^na is modelled on the old style, and please the 
audience when recited. 

☆ 

•‘TAJAYD’LA TIL AKA” by P. ?, Shah. Price 0-6-0 

It is an imitation of Goldsmith’s Deserted Village . 
The Gujarati verses reflect the spirit of the original. 

* 

“S'AS'I-KALA AND CHQtJRA PAN CHASTKA” by N. I. 
Patel. Pp. 103. Price 1-0-0 { 1926 ). 

This remarkable poem of fifty stanzas by Bilhana in 
Sanskrit has attracted many persons bom in India and 
outside, to translate it. Sir Edwin Arnold has translated 
it into delightful English verse, which is given by way oi 
parallel passages to Sanskrit and Gujarati Slokas by 
Mr. Patel and thus enhanced the value of his own work. 
The introduction is exhaustive and the translation scho- 
larly. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 7& 

The romantic story of how a teacher fell in love 
with his pupil, a princess, and was ordered to be executed 
by her. father on discovery of it, and how he was repriev- 
ed on singing fifty slokas, one as he mounted each of the 
fifty steps leading to the execution platform, reciting his 
undying love for her, is versified by Kavi Bilhana; it has 
been translated into English in his inimitable way by Sir 
Edwin Arnold, and Mr. Patel has attempted re-telling it 
in Gujarati verse. He*has, in doing so supplied a want. 

☆ 

" S' .INGARA TBIVE’JNI’* by Tanmanis’ankar L, S’iva. 
Price 0-12-0 ( 1927 ). 

Three love-poems, the 6ringara Tilaka, the Pu3pa~ 
Banavilasa and Choura Panchasika, are translated from 
Sanskrit into Gujarati verse. The spirit of the original 
seems to have been fully preserved in the translation and 
what remains has been fully explained in the notes at the 
end. We congratulate the translator on his successful 
attempt. 

* 

“RUBAIYAT OF OMAR KHAYYAM” by R. P. Bhaji- 
wala. ( 1928 ) 

Real love for the work of the Philosopher Poet of 
Persia has prompted Mr. Bhajiwala to publish this little 
volume. Information is given in it in respect of the 
poet and his work. The translation of his quatrains is 
such as would be found more suitable for Parsi than 
Hindus or Mahomedans. 



76 


Poetry ( Translation ) 


“RUBAITE OMAR KHAYYAM* * by D. K Patel. ( 1928 ) 

This is a translation in Gujarati of the Quatrains of 
Omar Khayyam, in that peculiar vogue of versification 
called Betbaji which distinguished Parsi writers of the 
old school. 

“NITIS'ATAKA’* by Kavyalankar Navaratna S'ri Giridhar 
S’arma. ( 1929 ) 

Kavi Giridhar 6arma lives in an atmosphere of Hindi 
and far from Gujarati. In Hindi he has carved out a 
name for himself but be it said to his credit that he has 
not forgotten his mother-tongue. He occasionally remem® 
bers Gujarati and produces work of note in it. 

Such is this Samasloki translation into Gujarati verse 
of Bhartrihari’s Nttis'ataka. It is in a way due to 
the encouragement of his wife that this fine little book 
has been published. The meaning of the original has 
been well brought out. 

M 

-\r 

“KUMAR A SAMBHAVA” by N. A. Pandya. ( 1936 ). 

Halidas’ Mahakavya Kumdra is translated into Sa- 
ma&oka by Mr. Pandya. Fortunately he has given foot- 
notes to explain difficult words and phrases, otherwise it 
■ would have been difficult to follow his translation, so 
full of Sanskrit words ( of necessity ) it is. Mr. Pathak’s 
Foreword is very instructive. 

RAGHUYAMS'A : Nagardas A. Pandya, B. A., Wadhawan* 
Price Rs. 2 /-. (1987). 

The nineteen cantos of Kalidas’s immortal Kavya 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


77 


have been rendered into Gujarati verse; the translator 
has tried to be faithful not only to the spirit and lang- 
uage of the great poet but also to his metrical scheme 
different towards the end from the prevailing metre of 
the particular canto. 

Word-notes are given in explanatory hints at the foot 
of each page as occasion arises, aud in the introduction 
Pandit Durgasankar K&valram &astri tries to fix up 
Kalidas’s date - that debatable question in which scho- 
lars delight. 

☆ ☆ ☆ 

“S'AMALAS’A NO VIVAHA” Pp. 28. Price 0-2-0 (1908) 

These are selections printed with some explanatory 
notes from a poem of Haridasa, a Lada Bania of Baroda 
who flourished in the beginning of the i8th century Sam- 
vat era and who was a wellknown disciple of the great poet 
Premananda. 

The poem narrates an episode in the life of the cele- 
brated Bhakta poet Narasimha Mehta, whose poverty was 
proverbial, and who in the celebration of the marriage of 
his son, ^amal^a, was assisted by the Lord of his heart 
Krifoa. All this is well-known history in Gujarati 
literature. 

To our mind the publication has a special claim in 
being mentioned here, on account of the special line that 
this Book depot has marked out for itself. This publica- 
tion is the second of the series which is being brought out 
somewhat on the model of the cheap,, popular classics, 
such as selectipns from Byron, Cowper, Shelley and other 



78 


Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


great English poets at 2 d. and 3 d. printed by'Routledge, 
Macmillan and other great publishing houses. 

We find such a thing done for Persian literature, too; 
when we see cheap editions of Sa’adi, Hafiz, and other 
poets, for sale in Indian and Persian Bazars. Some such 
effort was necessary to popularise our poets by means of 
cheap publications, and the depot has supplied the want. 

☆ 

“S'RI JAINA GRANTHAVALI” ( 1910 ) 

The publication of this book and the labour devoted 
on it is about the most useful and valued work done by 
the Jaina Conference. It is a huge list, comprising works 
on Jaina Agama, Jaina Nyaya, Philosophy, Ethics, Litera- 
ture and Science. In separate columns, it gives the 
name of each book, its author, the number of &lokas it 
contains, the year of its composition (where ascertainable) 
whether it is annotated or not and the Bhandar where it 
is extant, i. e., whether at Patana, Jesalmir, Limbdi etc. 
Every information about the author and the book that 
could be obtained is given in a foot-note. 

It would suffice to say that it is modelled on the 
Catalogues published of books in the Bodliean Library at 
Oxford, or the India Office Library in London. It is a 
veritable mine of information for those students who 
want to find out by a co-ordinated study of the literatures 
of the different religions in India, the course taken by its 
history, and with Jainas themselves we think, uptill now 
nothing like this catalogue has been presented to enable 
th»m to see what rich mines they possess, crying for ex- 
cavation. The Catalogue is printed in Pevan&gari and 



Development of Gujarati Literatus : 1907-1938 79 

we confidently are of opinion that it is likely to prove of 
great use to scholars all over India. 

As an accompaniment to this big work, is being 
circulated a list of Jaina Edsds composed in Gujarati, and 
prepared by Mr. Manasukha K. Mehta of Morbi, This 
too is a very handy work, and likely to prove of great 
benefit to those who have been studying the structure x>f 
the Gujarati language historically and philologically. 

☆ 

‘•PREMAN AND A NI PR AS ADI” Edited by B. N. Mehta 
(1911). 

Premananda stands in Gujarati literature at the top 
of all poets, and a selection from his writings, with expla- 
natory notes in a cheap and popular form cannot fail to 
be useful. Mr. Bhanusukharam's attempt to thus extend 
the wide popularity of a poet who has already become 
popular, deserves praise and encouragement. 

The Introduction to the book is written in a very 
simple and lucid style and betrays the clear grasp which 
the writer has acquired over the subject. The Notes, too, 
a revery helpful and altogether, he has turned out a work 
which is greatly creditable to him. 

☆ 

“AMRATAVA NI” by Mrs. J. N. Sakkhai. ( 1911 ) 

This is a nice dainty new year's present. It contains 
a collection of didactic poems of such well-known saints 
and poets as Kablr and Tulasidas. Its mechanical execu- 
tion is quite in keeping with its contents. Mrs. Jamn&bai 
has now established her position in Bombay as a leader 



80 


Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


of women in public matters, and this new line of present- 
ing the public with such a collection, every year ; should 
indeed help her in her task. 

☆ 

“JAINA KATYA PRAYES'A” compiled by M. D. Desai. 
( 1912 ) 

The Jaina Conference has laid down a standard of 
moral education for schools, in 6 this part of India, and this 
compilation is an attempt to conform to that standard. 
The"poems collected are from the pen of various Gujarati 
Jaina poets, and they have been fully and well annotated. 
A very short but instructive introduction, and an index of 
names of the poets and the first lines of poems are the 
special features of the book, * 

Though primarily meant for Jainas, its perusal is 
likely to benefit all. To a lay or non-Jaina mind, it gives 
information on various points. Some of the devotional 
songs which have become household words in this 
important community are of great poetical power, and a 
collection like this is sure to fulfil its object. 

☆ 

* KA.HANADADE’ PRABANDHA.” by Padmanabha Kavx. 
(1913). 

This poem describes an important part of the history 
of Gujarat, viz., the invasion by Alaf Khan, the lieutenant 
of Ala-ud~din Khilji of the province. It is written in the 
fifteenth century A. d. and throws a flood of light on the 
philological side of the Gujarati language. Unknown till 
comparatively very recent times, the publication of this 
work in its original form, is a great service to the litera- 
ture of Gujarat. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 81 

In fact the credit of drawing attention to this very 
important unit of. the language and literature of the 
province belongs to Mr. Derasari who for the last three or 
four years, has been at it, in various ways. We welcome 
the publication with feelings of great obligation, and trust 
that those who are interested in the history of the 
Gujarati language would make the fullest possible use of it. 

☆ 

ANANDA-KAVYAMAHODADHI”, Part I, Pp, 462. 
Price 0-10-0 ( 1913 ). 

The opulent Jaina community of Surat, which till 
lately was spending its money on either luxury or build- 
ing of temples, has turned its attention-as is shown by 
the objects of the Fund-nearly one lac of Rupees-all 
contributed by the members of one family-to far better 
things, and we sincerely congratulate them on this new 
departure. Till now the Fund has published about fourteen 
useful books, and the one under review is the fifteenth. 

The collection of Ildsas ( stories ) contained in this 
volume, written in the seventeenth or eighteenth centu- 
ries of the Vikrama era, furnishes very useful reading. 
The trustees lay before the Gujar&ti public works 
which till now were lying idle in manuscript-form in the 
Jaina Bhandars. Their publication is sure to help the 
philologist and the litterateur . 

Contemporary poems written by non-Jainas -were 
available in large numbers but in absence of such works 
as the above there was no basis on which the merits of 
the respective classes could be compared. A close 
$ 



B2 Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 

study of the four Rasas will give the student pleasure 
and enlightenment. 

The Preface we think could have been made more 
lucid, had an attempt been made by the writer to treat 
each issue raised by him in greater detail, As it is 3 it 
reads as if he had adopted the conclusions of other Jaina 
writers - like Mansukhlal Ravaji and Mansukhlal 
Kiratchand, without acknowledging their authorship. 

☆ 

(1) “CHHOTALAL PADABODHINL” ( 1913 ) and 

(2) “YAlRAGYA BODHAKAYYA”. ( 1913 ) 

First is a reprint of sacred poems of a Gujarati poet 
who died only three years ago, and who had acquired 
some reputation as one who wrote on the lines of the old 
Gujarati poets. 

Second is a reprint of a poem by Ratne^vara, a well- 
known pupil of Premananda, one of the best classical 
poets of mediaeval Gujarati. 

* 

“AHICH-CHHATRA KAYYA-KALAPA” By Dayas’ankar 
Bhais’ankar S’ukla. Pp. 224 Price Rs. 0-10-0, ( 1914 ) 

The Ahich-Chhatra or Pra&iora Nagars are Brahmins 
wellknown in Kathiawad as expert medecine-men. The 
Hon. Mr. P. D. Pattani C. I. E, is the present chief 
personage in that community. This book is a collection 
of poems, good, bad and indifferent, written by various 
Pras'nora Nagars. Beyond isolating the handiwork of 
the caste and presenting it in a collected whole, the book 
does not lay pretensions to anything more. Within 
those limits, therefore, the work is well done, 

* 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 83 

(1) “.JAINA-KAVYA DOHANA ” PART 1. (1914) (2) 
RAIOHANDRA JAMA KAVYAMA.LA ” ( 1914 ). 

Shackled by calls of business and struggling with 
bad and weak health, Mr. Mansukhalal single-handedly 
but earnestly pursues the task he has set before himself, 
viz , of popularising Jaina literature in Gujarat. Both 
these books are headed “ People’s Edition ”. 

The second work contains an informing Introduction 
on Jaina literature by Mr. Popatlal K, Shah and the poetic 
compositions of two Jaina sadhu-poets Devachandra and 
Virvijayaji. The Kdvyci Doliana is an attempt at the 
selection of typical poems by Jaina sadhus. Both volumes 
overlap to a certain extent. But we welcome them as a 
sign of the times; the modern Jainas, not very well-known 
either for their education or for their literary proclivities 
are at last bestirring themselves and looking beyond the 
horizon circumscribing their money-making propensities. 
To the student of Philology, they are likely to prove of 
some use. 

21 

“VIMALA PRABANDHA”-Pp. 88. Price Rs. 1-4-0 (1914). 

We have already reviewed the Preface of this book, 
which was published separately some time ago, and 
dealt with certain aspects of old Gujarati. This particular 
Prahandha was composed in A, D. 1512, by a Jaina 
Muni, Lavanyasamaya Gani. 

The text is printed in Balabodha character and col- 
lated with some care. Notes have been added, though 
not accurate, in all cases. We congratulate the editor 
on the great trouble he has taken and the great love he 
lias displayed towards this branch;of our language. 



Pa Vrv ' Mediaeval ) 


84 


“GOPA-KA V^A^-by K. V. Mehta. ( 1915 )„ 

The book purports to be collection of pastorals in 
Gujarati, and is prefaced by certain observations of Mr. 
Ranajitarama Vavabhai. There is no doubt that the 
pick of the crop is there, but whether the collection would 
carry out its object is doubtful. 

It will surely not reach the masses of agriculturists 
whose life it is meant to illustrate and whom it wants 
to tickle and encourage. They are illiterate and they can 
never appreciate the beauties and subtleties with which 
the poets endow the descriptions of their monotonous, 
uninspiring, tread-mill-like life, or of rustic scenery. 
They want certainly more Vidya-education for which Mr. 
Ranajitarama pleads in his Preface. 

“ S'RI JNANA~CHINTAMA]$I ’-by Pandit Sri Barer am 
Sujnaram S'arma. (1915 ). 

This is a collection largely of poems-the book contains 
some prose too-from the work of such well-known poets 
as Narasimha Mehta, Dayarama, Akho, Dhiro, Prltam, 
and one Kri&iaram Maharaja, who though not so well- 
known as;the others, has written exceedingly well. The 
selection is meant to be advisory and exhortative and is so 
well-made, that one can with profit take up the book and 
while away a few leisure moments. 

“S'RI ANANDA KAVYA MAHODHI” PEARLS 2 and 3 
edited by J. S. Jhaveri. ( 1915 ) 

We have already while noticing the first "pearl” of this 
Mahodadhi (ocean) referred to the commendable energy 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-193$ 65 

which the Jainas of Surat have begun to display in the 
regeneration of their old literature. The work of the Fund 
during the last year confirms the statement. These two 
volumes which comprise the R&mftyana called the Rama* 
yas' orasdyanct Rasa of Sri Kesarajaji (v. s. 1683) and the 
Bharata Bdhubali Rasa , the Jaydnanda Kevali Rasa , the 
Vachardja Devardja Rdsa, the Sura Sundari Rasa, the 
Nala Damayanti Rdsa f and the Baribala Mdchchi Rdsa 
furnish food for much research and thought. 

The editor has contributed a striking introduction in 
which he points out the lamentable tampering with the 
text of the Ramayana ( which is otherwise called the 
Padmacharitra, Padma being one of the many names of 
Rama ) by the followers of the Sthanakavasi sect, to suit 
their own beliefs. He bitterly resents this retrogade 
step and is justified in doing so. 

Besides the introduction, are various other contribu- 
tions in the shape of notices of the lives of the different 
holy men, yatis and sddhus, who have written the poems 
and footnotes to explain the text. The Ramayana in- 
vites an extended notice, as there are numerous points on 
which observations can be made in respect of the sub- 
ject-matter of the poem, as viewed from the stand-points 
of the Jainas as to who has imitated whom, as to the 
sanctity attached by each to the personality of the 
Hindu heroes, etc. On the whole we think these con- 
tributions are of great use to our literature. 

☆ 

“ ANANDAGHANA PADASAMGRAHA.-B3AVABTHA ” 
by S'rimad Buddhisagarjj. ( 1915), 



Poetry ( Mediaeval } 


Anandaghana was a Jaina poet of the 18th century, 
and his Padas > some say 72 and some ic8, are popular 
with Jainas. They are not written in Gujarati but ths 
language is a mixture of Gujarati, Vraja, Marwadi and 
a little Hindustani. As a specimen of the language and 
the subject-matter we quote the following ; — 

Rama Jcaho Rahemdn kaho Icon , Kdnd Kaho Marhad 

va rhou 

Pdrasandth kaho kou Brdhmd svayameva a rhou 
Bohajan bheda karhavat ndnd, ek mrittika rupa rhou 
Taise khandkal pana ropit am akhanda svarupa rhou . 

The study of these Padas seem to have fascinated 
Jaina Scholars of Adhyatma Juana as only a short time 
ago, we have had the pleasure of reviewing a book on the 
same subject, written by Mr. Motichanda Girdhar 
Kapadia b. A, LL, b. 

The present volume is the fruit of the pen of a learn- 
ed Jaina Muni, Buddhisagarji and its object is to explain 
in Gujarati the Bhavartha of the one hundred and eight 
padas of the poet. The subject is technical but still it is 
made sufficiently interesting for those who have a leaning 
towards philosophy and metaphysics. 

☆ 

“S'RI ANANDA KAVYA MAHODADHI/’ PEARL VI. 
Pp. 680. Price 0-12-0 (1915). 

This fourth book in the series of old Jaina Gujarati 
Literature contains the ^atrunjaya Mahatmya of 6riman 
Jina Harsa, and is edited by a well known Jaina Suri # 



.Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 87 

Sri Buddhisagar Suri. It is a Rasa, and is written in 
the last century. The introduction is both entertaining 
and informing. 

☆ 

“ S’RI ANA1STDA KAYYA MiHODADHI ” :-Part V. Pp. 
899. Price As, 10/* ( 1916 ). 

This is the fifth book in the series which the trustees 
of &eth Deyachanda Lalbhai are publishing of old Jaina 
Manuscripts. The well known Jaina poet, Risabhadas 
of Cambay has written a poem ( Rasa ) iij connection 
with the famous event in the reign of Alobar viz., the 
interview between the Emperor and the Jaina Saint &ri 
Hlravijaya Suri. It is this Rasa ( written in 1685 Vikram 
era ) which is published in this volume. 

It is preceded by an introduction, by a Gujarati 
writer, who has spent his whole life in the study of 
Prakrit and Pali, which is worth reading. Its writer 
Mr. Bechardas Jivaraja, who possesses the degrees of 
Nyayatirth and Vyakaranatirtha tries to shew that 
Gujarati was never an original language but is the result 
of many changes undergone by the several old languages 
of India. This view will not pass unchallanged, we 
think, by those who have studied the subject, 

☆ 

“AlTIHASIKA RASA SAtfGRAHA” :-P*rfc. I. By Jairn 
Acharya S'rl Yijayadharmasuri. Pp. 96. ( 1916 ). 

This compilation consisting of six Rasas composed 
in the 17th and 18th centuries of the Vikrama era records 
many commendable deeds of the Jaina gentlemen of 
those times. The learned Acharya has indeed done a use- 
ful service to literature by bringing them out of obscurity. 



Poetry (^Mediaeval } 


$3 

They are interesting from a historical point of view no 
doubt, but they also wouldjprove of interest in their philo- 
logical;as well]as“social aspect, 

“ AITIHASIKA RASA SANGrRAHA 55 :-Part II Pp. 74 
Unpriced ( 1916 ). 

We have already had an occasion to review the first 

part of the; series, the second part duly confirms the 
commendation we bestowed on the literary labours of the 

Ach&rya. The Rasa contained in this book is one 
written by a poet, Lavanya Samaya by name in the 
Samvat year 1589, and is divided into three sections 
giving respectively . the lives of Khema Ri^i, Balibhadra 
and Yaifcbhadra suri. 

The understanding of the text is made greatly easy 
by means of notes and a vocabulary giving the meaning 
of difficult words and two post-scripts. The book is sure 
to prove useful to students of old Gujarati. 

☆ 

** Y ATTALA PANCHAYIS'I ”:~By Jagjivan DaySlji Modi 
Pp. 183. Price Rs. 1-8-0. ( 1916 ). 

Students of old Gujarati should feel very thankful 
to Mr. Modi for publishing this book. Till now, it was 
thought, that old Gujarati possessed very little prose 
but this book helps to remove that impression. This 
compilation consists of two parts, verse and prose.* both 
treat of the celebrated stories of Vaitala; the prose por- 
tion seems to have been written according to the publi- 
sher somewhere after Samvat year 1629. It need not be 
said that the text and its modern Gujarati version should 
prove of use to philologists. 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 1907-1938 89 

“ BHALAlSA’S KADAMBARI — By Kes'avaial H. Dhruva. 
Pp. 360. Price Rs. 3/- (1916) 

Bhalana,Ja poet who flourished in the 15th century, 
has written many works. Out of that Mr. Kedavalal has 
selected his Kadamhari for editing and annotating. 
This is but the first part of Mr. Kesavalal's work, it con- 
tains the bare text and its annotation. The more impor- 
tant part, containing the lives of Bhalana and Bana is still 
to follow. 

The editorris acknowledged on all hands to be the 
first and foremost authority on Old Gujarati Language 
and Literature, and; in the carefully edited text and its 
scholarly notes, he has in no way detracted from the re- 
putation he has established . 

In fact, the notes are a storehouse in themselves not 
only of old lore and learning, but also of Alankara &astra, 
Reading these notes, we were reminded of the thorough- 
ness with which Rev, Kitchin has edited and annotated 
Spencer's Faery Queem . Indeed this part of the work 
sets a model to annotators, and shews how exacting the 
work of annotation is and what wide knowledge it re- 
quires. The three indexes at the end add to the worth of 
the book. 

* 

“ MALABAEU NAN KAVTARATNO ” Pp. 279, Price 
Rs. 3 1 -(1917). 

Which cultured Indian does not know the name of 
Mr. B, M. Malbari, the social reformer par excellence , now 
gathered to the dust ? We in Gujarat knew him in vari- 
ous other capacities, and amongst them chiefly as an in- 
defatigable and bold writer. 



Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


30 


A Parsi by birth and education, he was a Hindu at 
heart. In sentiment, in his expression of his senti- 
ments when he did so on paper and in Gujarati, it was 
difficult to distinguish him and his writings from a Hindu 
born and bred and his work, He was equally at ease 
while writing on love poems of Dayaram or on the exce- 
sses of the Vaisnava Maharajas. Both prose and poetry 
yielded to his pen with equal facility and felicity. He 
wrote as charming Gujarati as English, and it was a 
matter of great pride to his Hindu literary friends to 
consider him as one of them. 

This collection of Malabari's poems is very welcome. 
They were lying scattered in several books and it was in- 
convenient to reach them in that form. They are 168 in 
number and range over the widest possible subjects from 
love and nature to patriotism, social reform and morals. 

& 

M SUDAMA CHARITRA OF PREMAN AND A ” Text 
and annotations by M.H. Oza. (1918). 

These notes on this famous poem of Kavi Premananda 
are intended to be of use to students of the Fourth Stan- 
ard in English Schools. On going through them, we find 
them likely to fulfil their.purpose. 

☆ 

“ PRITAMDAS NI YANI ” (1919). 

We have received the following book from the 
“ Society for Encouragement of Cheap Literature viz,, 

Pritamdas ni Varti It deserves special mention, as 
Pritamdas is a well-known and popalar Gujarati poet of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


9f 


the old type. A collection of his verses was badly wanted 
and the Society for coenragement of Cheap Literature 
has supplied the want. The introduction is intelli- 
gently written. 

☆ 

“ ANANDAGHANA PADYA-RATNAVALI ” (1919). 

The book is a commentary on the first fifty poems of 
a Jaina saint, Ananda Ghanaji, and the commentator has 
tried to give to the reader the inner meaning of the verses 
as expounded to him by another Jaina saint. It is prece- 
ded by a very exhaustive introduction, which bears testi- 
mony to the persistent laboriousness of the writer, who 
has therein touched on the various aspects of the life 
and work of Ananda Ghanaji. 

It will go a great way towards acquainting both 
Jainas and non-Jainas with the valuable work of this 
Jaina poet who flourished in the latter half of the 17th 
century of the Vikram era. The book has got excellent 
indexes;at the end. 

☆ 

“SRI ANANDA KATYA MAHODADHT’. Part VI. By 
J. S, Jhaveri. (1919) 

This is the sixth book ( pearl ) of the series inaugu- 
rated by Devachand Gulabchand Trust for the publication 
of old Jaina texts. It comprises three large poems; Rupa- 
chand Kunvctr Rasa and S'r£ S'atruvjaya TJddhdra Rasa . 
There is a very well written introduction by Mr. Derasari, 
whose efforts in the direction of resuscitating old texts 
are well known. 

There is also a life of the poet Naya Sundar by Mr. 
M. D. Desai which furnishes a lot of information about his 



Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


9 2 

work and times. The first Rasa is devoted to the in- 
genuity with which women, when so minded, carry their 
points in the face of great difficulties. 

☆ 

“ CHHOTAMA - KRIT KAVYA-SAMGRAHA ” : By 

Bansilil Mamlal Mehta B.A.,LL.B., Pp. 39? Price Rs, 2-0-0 (1923). 

The poems of Chhotama Kavi - of which this book 
is a collection, and who flourished in the last century - 
wake in us an echo of the sort of mediaeval Gujarati poetry 
which, we are afraid, we have now left definitely behind. 
He was a Sathodara Nagar Brahmin, native of a place 
near Petlad in :H. H. the Gaek wad’s territory and of 
humble origin; but his poetry, preaches all the spirit of 
Yoga andjfche Vedanta philosophy. 

The Fund out of which this collection is printed also 
owes its origin to an equally humble individual, Bhagat 
Jivaji Ki^oredas, a bleacher by profession, but a saint in 
word and deed. The poems are worth preservation. 

# 

u AITIHASIKA RASA SAMGRAHA” Parts B and 4. By 
S’hri Yijaya Dharma Snriji. Pp. 158, 152, Price Rs. 2-8-0, 
2-0-0 { 1922 ). 

The two books refer exclusively to the compositions 
of old Jaina authors, which the present learned editors 
have published with notes and very well written 
introductions. 

The first book contains nine Rasas, written in olden 
times, and the annotations ;furnish much useful informa- 
tion about the different Jaina individuals and spots to 
which the subject-matter of the verses refer. 



Development of Gujarati Liteiatar,,* : 1907-4938 93 

The second book contains the history of a schism in 
the sect at Surat, and furnishes a vivid description of the 
bitterness imported into the dispute, which the parti* 
cipants managed to take as far as the ears of the then 
Emperor at Delhi. At best it was but an ephemeral 
quarrel but the energy spent on its prosecution was re- 
markable. 

fc ‘ SHRI FORBES GUJARATI SAB HA NA HAST A- 
LIKHITA PUSTAKO NI SAV1STAR NAMAVALI * : by 
Ambalal Bulakhirlm Jani B. A. Pp. 400-79. Price Rs, 2 (1922). 

The Forbes Gujarati Sabha possesses several manu- 
scripts, which are of great importance to the students of 
the Vernacular and the history of the Province. Till now 
they were lying unnoticed, and hence valueless. It 
is, therefore, in the fitness of things that a list at least of 
those valuable finds should be made out and published. 

The present Catalogue is a very detailed one, some- 
what on the lines of Ethe's Catalogue. The commence- 
ment and end of each manuscript is given, and notes add- 
ed giving everything till now known about its author, 
his other works, whether there are any other copies of 
the same manuscript or not, etc. Illustrative extracts 
are also given. Altogether we find that this work, which 
has been able to touch 50 MSS. only as yet, has been ac- 
complished in the most approved fashion and is sure to 
help the cause of antiquarian and philological; research. 

☆ 

“ARJUNA YANI” : Collected by Mahadeva Haribhai Des*i. 
Pp. 248. Price As, 12. (1962). 



94 


Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


This is a collection of devotional and religious verses, 
and it is remarkable for two things for the personality of 
their author and of the collector. The latter is at present 
in the Agra Jail, and from there has paid a debt which 
he owed to the author for nearly six years since 1916} 

when he came across the manuscript in an obscure 
village in Gujarat. 

The Bhagat was a field-labourer and illiterate, but 
the songs he has written and which are collected here, 
breathe the earnestness and sincerity of a saint, deeply 

saturated with the religious philosophy of the higher 
castes. They could not have been written more than 
twenty five years ago, because Arjuna Bhagat died about 

that time; but it is difficult to conceive that they could 
have been the product of our times, so quaint is the lan- 
guage, and so full of the old world philosophical terms of 
thought are they. 

One could only account for this phase of theirs by the 
fact that this Bhagat lived away from the stir oi the 

modern world in an obscure village and did not come in 
contact with towns and cities or their dwellers, and con- 
tented himself with the society of his own thought. 

“SUDAMA CHARI TEA”: edited By Manjulal Ranchhodalal 
Majmudar b. a m ll b. Pp. 166+70. Price Rs. 2-8-0. (1922). 

The poverty of Sudama and the exemplary treatment 
by Krisna, of his school-friend, have furnished many 
Gujarati poets with a subject for versification. Prema- 
nanda stands at the head of them, and till now no at- 
tempt had been made to bring all the works into one place 
and enable the reader to appreciate the merits and deme- 
rits of the performances of the poets by their juxta- 
position. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 


95 


The compilation is a welcome departure based on 
the new method for the study of a particular subject by 
requisitioning every possible material bearing on it. We 
congratulate the compiler on the ability, intelligence and 
originality he has displayed in his work, He has proceed- 
ed on what are called ‘‘intensive” lines and has succeeded 
in placing before the public an admirable book. 

iv 

“S'AMAMRlTAM.” by Muni Dharma Yijay. Pp. 20 (1923,. 

This is a Ghhdyd-ndtaha , the Sanskrit text of which 
is published in original. There are two poems, Nemi Ji- 
na Stavan and Rai^a Sdgcir Nemifdga also published, 
which being old poems, written by Jayavant Suri and 
Soma Sunder Suri respectively, are likely to be of use to 
those interested in the subject. 

“PADAPATHA ’ - Selectious from Gujarati Poetry, Part 
I by D. B. K, H. Dhruva Pp. 77 Price 0-8-0 (1993). 

Selections from the poetry of five Gujarati poets, 
with explanatory notes from the pen of the two acknow- 
ledged scholars, would be a book which would have very 
little to be desired. The point of view with which the 
poets wrote their poetry is sought to be placed before the 
student. 

☆ 

“NARASIMHA MEHTA NU AKHYAN” edited by 
Hiralal T, Parekh, b. a. Pp. 114 Price 0-8 0 (1923). 

Narasimha Mehta, one of the oldest poets of Gujarat, 
met with several remarkable incidents in life in the 
patijre of miracles. They have been poetised by an old 



96 Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 

poet. The Introduction witten by the editor is well 
considered. 

☆ 

“YlRAPASALl”: — by Chandulal Kagirama Pp. 104 Price 
0-6-0 ( 1923 ). 

We have a pretty custom in Gujarat of brothers mak- 
ing presents to their sisters on a certain day in the year. 
They generally consist of cash but other articles are also 
presented. Such presents are called by the name which 
this book bears. 

Its contents are full of as much love as accompanies 
the presents from a brother to this sister. It has the 
additional charm of being meant for little sisters of from 
five to ten years in age. It is a collection of popular songs 
with music notation, just of the proper quality to interest 
and please the little mites for whom they are meant. To 
appreciate these fully, one must hear them sung by tiny 
girls. 

‘‘PRACHINA KAVYA SUDHA”: Ports I rnd II collected 
by Chhaganlal Vidyarama Rav&l Pp. 131 and 156 Price 1-4-0 each 
( 1923 ). 

As its name implies, this work is concerned with old 
Gujarati literature. Mr. Rival is well-known for the 
interest he takes in this branch of our literature and 
we owe it to the liberality of &etha Puru^ottama that 
these selections have seen the light of the day. Some of 
them are indeed very fine specimens of old Gujarati poetry 
and deserved publication long before. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 97 

44 TWO NALAKHYANAS” : by Bamalal Chunilal Modi 
Pp. 144 Price 2-0-0 ( 1924 }. 

Mr. Ramalal Modi has by now made a name as 
a scholar of old Gujarati Mss. and poems. Kavi Bhalana, 
an old poet who flourished about four hundred years ago, 
has written two Nalakhyanas, and Mr. Modi has publish- 
ed, rather edited, both of them in this book, with a 
suitable introduction and very well written notes. 

The first poem is worthy of the pen of the poet in 
every way, the second poem appears to be spurious. There 
is no reason for one and the same poet to write two poems 
on one and the same subject. What we specially stress in 
this book is the admirable way in which the poem is 
edited and annotated. 

u RAN A YAJNA f * : edited by M. R. Majmudar. b.a. } ll.b. 
Pp. 168 + 80 Price 1-4-0 ( 1924 ). 

One of the best poets of old Gujarat, Premananda, 
has written this poem in Samvat year 1741. It is a short 
poem but displays all the vitality of Premananda's pen. 
The incidents are taken from the Yuddha Kav,da of the 
Ramayana and vitalised by the skill of the poet. 

The editing is of apiece with the original and does 
not lack anything required to appreciate the poem philo- 
logically, sentimentally, historically and in other ways; 
if anything, it overshoots the mark. It is clone with the 
assiduity of a student and the eye of a scholar, and the 
effort has succeeded well enough to hearten him for other 
similar work as the poet's longer poems. 



98 


Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 


“ NARASIMHA SABA M : by Haris’ankar TrivedL Pp. Ill 
Price 0-6-0 ( 1925 ). 

An anthology of the poems of Kavi Narasimha Mehta 
is a good idea, and this compilation is a thoroughly 
representative one. 

☆ 

** ABHIMAN YU - AKHYANA AND ABHIMANYU - 
LOKASAHITYA ” : By Maujulal Ranehhodlal Majmudar b a., 
ll- b. Pp. 160.-f90. Price Bs. 1-8-0 (1925), 

The idea is slowly gaining ground that Kavi 
Premananda was indebted for many of his wellkrown 
Akhyanas to his predecessors; and that his inimitable 
pen transmuted whatever inferior stuff he found into 
something good. The Akhyana under notice is one such 
instance. Kavi Tapxdasa his predecessor had written the 
Akhyana and Premananda's poem is not therefore 
singular. 

More useful than the Akhyana is however the treat- 
ment of the text by the young writer. He has written 
about it from every conceivable point of view, so that 
at times sections overlap, and the “ copy ” appears to 
err on the “ excessive ” side. It is done however with 
great care and its many sectional prefaces are a self- 
evident proof of trouble taken over the elucidation of the 
theme by Mr. Majmudar. 

The book shows the way in which others should 
work. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 99 

•« GIRIDHAR KRIT RAMAYA N A ” Pp. 749 Price 2-8-0; 
•'•AKHA NI VANI”. Pp* 446. Price 1-10-0. (1925) 

Enough praise cannot be given to the 'Society for the 
Spread of Cheap Literature* for having published these 
two substantial volumes comparatively so cheaply. They 
are all second editions, the first ones having been sold 
out in a short time. As second editions, they show consi- 
derable additions to the text and fresh research also. 

The preface to the Ramayana is very interesting as 
it shows that in some parts of Gujarat the unity between 
Hindus and Mahomedans is so close that Borah Patels 
are found singing and explaining as story- reciters mytho- 
logical poems of the Hindus, such as the Okha Harana 
and the Ramayana. 

# 

“ S’RI ARANDA KAVYA MAHODADHI ” : Pearl VI. 
Edited by Jivanachand 8. Jhaveri, (1925). 

This collection consists of several poems in old Guja- 
rati such as 4 Dhola maru Tale * and others. It has a very 
informative introduction from the pen of Mr. MohanlalD. 
Desai on the poet's life and work; and on the whole it is 
a useful contribution to the Literature of old Gujarati. 

☆ 

< S'Rl PRABHU CHARANE ” ( 1925 ) 

* At the feet of the Lord ' is a compilation by 
Jayasankar Pandit and Bhola^ankar Vyas consisting of 
selections from various vernaculars of Bhajans and devo- 
tional songs. 



100 Poetry , Mediaeval ) 

ts St Mh AS AN A BATRIS'I Parts 1 and 2. Edited by A, B 
Jam. b. a! Pp. 1-368 ard 369-772 Price 3-8-0 ( 1926). 

Kavi &amala has written in verse the stories of 
Batrisa Putali or thirty-two dolls. The whole work is 
pretty long and has suffered much at the hands of illite- 
rate and ignorant scribes. It required editing after 
collection of the various available texts, and this has 
now been done by Mr. Ambalal Jani, for the first time as 
far as we know, and so well. 

The two volumes exhibit the result of his patient 
work and assiduity, and they do not exhaust the sphere 
of his labours. He has yet to give us the balance, viz,, 
seventeen more stories. But for the help rendered by 
the Bhandola Committee of the Gujarati Sahitya Parisad, 
it would not have been possible to bring out this 
publication. 

☆ 

“ (1) RASAKUNJA (2) RASAKUNJA m SARIGAM A ” by 
Mrs S'anti C. Barfiwala. (1928) 

Rasa or Garda are songs sung by little girls as well 
as grown up women in Gujarat; it is an institution 
peculiar to the province; it is a pretty sight to see them 
going round and round with rythmical clapping of hands, 
and singing songs to its accompaniment as well as to 
that of other music, 

Of late many writers have written such Rasas, the 
most popular writer being Kavi Nanalal. Mrs. £anti has 
with the acumen peculiar to her sex selected the best 
songs in her collection, and produced a compilation 
which is one of the best of its kind. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 101 

With great thoughtfulness she has in the other work 
published the musical scale of songs selected, and thus 
put her work on a scientific basis. She has been for- 
tunate enough to get two writers of renowned ability to 
help her, Kavi Nanalal with a learned and scholarly 
introduction to the Kunja and Mr. N. B. Divatia, well- 

known for his knowledge of music, with one to the 
Sarigama. 

We sincerely congratulate Mrs. £anti on the display 
of her abilities, which till now lay dormant but which 
contain promise in them of still more valuable work. 

• S’K! ANANDA - KAVrA MAHODADHI”. Part YII 
edited by Mum Raja Sr'i Sampat Vijaya. (1928) 

This collection of old Gujarati poems falls in no way 
short of the prior publications. Its introductions from 
the pen of Mr. Mohanlal D. Desai of the times of Samaya- 
Sundara, Jayavijaya and Kusaia Labha are monuments of 
elaborate research, 

& 

“ S'RI ANANDA KAVYA MAHODADHI ,7 . Part VIII. 
edited by J S. Jhaveri (1929) 

Kumarapal’s reign in Gujarat was considered the hey- 
day of Jaina prosperity. This part of the series contains 
along poem called Kumdrpdl Rasa by a well-known 
Jaina old poet, Ri^abhadas, written in the seventeenth 
century. The old Gujarati Text is preceded by two valu- 
able contributions, one by Prof. B. K, Thakore, b. a, re- 
viewing the subject of Jaina Literature and another a de- 
tailed account of the life and works of the Jaina poet by 
Mr. Mohanlal D. Desai, b. a., ll. b. 

1Z 



m 


Poetry ( Mediaeval ) 

“ S'Rl HARI LILA S'ODAS'A KALA, INTRODUCTION’ 4 , 
by A, B. J ani. (1931) 

Mr. Jani has already annotated this poem of Viifnu- 
dasa Bhlma, an old Gujarati poet. He has now brought 
out by way of a separate volume an introduction which is 
very comprehensive and takes a wide survey of the state 
of the Gujarati literature between V. S. years 1375 and 
1625. He specially examines it with a view to point out 
the influence of the Bhakti-marga on the verse literature 
of those times, and in doing so, has tapped every avail- 
able source in English, Gujarati and Sanskrit. 

The footnotes and the Bibliographical list show the 
amount of trouble and assiduity bestowed by him on the 
subject and those interested in old and mediaeval Guja- 
rati will find much in his efforts to enlighten them as 
well as to guide them in their further studies therein. 

☆ 

“ ZARATHOSTA NAMEH Edited by Mrs. Meherbanu 
T. Ankle’saria aad Behramgor T. Ankle’earia of Bombay, Printed 
at Fort Printing Press, illustrated. Pp, 164-212+136 : (1933). 

A Parsi poet of Surat composed his chronicle in A. D. 
1674 in that form of Gujarati which was current at the 
time. It is based on a Persian poem, written about four 
hundred years before the date of its composition. This 
particular poet has composed three other “ Namehs” also, 
and they are all remarkable from an antiquarian's point of 
view. They show how the Parsi writers of the period had 
absorbed the spirit of the Gujarati verse-literature being 
written at the time, without sacrificing their individuality 
as to their thoughts and language. 

The structure is Gujarati, the building materials to a 
certain extent alien, extraneous. To the Hindu reader 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 10& 

therefore, unless there was someone there to guide him, 
the poems looked to be rather forbidding; but fortunately 
for one of the poet's works the father of one of the present 
Editors, came to the readers' rescue and for the other the 
present one - the son, Mr. Behramgor, has discharged his 
self-imposed task in an admirable manner. For correcting 
the text, he has consulted a large number of manuscripts. 
For explaining thoughts of the poet, he has gone to the 
original Persian work on which the poet has based his 
poem; for elucidating unfamiliar phrases and words he 
has given ample notes. 

Mrs. Meherbanu has contributed in sixty-eight pages 
a commendable synopsis of the life of the Iranian Prophet. 
Both the editors have tried their best to illuminate the 
dark corners of the subject. They have consulted nearly 
two hundred works bearing on the matter in different 
languages - European and Asiatic, such as Pahalavi, 
Persian, Sanskrit, Gujarati, English, French, German and 
Latin. 

The editing is a monument of research; and a close 
scrutiny of the work turned out by them shows the great 
assiduity and labour iousness with which they have work?* 
ed for the last seven years in bringing about this result. 
We wish other scholars take a leaf out of their book. 
This branch of Gujarati Literature requires development 
and it is sure to come at the hands of such workers. 

☆ 

“ PATOHA-DANT1A NI VARTAN edited by S. C Raval. 

(1937) 

The Forbes Gujarati Sabha of Bombay owns several 
old Gujarati Mss; and as opportunity offers, is making 



104 


Poetry { Mediaeval ) 


them available to the public one after another. About 
four such valuable Mss, have already been published with 
anrotations. Mr. Raval has made researches in connect- 
ion with one of such Mss. viz., the poem of Kavi Narapati 
composed circa Samvat 1560, and published it under the 
name of the ‘Story of Panchadanda’ one of the phases of 
the life of King Vikrama, who, Harun~al~rasida~like used 
to go about at night in his capital city and learn its 
secrets. The introduction and annotations are very 
creditably written in a scholarly way; it goes to prove the 
writer's love for his work. 

“ GrAURI KIRTANAMALA Published by K, Bhachec' 
Printed in the Yasant Printing Press, Ahmedabad. Clot 
Bound, Illustrated. Pp. 280. Price Rs. 2 ( 1937 ). 

Gauribai, a well known Gujarati poetess ( V. S. 
1815 *865 ) belonged to the Nagar Brahmin caste and 

had become a widow when quite a child. When grown 
up she lived the model life of a chaste Hindu widow, and 
passed her time in worship, study and writing. Her 
devotion to religion was so great that Princes invited 
her and the Ruler of Benares where the closing years of 
her life were passed, greatly honoured her. 

She has composed religious songs ( Bhajans and 
Klrtans) in Gujarati and Hindi and they have all 
( nearly 612 ) been collected and printed in this volume 
by their assiduous collector. A short sketch of her life 
is also given. The songs are printed in Devanagari script 
and therefore can be read and understood by people out- 
side Gujarat. Great credit is due to the compiler for 
rescuing them from inevitable oblivion, as the present 
progressive trend of Gujarati literature does not favour 
such writings. They breathe the spirit of the old devotion. 

☆ 



Drama-Dialogue. 




development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 2 67 

« M A D AN A-YI J A Y A By G M. Pandit. Pp. 136, Price 1-0-0 
(1909) 

The preface to this book contains a short essay on 
drama and drama-writing and it takej a rapid but 
correct and world-wide survey of the state of this branch 
of literature. It touches Sanskrit, English, and other 
iiealsof play-writing and winds up with a bird's eye 
view of the present condition of Gujarati plays. This is 
about the best part of the book. 

When we pass from here to the body of the play, we 
find an attempt made to string together in one work 
such disjointed ideals, as the ideals of the despot and the 
extremist, of the ultra-social reformer and the orthodox 
party, with an eye to show therefrom that the moderates 
must always emerge triumphant from such a state of 
circumstances. 

The object is no doubt praiseworthy; but somehow 
on reading the book through, one finds an unnatural 
grouping of incidents, inappropriate speeches put into the 
mouths of personage, which speeches have the look of be- 
ing there because the author wanted to utilise some line 
or sentiment of Scott or Shakespeare, and not because the 
occasion demanded them and the impression left on the 
mind is that of crudeness in the author’s craft, which 
could improve only by further experience and a longer ap- 
prenticeship in the school of letters. 



108 


Drama ( Original ) 


U BAI NO PAKYATA 5 ’ By Ramaaabliai Mahipatram Nilkarith 
b. a., ll. B. Pp. 107, Price Re. 1-0-0 (1914). 

The ripe scholarship of Mr. Ramanabhai would make 
us welcome anything that comes from his pen. He has 
till now confined himself to humour and to criticism, in 
both of which fields he has earned a name for himself. 
He has now essayed in another direction. 

The present state of the stage in Gujarat is lamentable, 
and the majorities of the dramas written for being staged 
are devoid of poetry, imagination, high purpose or literary 
style. The drama under review is an attempt to show how 
these can be attained. It is written partly on the model 
of English plays, and Ramanabhai's name is a guarantee 
that it contains nothing which is either mawkish or even 
remotely improper. 

The underlying idea in the play is that the hand of 
God is everywhere and that truth and virtue always tri- 
umph and intrigue and vice fail. The hero is a Karma- 
Vira who struggles to do his duty and follows the path of 
righteousness and succeeds in winning back his throne, of 
which he had been unjustly deprived, by means of that 
righteousness. He is pitted against his mother, a 
thoroughly worldly woman, who does not recognise the 
hand of God in the affairs of the world and consequently 
perishes. Subsidiary to this main purpose, is the recogni- 
tion by the hero that it is possible for even a bookworm 
like himself to penetrate the incomprehensibility encom- 
passing the region of love, and he marries a child- 
widow, the daughter of a king, who had been kept aloof 



Development of GJ-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


109 


from the haunts of men and from their contact, like 
Banasur’s daughter Usa (Okha). 

The language, poetry and sentiments, are faultless, 
and the work is fitly and feelingly dedicated to his life- 
companion ( Jivctnasakhi ), his wife, Mrs. Vidya,B.A. whom 
he calls the Bee, that opened the petals of the flower 
and made the pollen nectarlike. The title of the book 
however is unhappy and to say the least unromantic. 
Otherwise the work is a valuable addition to Gujarati 
literature. 

☆ 

“ MAHARAJA HAMIRSIMHA 55 By Prof. J. C. 
Swaminarayana M. a. (1914) 

Tod's brilliant description of the recovery of Mewada 
by Hamir Simha from the hands of Malavadeva, the 
Sub&dar of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, furnishes the subject- 
matter of this play. It is written by a well-known 
alumnus of our University, who takes a prominent part 
in matters literary and as such is entitled to great con- 
sideration and regard. Incidentally it champions two 
social causes: widow remarriage, and condemnation of 
child-marriages. These two matters are very skilfully 
woven into the body of the play. 

However, the main purpose of the essay of Prof. 
Swaminarayana into the realms of the stage, is to hold 
up before the perverted taste of the present playgoer and 
theatre manager, a model of what an ideal play should be. 
We cannot say that he has succeeded there. The senti- 
ments are all right; but then the other undistinguished 



110 Drama ( Original ) 

writers indulge in such platitudes and copy-book maxims 
also; the language reproduces all the features of those 
plays which are written to please the gallery; for instance, 
the rhyming poetry- like prose in which sentence after 
sentence is clothed, copies the style of those Bombay 
plays like Hainan and BakawaV, where the audience 
greets with claps the recitation of such passages. In the 
few lines of Urdu which he has ventured to put into the 
mouth of his Urdu- speaking characters he has tripped as 
regards accuracy. The songs are also such as can hardly 
be distinguished from those ordinarily sung in an ordi- 
nary Bombay theatre. 

The play therefore does not add one to the few 
really good plays we happen to possess. But all the same, 
it may still succeed on the boards. 

“ PARAKRAMI PAERAVA YANE BHARAT NU 
GAURAVA ”, By Prof. J. C. Swaminarayaisa, Pp 108 Price 
1-4 0 ( 1921 ). 

This is a spirited play in three Acts* It recalls the 
days of Alexander's expedition and the bold stand made 
against him by Porus. The author has worked on a sure 
historical background and woven imaginary incidents 
round about it, all to the credit of Indian ladies, Women 
like Kalavati, Sarala, and Ilakumari, have from times 
immemorial typified the courage , chastity and patriotism 
of Indian womanhood, and the parts they play in their 
several characters are indeed admirable. The play is 
written with a view to remind us of our glorious past and 
it fulfils its purpose entirely. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 111 

The preface is very well written and furnishes a key 
to the understanding of the several events narrated in 
the play. An otherwise good diction is however spoiled 
by the use of such unclassical phrases as 4 'Punjab Mail” to 
represent speed, "upper garret lost” to represent foolish- 
ness or brainlessness and so on. These expressions jar 
on the ear. 

* 

“BUDDING YOUTH : ( UGATI JUVANI )” By Professor 
B. K. Thakore, B. A., Printed at the Yasant Printing Press, 
Ahmedabad Pp, 188, Price Re. 1-12-0 (1923). 

The title is symbolical of the contents of the book, 
which is intended to present a picture of the budding 
youth (mostly male) of the present time. It is called a 
social play. The author claims that it will fulfil two 
functions: it can be read in the closet and played on the 
stage. We think it is more suited for the former purpose 
with its long sermons on the question of animal and vege- 
tarian food, and rather a novel feature for any work 
meant for the stage — simultaneous dialogues going on 
between two different pairs of the dramatis p ersonce ; 
it would be a feat indeed if the audience can follow 
either. In a predominantly Hindu play, excepting in a 
case or two, the marking off of the time of different 
scenes is regulated by Parsi holidays. 

Though there is a common thread running loosely 
through the book, the scenes are disjointed. The 
language put into the mouth of several ladies is very 
homely and hence not very elegent. The whole outturn 
is distinguished by a sort of originality and unusuajpess, 



112 


Drama ( Original 


peculiar to the author. Fancy the opening pages of a 
drama showing a geneological tree, ( perhaps due to the 
force of habit in a Professor of History ) and the closing 
pages also show such a tree. 

The characters are generally identified by their ini- 
tials, the antecedents of some of them, e. g., the Goanese 
woman Mary, have been unnecessarily given (she and her 
unsavoury antecedents could well have been omitted). 
The scenes, though familiar are made to put on an 
artificial garb. The object is no doubt commendable, 
but Prof. Thakore could have turned out much better 
work on any of his other familiar themes than this drama- 
writing experiment. 

☆ 

“SANJUKTA”: by Ramanalal V. Desai, M A., Pp. 158 
(1923). 

This drama is concerned with the times of 
Prithviraja, who took away by force Princess Sanjukta. 
It is meant for the stage, but looking to the present 
perverted taste of the audience one wonders whether its 
Sanskritised and literary style would make for success 
in that line; otherwise the characters are well-drawn. 

☆ 

ANANTA ” by Aranyaka. Pp. 104 Price 0-8-0 (1924J. 

This is a play, written to illustrate the principle 
that if one wants to live the life divine, one would find 
it surrounded by the forest of endlessness. In the 
forest, it is said, are entangled several Ganges rivers 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 113 


which sometimes let themselves loose, and change the 
ideal of life. 

It is on this allegory that the writer has worked and 
produced a book which before it could be understood 
requires an effort to follow its trend. 

☆ 

“ MALA DEVI AND OTHER PLAYS by B. L. Umar- 
vadiya. 

This batch of five short plays admirably portrays 
the psychology of several individuals of a type we 
come across in daily life, but whom we disregard or wink 
at-of both sexes. The brevity of the work adds to its 
piquancy. These plays are easier to understand than 
the prior batch of plays of the the author and hence 
better. 

44 S^AN&HA NE KODI by Anyone ’* Pp. 185 
Price 2-0-9 (1924), 

The title means, ‘A Conch and a Shell/ It is described 
by the author to be a comedy in three acts, and it ' deals 
with three social questions of importance: marriages of 
old men with young brides, the sale of the latter, and 
widow-remarriage. The humour in places is pleasant, 
though oftener coarse. He has however been able to 
make his observations effective and piquant. 

☆ 

“ KOJAGRI ?” by Vinayak N. Mehta. I. C. S. Pp. 62 (1925) 

The title of the book is in interrogative, meaning 
“Who is awake 1” It is a drama written to illustrate the 
8 



114 


Drama ( Original ) 


chastity of a Hindu wife, whom the friend of her husband 
wanted to inveigle* The period chosen is between 1620 
and 1640 A. D* and the place, the banks of the holy 
river near Benares. There is both vigour and virility in 
the style and expression of idea, but there are two 
things which get on the nerves of an ordinary Gujarati, 
bom and bred in Gujarat; the padding of language with 
North India words, phrases and idioms, and the mode of 
life depicted, which is foreign to Gujarat in its 
associations. 

The author excuses himself for the first by saying 
that there could be no limits placed to the expansion of 
a language (here the Gujarati language), for the second, 
perhaps his long residence in the U. P. and away from 
Gujarat is responsible. It is a pleasant, little volume all 
the same, from which the abundance of animal spirits 
peeps out now and then. 

“SAMSARA PARIJATA NAT AKA by N. Y. Thakkur. 
Pp. 182 Price 2—4—0 (1925) 

This Nataka is meant for the stage, aud is therefore 
embellished with the clap-trap and fun which popularise 
shows on the stage. A trustee commits breach of trust 
with the assistance of a corrupt solicitor, whose first wife 
becomes a Barrister and leaves him and he marries a 
second wife who is a Doctor. The fraud is ultimately ex- 
posed, and the proper party gets his due. There is noth- 
ing further done or said which would leave behind any 
abiding influence, 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 11& 

« DEVANGANA-A FIVE act PLAY : FIRST PART ” by 
M. R. Dholakia l. a E. Pp, 168 Price 1-4-0. (1926) 

Devangana is the heroine of this play and though 
marrying a Ddsiputra is represented as an image of 
chastity. Some people see romance in every-day inci- 
dents; the preface of this book apotheosises such inci- 
dents and then launches into allegory. The style is 
popular. 

☆ 

“ AKHO, (A Play) by Ckandravadan C. Mehta B. a., (1928) 

The life of this gold-smith, metaphysician and poet 
of medieval Gujarat was never dramatized before. That 
has now been effectively done and the play successfully 
staged through the exertions of the author. 

“ BEHIND THE CURTAIN ” : by Yes'want Savailal 
Pandya. Pp. 160 Price Be. 0-10-0 (1928). 

This book presents the eternal modem problem of 
marriage-an advanced college-attending youth and a 
girl far behind him, according to his lights in catching 
up his ideals. The writer has presented the problem in 
a pleasing way. 

“ MADANA-MANDlRA ” by Yas'avant Pandya. (1981) 

This book is a new departure and a bold one in our 
literature. By means of four one-act short plays the 
author has attempted to show that gods were as weak 
and vulnerable when Cupid attacked them as human be- 
ings; nay, they went a step further and committed incest 



116 


Drama ( Original ) 


in some cases. He illustrates his thesis by means of four 
incidents in our mythology (1) those between Krisna and 
Kubja (2) Sankara and Mohini (3) Visnu and Vrinda, & 
(4) Brahma and Sarasvati ( his daughter ). 

Indian mythology does not stand by itself in respect 
of such incestuous connections. Greek mythology was 
not above them. In case of these Indian pairs, efforts 
have been made to minimise or explain away the heinous- 
ness of their conduct by putting forward various excuses 
of necessity, for instance, that it was necessary for Visnu 
to mislead Vrinda, otherwise her husband Jalandhara, 
would have gone on tyranising over the world, because 
of her unassailable virtue. 

But the author is not satisfied with such glosses; the 
conclusion he has come to is “that these revered indivi- 
duals, in the end, fall a pray to the toils of Cupid and 
become toys in his hand.” This opinion he has worked 
out with singular felicity of language and expression in 
the one hundred and twenty five pages that go to make up 
this book. It presents our gods-if not gods-these super- 
men at least in a new light when face to face with temp- 
tations. Humorous passages also are not wanting in it, 

☆ 

“BALIDANA 5 ’ by PrSnalal Tbakorlal Munshi. b, a., ll, b 
( 1931 ). 

Mr. Munshi’s play which is more fit for acting on a 
stage to be effective than reading is concerned with the 
ever present blot on Hindu society: marriage of an 
old man to a young girl allowed, remarriage of a child- 
widow under any circumstances whatever, disallowed. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1507-1938 117 

Rama, a girl married and widowed within three 
months of the marriage, when still a child, is not allowed 
to remarry a young man of her choice, whi]e her grand- 
father a very old man who was responsible for her 
marriage in infancy makes every preparation for many ing 
a girl of tender age, her friend. The shock to both of 
them is so great that they succumb to it and die. 

The circumstances are tragically put and the language 
in the mouths of some of the characters rises at times to 
some height. It has already proved a success on the stage. 

☆ 

1. “YANTHELAN A’NE BIJA NATAKO” 2. ‘MAIL 
OFFICE NI BARI ” BY Jhaverckand Megbgni 3. 
“ JALIANYALA ” by Dars>aka Bp. 172 : 166 : 110 Price Be 1-, 
1-, -8. (1934). 

The first book contains the first attempts from Mr. 
Meghani's pen in the writing of plays. The title means 
'‘Villains and other plays.” One of these ‘‘other plays ’ 8 
portrays the miseries of the wife of a pseudo-social 
reformer, who, though at heart is a tyrant, wants to show 
to his friends that he believes in the freedom of women. 
This particular one as well as the others are written with 
an eye to their being put on the stage. The language used 
is homely and the setting is familiar to Gujaratis. The 
plays therefore are likely to succeed. 

The second book, which means the ‘‘Window of the 
Prison office” tells in the most effective and therefore 
pathetic way the experiences of those who come to inter- 
view their relations interned behind the prison bars* 
the tribulations of the interviewer and the interviewed. 



118 


Drama ( Original ) 


the oppression practised by the prison martinets and 
similar other distressful items. The author has had 
personal experience of everything he writes and therefore 
the exposures are not imaginary. As usual Mr. Meghani 
has succeeded in making his characters living and vivid. 

The third book dramatises the sad Jalianvala Bag 
incident of 1919 at Amritsar in a series of 20 scenes. 
They are so arranged as to cover all the different phases 
of the event and make it live over again. 

The pictures on the jackets of ;this as well as the 
prison-window book are very suggestive. 

☆ 

(1)‘*XS. KUMARX,” (2) ‘‘GHARA-DIV ADL’ } by Y. S. 
Pandya, B. a. f!934). 

Both these are plays, and they bear on social 
subjects. There is a sort of latent humour and imper- 
ceptible satire in them; both so blended that one likes 
to go through them from cover to cover before putting 
them down. Those who have read Mr. Pandya's other 
and characteristic works are struck by the facility with 
which he can change from one subject to another without 
sacrificing ability and efficiency. 

☆ 

u LOPA MUDRA : — Parts II and III/* By. K M. Munsiii. 
B, a., ll. is., Advocate Pp. 92 : 102 Price Rs. 2. (1934). 

This Nataka from the pen of Mr. Munshi, who has 
just come out from the Bijapur Jail, is a fascinating 
study of India in the dim ages of the past, when the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 119 

Aryas fought with the Dasyus, and the maidens of one 
enemy tribe fell in love with the youths of other enemy 
tribe and the consequence was great contretemps. 

The scenes painted by Mr. Munshi are realistic, the 
old times with their rituals and observances, their forest- 
life and their home -life are presented vividly to our eyes, 
and the human feeling of love and lust, affection and 
hatred, which affected the mini of the primitive man as 
they affect the mind of the civilized man of today, in all 
their intensity and depth are graphically set out and 
brought into great relief against the background of 
jungle-life as lived then. 

Mr. Munshi has studied this period of Aryan life with 
great care and has successfully tried to reproduce it, in 
archaic colours, in this and other volumes bearing on the 
subject. It is a new line struck out by him and does 
him great credit* 

☆ 

“TRAtffA NATAKO” : — By Ramana N. Vakil, m. a. Pp. 159. 
Price Re. 1. (1935). 

These three playlets are written for the purpose of 
being acted by amatures, school and college students. 
One of them shows up the difficulties of a poet, who is 
immersed in composing poems and distributing them 
gratis for the advancement of letters irrespective of the 
fact that his wife and children are starving. The wife, 
however brings him to his senses. 

The other two are also travesties respectively of 
certain failings in the present-day graduates and certain 



120 


Drama ( Original ) 


social customs of the Hindus of Gujarat. There is humour 
depicted all throughout; though it is superficial and 
crude. Deep humour, however, would not have suited 
the purpose of the writer and hence the lower level. 

☆ 

“HATHI NA DANTA ” by Purus’ ottama Trikamdae. (1936;. 

The author was convicted and sent to jail during the 
Civil Disobedience Movement and has utilised his leisure 
in prison for producing this skit in the form of a play, 
being the revolt of wives against husbands due to in- 
equality of treatment concerning moral lapses. 

The title in Gujarati means “Tusks of an elephant,” 
and it is a play on the words of a Gujarati proverb which 
says that the teeth of an elephant are of two sorts: one 
set for chewing, another for show. Thus men who are 
hypocrites have two different codes of morals; one for 
themselves another for their wives. Hus hands can go 
wrong with impunity, wives cannot. 

Women therefore start a society for encouragment of 
those who want to repay their husbands in the same coin 
as themselves. One of the members does try, out of 
bravado, to go wrong, but be it said to her credit, that at 
the last moment the innate modesty and chastity of her 
sex come in the way and she does not go the full length. 

The author has chosen his character from the Brahmo 
Society of Bengal as divorces are allowed among them 
and as his characters have to resort to the Divorce Court. 
The presiding judge however, being a man, the story of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1937 


121 


of the feminine petitioner is disbelieved and she loses. 
The play furnishes pleasant reading. 

☆ 

<‘JALINI ” by Divyananda (1933). 

This is a short play depicting the present ideas of 
both boys and girls about choosing their own partners in 
life. It must be said to the credit of the young writer 
that he does not pooh-pooh the old Hindu ideal of 
chastity in women and whatever he writes he writes so 
as to bring his view-points and expression of ideas 
within that limit. This is a great recommendation in 
favour of a rising writer. 

“SANjIVANA/* by Sanatana J*. Bucb. (1936;, 

In this drama the writer is labouring to show that 
though Kacha had learnt from his Guru the Sanjivani 
Vidya, he did not know what Sanjivana in real worldly 
life [meant. In the last dialogue between him and 
Deyayani, she teaches him its real beauty. It is the 
best part of the book. 

☆ 

“PALATATAN TEJA” by Indulal Gandhi; Karachi (1936). 

“ Changing lights” consists of five one-act plays 
showing different phases of the life of Hindu Society 
ranging from old world ideas to modem thoughts. They 
lend themselves to pleasant reading. 



122 


Drama ( Original ) 


☆ 

“EKA’JA PATNI. 1 ' By G. N. Joshi. b. a., ll. b. (1937). 

This is a three-act play, written on modern lines, 
with stage directions etc. The author’s belief is that as 
long as the cheerless way in which marriages between 
young boys and girls are allowed to take place in the 
orthodox fashion and confined to the system of marrying 
inside' the caste only, the salvation of India will never 
come about. He advocates freedom of marriage between 
members of the whole Hindu community, irrespective 
of caste. 

In the play he has tried his best to bring into relief 
the adventages of the innovation proposed by him. The 
performance suffers from the handicap natural to a writer 
writing in this direction for the first time. With further 
experience crudeness will wear away. 

☆ 

“SAP NA BHARA/’ by Uma^ankar Joshi. B. A. (1937). 

Eleven short plays modelled on the line of English 
one-act plays, this is what the book contains. It is 
very aptly named, “A bundle of serpents.” The evil 
that is chiefly Responsible for the misery and the in- 
debtedness of our rural population, viz, the village 
sowcar, the evil that is chiefly responsible for the untold 
misery of a young Hindu widow, viz., the mother-in-law, 
the evil that is responsible for the pitiable state of the 
Dheda and the Bhangi, all these poisons are laid out 
here in the most striking and the most vivid way. 

An air of reality and picturesqueness is lent to the 
performace because of the language used. The Bania, the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


123 


women, the villagers, the Dheda and the Bhangi speak 
in the plays the dialect, the patois, they are used to 
speak; and this feature of the writing gives it a sub- 
stratum of originality wanting in so many of our modern 
young writers. 

He has not neglected the present changes in our 
social life, but the most valuable work is that concerned 
with villagers and their day to day life. The late 
Navalrama in his well-known play, and Rama Narayana 
Pathak in his “Dwirefa ni vato” would easily come to 
the reader's mind when perusing this delightful collec- 
tion. Indeed Rama Narayana has written an interesting 
introduction, in which he skilfully brings out the subtle- 
ties of the author. Our sincere congratulations to Mr. 
Joshi. * 

(!) “CHHELLO PAVAPATI” ( 1938 ) 

(2) ‘ KISMAT NO SITARO AND TWO OTHER PLAYS;* 
by G. L. Pandya M. A.; B. T. ( 1938 ) 

The first book is a three -act play, and depicts the 
very stirring life-events of Pratap Simha commonly 
known at Patai Raval, the last of the Chauhana Hindu 
kings of Pavagadha in Gujarat before it fell into the 
hands of Mahomedans after a continous fight and siege 
lasting for twelve years under Mahmud Begda. The 
play is meant for acting by schoolboys and the language 
used is suitable for that purpose. 

The second book contains a batch of three plays 
written with the same object. They have been success- 
fully staged. 

☆ 



1 '24 Drama ( Translations from Sanskrit ) 

☆ 

“ TRANSLATION INTO GUJARATI OF KALIDAS'S 
‘S’AKUNTALA ’ ” by Balvantaray K. Thakore, B A. Rajkumar 
College, Rajkot. Pp 159 Price 0-1-0. (1906). 

We note with pleasure that this is the fourth 
attempt of its kind to present in a Gujarati garb the 
famous work of Kalidasa, The previous translations 
date far back to the time of Kayi Narmadaiankar, 
besides whom Rao Saheb D. P. Khakkhara and the 
Honourable Mr. Jhaverilal have also tried their hands at it. 

There is no doubt room for such, a translation as the 
one under review. The love of the author for the Sanskrit 
original, his known literary talent and his close study of 
the previous translations to see where he can adopt or 
improve upon them, alone entitle the book to our 
attention. 

But apart from that the effort to convey the ideas of 
the original in language, simple and popular, a difficult 
thing at all times, and most difficult in the case of 
Sanskrit books, has been tolerably successful. A vocabu- 
lary at the end of the book explaining the meaning of 
such difficult words as the translator could not help 
using, goes a great way to make the translation a success. 

The cheap price at which it is issued and the still 
more convenient terms offered to libraries and students 
is an index to the fact that this has been a pure labour 
of love with Mr. Thakore, ^ 

“YIKRAMORVAS’IYA N ATAK” Translated anonymously; 
published by Himatlal Ganes’ji Anjaria, M. A. Bombay. Pp. 88 
Price 0-4-0 (1906). 

It is a little brochure, this translation. The attempt 
is worthy of praise, though it is not the only one in 



JDevelepirent of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 125 

Gujarati. As at all times it is difficult to preserve in a 
translation the tone and spirit of the original, much 
might be excused in the work of the translator of such a 
difficult drama; but still here, one finds as if one were 
wandering in a wilderness of Sanskrit words and phrases 
instead of their Gujarati eqivalents. 

The translator has felt this, and has punctuated 
almost every second or third word-especially in the 
poetical pieces-with its Gujarati synonym. In other 
words, the translation is not simple, such as one not 
highly educated would care to peruse, much less under- 
stand. We trust this defect will be removed in the next 
impression. 

☆ 

“ MUDRARAKS’ASA NATAKA ” : Kes’avalal Hars’adrai 
Dhruva Pp. 188. Price Rh. 1- (1968). 

The reader of Gujarati literature requires no in- 
troduction to the translator of this drama famous all the 
world over, for the fine macchiavellian duel it sets out 
between Chanakya and Raks'asa. Mr. Kesavalal has 
long since made his mark, and for deep scholarship and 
solid literary work he has been bracketted with the late 
Mr. Tripathi, with this difference, that perhaps the forte 
of the latter was philosophy and of the former, philology. 

Of being a successful student of Sanskrit and allied 
languages, his work till now has furnished ample testi- 
mony, His Samasloki translation into Gujarati of the 
Amaru S'ataka and the GUa Govinda bear the stamp 
of great erudition, his writings on Premanand and the 
extremely learned lecture he delivered as the President of 



126 Drama ( Translations from Sanskrit ) 

the Gujarati Sahitya Pari^ad at Bombay have won for 
him unexampled encomiums from all who are interested 
in the study of Gujarati literature, We possess in him a 
rare philological scholar, and our only regret is that we 
cannot get more work out of him than as at present, nor 
compel him modest and retired as he constitutionally is* 
to give to the public more out of the vast literary 
lore, especially on the history of our langurge, he has 
silently been collecting for the last several years. 

The present work is embellished with an introductory 
Preface, which is a study in comparative history itself# 
The data on which he bases the period during which the 
Nataka was composed as being the latter part ( third 
generation ) of the sixth century, after ransacking and 
collecting the various ancient works, Buddhist, Sanskrit, 
Chinese, works on Numismatics and Epigraphy, furnish 
a treat in themselves, and compel admiration for an 
Eastern scholar who has thoroughly assimilated the lines 
of research work followed by Western savants . 

The work is printed in the Devanagari character, and 
we would strongly recommend all Indian scholars to pro- 
cure a copy and go through it, as they would findthere, 
much that is new, much that would at least set them 
thinking and much that would delight their literary con- 
science* The translation itself is fairly enjoyable, but to 
us the great value of the book appears to lie in the intro- 
duction which is, so to speak, like a crown to the literary 
labours of the writer. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 127 

“ PARAKRAMA NI PRASADI. ” by K. H. Dhruva. (1912). 

Only a few months ago, we had the pleasure of re- 
viewing the second edition of this admirable translation 
of Kalidasa’s Vikr amor vasbly a Ndtaha and now a third 
edition has been called for. Its scholarly translator has 
utilised the opportunity by adding still more to its worth, 
in two ways. He has embellished it by means of a series 
of eight striking pictures, from the brush of the well- 
know artist of Western India, Mr. Dhurandhar, and thus 
provided for the reader, according to the Gujarati proverb 
both gold and sweet smell. 

But what would appeal more to the thoughtful and 
studious section of the reading public is the concise but 
extremely well-written introduction trying to determine 
the period when Kalidasa lived. He examines the sources 
which are at best but few, with great acumen and intel- 
ligence and arrives at a result which seems to be as near 
accuracy as it is possible to have under the circumstances. 
He places the period somewhere near the middle of 
the first century B. C. By employing an ingenious method, 
Mr. Dhruva compels the plays to yield up their chrono- 
logical secrets. 

He has noted closely and given interesting tables of 
the different Chhandas used by Kalidasa and other poets, 
and by means of a certain percentage worked out with 
great labour and which increases and decreases with the 
remoteness or the nearness of that particular play in 
which they are employed to certain ascertained periods, 
tried to confirm his conclusion, arrived at by other 
methods. We wish that the research methods of this 



m 


Drama ( Translatinos from Sanskrit ) 


Gujarat scholar may get a wider public to appreciate 
them. The only way to do so, would be to publish them 
in English, 

☆ 

“ MUDBA RAKS’ASA. ” translated into Gujarati by K. 
H. Dkruva. (1912). 

A review of the Second Edition of this work was 
published by us in the July issue of 1908, and we are 
happy to see that it has now passed into a fresh edition. 
As usual with all the works of this erudite Gujarati 
scholar, the introduction is the most valuable part of the 
contribution made by him; it contains so many original 
statements, the result of scientific research, that unless 
one elects to go into them in extenso, one fails to ap- 
preciate them at their true value, For instance, he has 
tried in the introduction to this edition to fix the time 
when Visakhadatta, Avantivarma, Chanakya Vatsyayana, 
Dingnaga, Vasubandhu, Uddyotakara, Dharmakirti, 
Subandhu and Suraraja flourished from materials which 
would indeed tax the knowledge of any Sanskritist to 
reject. 

He has further come to the conclusion that the 
Parasika and Yavana, the S’aka and the Gandhara, the 
Huna and the Balhika mentioned in the drama were 
really one and the same tribe and not different, i. e., the 
Parasikas were not different from the Yavanas, nor the 
S’akas from the Gandharas. He says that the Yavanani 
dialect mentioned by Panini is really the Iranian dialect 
prevalent in the sixth or seventh century before Christ. 
The native country of Parvataka is also determined by 
him in a convincing way. 



Development of G-ujariiti Literature : 1907—1938 129 

But the most remarkable result of these researches 
seems to us to be the definite opinion he pronounces as 
to Chanakya being the author of the Kamasutra and the 
Nyayabhagya. He says, so f ir back as twelve years ago 
he had ventured intuitively to opine that both the works 
came from the pen of Chanakya. Dr. Bhandarkar and 
Dr. Jacobi both differed from him, and the former placed 
Vatsyayana-another name of Chanakya-some where after 
the second century A. D. and the latter was sceptic as to 
one and the same person being the author of three such 
treatises on such widely different topics as Artha, Kama 
and Nyaya. Possibly it is not known to many that 
Chanakya, Kau cilya, Bhallanaga Vatsyayana, Payashil- 
swami, Dramil and Angul are one and the same. 

This one fact led Mr. Dhruva to imagine that the 
author of these several treatises under different names 
must be one and the same person and now he has shown 
by the similarity of several works that the identity of the 
writer is placed beyond doubt. 

A study of the Introduction is necessary to fully 
grasp his contention and position. We only repeat our 
desire, expressed before, that these remarkable researches 
merit a wider reading public than that of Gujarat and 
that Mr. Dhruva should not hide his light under a bushel, 
but contribute articles relating to his researches to .’well- 
known English magazines, like the Indian Antiquary' 
and others. It is but due to him and them. 

■wr 

“VIKRAMORVAS'IYA XATAKA OR PARAKRAMA NI 
PRASADL” translated by K. LI. Dhruva. R A. (1912. ' 

9 



130 Drama ( Translations from Sanskrit) 

This is another work from the scholarly pen of Mr, 
Kedavalal Dhruva whose previous works, we had the 
pleasure of reviewing before. Its original in Sanskrit is 
well-known, and an edition of the text with the various 
reading inseparable from such an old book, with 
commentaries in English is promised by him in the near 
future. It will be a treat. This translation is intended 
for the. higher standards of the Sayaji High School at 
Baroda, and the restraint that Mr. Ke^avalal has 
exercised over himself in the use of pure Sanskrit words in 
the reproduction is admirable. 

We stumble over many words with Persian origin 
and many pure vernacular phrases. This is a great ad- 
vantage to the boys and the veocabulary at the end 
makes their task still easier. But for it, they would have 
failed to understand some of the verbs which he has had 
to coin directly from Sanskrit, under stress of producing 
the verses in the same metre as the original. We have 
found the translation on the whole very readable and 
such as gives a very good idea of what the original is 
like. 


☆ 

“S'RI BHAGYA MAHODAYA KATAKA”: — by S'igrakavi 
Jagannath Pp. 124. Price Re. 1 ("1912). 

&lgra Kavi Jagannath was a poet who flourished 
in Kathiawad in the seventeenth century, A. D. His 
command over Sanskrit was so great that he was 
honoured at the Poona Court by Nana Fadnavis, in spite 
of the jealousy of the Daksni poets living there? 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 131 


He was like Ursi honoured by the Gaekwar. He 
has written several Sanskrit works, and this Nataka is 
one of them. 

It represents the several alav-Mras, presenting them- 
selves as courtiers at the Darbar of Maharaja Vakhatsingji 
of Bhavnagar-whose subject he was-and recounting 
their significance or functions. The Editor has 
explained the text by means of annotations. 

☆ 

“DHRUVABHYUDAYA”:- By Khels’ankar S’ankarlal 
Bhatt and Jagivandas K. Pathak. Pp. 192. Price 0-12-0 (1912). 

&ghrakavi ^ankarlal of Morvi is known as a great 
scholar of Sanskrit, and dramas written by him in 
Sanskrit have won the admiration of scholars like Prof. 
Max Muller. The present book is a translation of one of 
such dramas, and betrays all the signs of his ripe scholar- 
ship and erudition. 

☆ 

“ABHIJNANA 3 ’ A K U NT A L A. ” by Barrister Maganbhai 
Chaturbhai. Patel. (1915). 

This is the fourth or fifth translation into Gujarati 
of Kalidasa’s well-known play. They are all of varying 
excellences; the leading feature of the present translation 
is its notes, which point out the excellence of the various 
passages in the original text, which but for special atten- 
tion being drawn to it would in the nature of things be 
lost in being conveyed from one language into another. 

The introduction will repay perusal, as from it the 
reader would find that the translator has tried to enter 



132 


Drama ( Translations from Sanskrit ) 


into the heart of the famous dramatist, and attempted 
commend ably to carry his reader with him. The text of 
the translation is very simple and the novel feature of 
the notes considerably facilitates the task of the reader, 
in following the trend of Kalidasa's sentiments. 

☆ 

“PRIYA BARS' ANA” by K* H. Dhruva. (1915). 

Har^a, the Prince-poet of early India, (sixth century 
A. D.) whose successful arms had reached the borders 
of China, is the author of this play in Sanskrit called 
‘Priya Danflka’ or as the learned translator has chosen to 
call it, ‘‘Priya Darsana/* In an erudite introduction 
Mr. Dhruva has given a very interesting account of the 
times before and during which this destroyer of Huns 
flourished. Thane ^var, his capital, though small in area, 
is shown to have rivalled Pataliputra, in extent to which 
it sheltered wealth, valor, and learning within its pre- 
cincts, and for each and every event mentioned by him, 
he has quoted an authority such as cannot be gainsaid. 

The incomplete record of the life of Har^a written 
by the famous Bana, has no doubt furnished the data but 
they have been laboriously supplemented by materials 
drawn from other sources, such as the Danapatras of 
Harsia, the account of those times written by Yavan 
Chang and other contemporary works. The several 
details of the numerous battles waged by the Emperor 
are of great historical import, and sure to furnish food' 
for thought and reflection to European scholars, if pre- 
sented in English. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 133 

The translation bears the stamp of intelligence and 
scholarship usual with all his works, and it need not be 
said that each word in the translation seems to have 
been chosen carefully so as to bring out its full signifi- 
cance. 

☆ 

“PRATlMA NATAK” Manilal Chliabaram Bhatt Pp. 80 
Ee. 1-0-0, (1916). 

This is a translation into Gujarati of the wellknown 
Sanskrit drama by Bhasa, based on certain incidents 
in the Ramayana. It is bound to appeal to every Hindu. 
The translation is done in a commendable way, and will 
repay perusal. The footnotes add to its value. 

‘■S A CUD'S SVAPNA” : By Kes'avalal Hars'adrai Dhruva, 
B. A. Pp. 102 Price Re. 1-8-0 (1916). 

This translation of the celebrated play written by 
Kavi Bhasa and called the Svapnavasavadatta fully 
justifies the great expectations that would be raised by 
the name of the translator, Mr. Ke^avalal Dhruva, 
whose scholarship has been reviewed over and over again 
in these columns. 

The introduction which fixes the time when Bhasa 
flourished is sure to repay perusal. We need not say any- 
thing beyond this, that we simply found it fascinating. 
It has handled the historical materials at the disposal of 
scholars in a masterly way. 



134 Drama ( Translations from Sanskrit ) 

“MADHYAMA YYlYOGA.*’ translated by L. Harapiasad, 
(1917). 

The beautiful little play of Bhasa though prescribed 
as a text book for University Examinations, is neverthe- 
less, on account of its intrinsic worth, quite the thing to 
be placed in the hands of those who study in the primary 
as well as secondary schools. 

Filial piety is its keynote and the way in which the 
children of the old Brahmin couple vie with one another 
in offering themselves to be sacrificed to Hidimba is very 
touching and instructive. The publication of the trans- 
lation is;very timely, and is done in such a way that the 
juvenile people would not find it hard to follow it. 

☆ 

“NAGANaNDA/’ by Ramamka Jay achand Da HI & a.. llb. 
(1920). 

This is a second translation of the play of Sri Harsa in 
Sanskrit, part one having become old. The translator 
has fully entered into the spirit of the original and pro- 
duced a creditable work, 

4 

“RATNAVALI.” by Ratipatiram TJdyamram Pandya. Pp, 106. 
Price Re. 1-4-0. (1921). v 

This celebrated play of Hars'a in Sanskrit is not 
translated into Gujarati for the first time. But the 
present translation, which appeared in instalments in the 
monthly Samalochaka, has many distingushing features 
which were absent in its predecessors. A most readable 
Preface, and a few illustrations, are some of those 
features; and in point of time being the “latest” it has 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 135 


necessarily benefited by the existence and defects of the 
prior ones* 

☆ 

“PRADHAN NI PRATUNA By Rao Bahadur Kes'hava- 
lal Hars’hadrai Dhruva, b. a,, Pp. 152, Price Re, 1-4-0. (1922). 

This is a translation of a well-known play of Bhasa 
called the Pratignd Yougandharayava, and a comple- 
ment of his Svapnavasavadatta. It had once appeared 
in a popular monthly, now defunct, and has been resusci- 
tated with alterations and changes, much for the better. 

As is usual with all his publications, Rao Bahadur 
Dhruva has perfaced this one also with a very valuable 
and erudite introduction, bearing on the different phases 
of his book, with an antiquarian research-scholar's acu- 
men. We prophesy for it the same high place in litera- 
ture as his other translations. 

☆ 

* “PRATIMA’' by Diwan Bahadur K. H. Dhruva. (1928). 

One can safely say that the Diwan Bahadur has be- 
come Bhasa-mad, as his energies have of late been taken 
up with translating one or the other of the plays of Bbasa, 
the well-known Sanskrit play-wright. 

This is the fourth of its kind .Its full name as given by 
him is Pratimd Dcis'amtha , and it is taken up with the 
banishment of Rama to the forest. In a scholarly 
introduction he brings out the good points and the flaws 
of Bhasa showing how he has differed from Valmiki, 
where he has improved upon him and how he has amen- 
ded the text ; which he prints along with the translation. 



136 Drama ( translations from English ) 

In noticing his other works, our complaint has always 
been that his introductions should be written in English, 
so that they may have a wider reading public; it will 
also have the advantage of having his conclusions tested 
by non-Gujarati and European scholars, who may either 
challenge or confirm them, as the subjects which he dis- 
cusses are not such as can have their light hidden under 
a bushel. They merit wider publicity, not merely a 
provincial one. 

UNDAM ALA. 5 5 by Prof. Bhavanis'ankar Vyas. M. A, (1936) 

Dinnaga, the great Sanskrit poet, is said to have 
written this play, on the great tragedy in Rama’s life, 
viz., his expulsion of Sita, when she was with child. The 
play is very well-written in the original and has tempted 
a scholar like Dr. Woolner to translate it. 

So far as this translation in Gujarati is concerned, we 
think it is well executed and would certainly bear perusal, 

“CHANDRA RAMANA OR THE LABYRINTH OF LOVE: 
COMIC DRAMA IN FIVE ACTS.” by Prof. Narbhes'ankar Prana- 
jrvan Dave, M. a. Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy, Samal- 
das College, Bhavunagar. S'ambhu Printing Press. Palitana PP. 
127. Stiff-paper cover. Price 1-0-0 (1910), 

“MEASURE FOR MEASURE OR DO IN ROME AS THE 
ROMANS DO’ 5 by th3 same author. (Illustrated). British India 
Steam Press, Bombay and State Printing Press, Bh&vanagar, Pp. 
114 stiff paper cover. Price 1-0-0 (1906). 

Prof. N. V* Dave has already won his spurs in the field 
of literature under the nomde plume of ‘‘Kathiawadi” a:s 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 137 


the first translator into Gujarati of Emerson's Essays and 
the writer of “Chanda” and “Sundar and Vidyananda”* 

He has now projected a series of translations of 
Shakespeare’s plays into Gujarati. We possess an old trans- 
late of “Two Gentlemen of Verona” and several adapta- 
tions have been made by Parsi writers of Romeo and 
Juliet, Othello, Hamlet, &c, but we have yet to get a 
complete series on the lines chalked out by Prof. Dave. 

We have had three plays from his pen till now: 
Julius Ceaser, Othello, and Measure for Measure. The first 
of the two books under review is an adaptation of “All's 
well that Ends Well,*' and the second, a translation of 
“Measure for Measure.” The excution of both is good. 
The latter is prefaced with a learned introduction on the 
"Plot” of the play and a discussion on the dramatis 
personae , somewhat in the strain of the criticism which 
we see in Mrs. Jameson, Dowden, Gervinus, and other 
Shakespeare scholars. 

To purely Gujarati readers the introduction and 
the discussion must prove very instructive. The books 
have been published through the support of the Maharaja 
of Bhavnagar and his Diwan, who take an interest in 
literary matters. 

☆ 

“VIKRATA BUDDHI NO VIVAHA” by Jivaulal Amarsbi. 
Mehta. (191<y. 

This is a farcical play adapted from the Marathi of 
Prof : Kale, called “Vikshipta R§,o”, It is meant to 
show up the follies of those aged Indians who hanker 



138 


Drama ( Translations from English ) 


after marriage even when on the verge of the grave. In 
this particular case, the situation is rendered more comi- 
cal by the palming off of a boy in female clothes on such 
an over-anxious bride-groom. There are several ex- 
cellent touches in the composition, to illustrate the vari- 
ous lighter sides of our Indian nature. 

☆ 

“MERCHANT OF VENICE : Translated ”by N arbhes’ anker 
Pr£najivan Dave, M. A. Pp. 64 and 106 Price Rs. 1-4-0 (1911 )• 

This is the fourth number of the series of Shakes- 
peare translations .undertaken by Prof. Dave. It is in 
some respects on a level with an uptodate English 
edition of the plays, especially the introduction which 
takes a critical survey of the plot of the plays, of the 
characters, &c. Furnivall, Gervinus, Mrs. Jamieson, 
and other well-known writers have been drawn upon to 
furnish materials for the introduction, which is well 
written. The book is a useful addition to our literature. 

☆ 

“VIRA SHAHU’ f :-By Ambalal Naranjrjoslii. b. a. Pp. 1--40 
As. 6. (1930). 

A play in three acts based on Miss Robinson’s 
“Under Sentence”. It is an attempt to present an episode 
in Aurangzeb's life. The life of Shahu (called Vlra 
Shahu) the grandson of Shivaji whom the Mogul Emperor 
had kept as a prisoner in his Durbar and who was still 
a child then, was spared at the request of Princess Zeb- 
un-nisa. He was saved from conversion to Islam also. 
He gives a straight talk to the Emperor and tells him 



development of Gujaivti Literature : 1907-1938 139 

how he has wasted his time and why he finds himself 
isolated and lonely in the evening of his life, and all 
these pleases him, and he spares him. 

There is a short review of the State of Gujarati 
literature given as an introduction to the book, which is 
well worth reading for its comprehensive survey. The 
language is simple and as a first attempt of the writer 
the work is a promising one. 


tfr 

“PBATAS'CHITTA.’’ by A. <x. Desai. Pp. 48 Price 0-4-6 
(1924). 

Maurice Maeterlinck's play, “Sister Beatrice’ ’ has 
been adapted to Indian life in Hindi, and Mr. Desai 
has rendered it into Gujarati. It is a very short play 
and can be finished in five minutes. It shows how an 
erring soul repents of her moral lapses and is once more 
received into the bosom of the All Merciful. 

ft 

“DHINGALI:” By Pranajivan Yis’wanath Pathak. M. A. Pp. 
40 426. Price Re. 042 -0 (1925). 

Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House” is a well-known drama, A 
wife’s intense desire to serve her husband in every way, 
good and bad, lands her in great complications and the 
picture indelibly impresses itself on one’s mind. 

The^translation of the drama is done by one brother 
and the scholarly introduction is written by the other 
(Ramanarayana,) in which he introduces the reader to 
everything that is worth knowing about Ibsen. It shows 



140 


Drama ( Translations from Bengali ) 


a very deep study of rlben's works, resulting in a very 
lucid exposition. 

☆ 

WILHELM TELL.” by Schiller, translated by Narsimhahhai 
Ia’varbhai Patel (1928). 

Seventy-eight brightly and intelligently written 
pages on the life and life-work of Schiller. This is an 
introduction to Gujarati readers for the first time we 
believe, of the world-famous Schiller and his work. His 
well-known play Wilhelm Tell is translated here and 
ably annotated and illustrated too. The author has done 
his work:with a thoroughness which is admirable. 

☆ 

« KHEDITX A NO SHIKARI. ” by Jugatram Dave. ( 1932 ) 

This is a little brochure containing two plays by 
Jugatram Dave. The plays are very well written and 
are a typical production of the masterly pen of the play- 
wright. They are bound to help the propaganda for 
prohibition in the villages, as the language is so simple. 
The first it is, it seems, taken from Tolstoy's “First 
Distiller". 

Such brochures must be printed in thousands and 
broadcasted by Prohibition Societies and Social Welfare 
Associations, 

☆ ☆ 

<e CHITi^ ANU-A DA”, translated by Mahadeva Haribhat. DesSl. 
B. A LL. B.j (1916), 

This is a very readable translation of the Bengali play 
written by Sir Rabindranath Tagore, The translator have 



Development of G-ujarafci Literature : 1907-1938 141 

taken special care to make it resemble the original 
as much as possible and has been able to preserve 
its spirit. 

The preface is, however, written in a very “ high 
style and would not be understood by many, 

☆ 

“PUNARJANMA ” : by Kanaiyalal Fakirbhai Mehta. Pp. 
24. Unpriced. (1922). 

This is a translation of a Bengali farce by 
Dvijendralal Roy in which a miser is brought to his 
senses by the combined efforts of his wife, sons and 
relatives. It will appeal more, looking to the way in 
which it is translated to the public, if staged. In 
reading, much of the effect that the translator has 
sought to bring about is lost. 

☆ 

“'MUKTADHARA' 7 :— By Naaaial Nathabhai Shah. M. A. 
Pp 96 As. 8 (1922). 

To readers of the Modern Review this play must 
not be unknown. It was also published in Bengali in 
the Prabdsi . It is one of th<* latest of Dr. Rabindranath's 
plays, and is well rendered into Gujarati. 

☆ 

“ MUKTA DHARA”: By Karsandaa Narsimha Manek Pp. 
110, Price As. 6. (1922). 

This is another translation of Tagore's play. One we 
have already noticed in the last issue and we w nder if 
there is room an literature for two such translations 



142 


Drama ( Translations from Bengali ) 


brought out in hot haste. This one reproduces the original 
also in a way which does not tax the reader's power of 
concentration. 

☆ 

« ACHALAYATANA By G, Kripalani. Pp. 153 Price 0-10-0 
(1923). 

Babu Rabindranath Tagore's Bengali book is trans- 
lated into Gujarati by a Sindhi, with a few observations 
by a Dakshani Kalelkar. In spite of these drawbacks, the 
readability of the work does not suffer. 

☆ 

<4 RAN A PRATAP SINGH By Jhaverchand Meghani, b. a. 
Published by the Saurashtra Sahitya Mandir, Ranpur, Kathiawad. 
Pp, 168 Price Rs. 0-12-0 (1923) 

The late Babu Dvijendralal Roy's play in Bengali on 
the vicissitudes and adventures of Rana Pratap is well- 
known all over India. This is a translation of the book 
in Mr. Meghani's inimitable and sympathetic style. 

ki 

tfi MALlNl By Bhakta Narsinghabhai Rambhai of Vishva 
Bharati, S'antiniketan (Price 5 as). (1924) 

This a translation of Rabindranath Tagore's play of 
the same name. It is a laudable attempt, and places 
within reach of those who do not know Bengali, one of 
the distinguished author’s well-known works. 

☆ 

“ OHITRANGADA AND VIDYA-ABHIS'APA 5> . Translated 
by Mahadeva Haribhai Desai and N.irahari Dwarkadas Fariklj. 
Pp. 80. Price Rs. 0-3-0, (1925). 



143 


Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 

Rabindranath Tagore’s world famous plays are most 
intelligently translated by the joint translators. Mr. 
Kalelkar's preface is worth perusal. 

☆ 

£fi SHAH JAHAN by Jhaverchand Meghani. Pp. 172 Price 
0-10-0. (1926). 

Dvijendra Lai Roy’s play on this subject is well- 
known in Bengali, This is a translation thereof, remark- 
able in more ways than one. For instance, the intro- 
duction of ' Shah Jahan’s Bhavana Kristi ’ is a fine piece 
of writing. The style of the whole work is simple and 
popular. 

☆ 

“ RAJABST CHANDRA JIT ”, by M. M. Bhat. 

This is a translation of a Bengali-Natak of identical 
name written by the Maharajadhiraj of Burdwan. It 
would be appreciated much in Bengal, the house of the 
Kali, than Gujarat, for the several views expressed on the 
worship of Kali and its consequent horrors. 

☆ 

“ PRAFULLA by the late Gatulal Barfiwala. (1931). 

The name of the late Babu Girish Chandra Gosh is 
well known to the theatre-world of Bengal. He wrote 
a play bearing the above name on a social subject which 
was translated into Hindi from which the book under 
notice is translated. Mr. Gatulal Barfiwala who died 
young, was a great reader. In the coure of his reading he 
came across this play which he liked so much that he 
wanted his Gujarati knowing friends to read it and hence 
this translation. 



144 


Drama Dialogues 


The play is full of animating and animated scenes 
witnessed often in a Hindu's social life and has done well 
on the social stage in Bengal. The translation is done 
in simple almost homely language and hence interests its 
readers as the flow is even and does not tax his brain for 
making an effort to understand difficult words. 

☆ 

“ INDRJYAJAYA NATAKA — By Ishwarlal A Dixit. Pp. 
204 Price Es. 1-4-0. (1914). 

By means of about a score of Pauranik stories, the 
writer tries to illustrate the present and past condition of 
India in religious, political and other matters. He has 
drawn freely upon Sanskrit and English to strengthen his 
thesis. For a first attempt, he has done well. 

☆ 

“YIDYA-MAHATTYA SAMYADA.” By Purshottam Jhlniw 
bbai Pp. 48 Price As, 0-2-0 (1917). 

These are dialogues intended for juvenile use at the 
time of prize-distributions or school-exhibitions. 

☆ 

“.KETLAKA SAMYADO”. Champsi Yithaldas Udeshi, 
Calcatta (1920). 

Mr. Champsi's excursions into prose have appeared in 
a collected from in this little book, under the name of 
“Some dialogues". We congratulate him on his creditable 
performance. 

The dialogues are both informing and readable. 
Some of them like those between Pratapsimha and 
Manasimha of Amber, between Maharaja Prithviraja 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 145 

and his consort are stirring, and gpminicient of Rajput 
nobility, courage and chivalry, the one between Bilva 
Mangal and the courtesan Chintamani is educative also, 
and its illustrations add to its interest. 

Xr- 

<; SAMVADA GUCHHA’\ By Govindbhfii Haribhai Patel. Pp. 
2i6 (1921). 

There are twenty-one imaginary conversations 
between famous historical and mythological personages or 
pairs, like Sri Krisna and Karna, Ramadasa and Slvaji,- 
Alexander and Porus, Rama and Hanuman, Rana Pratap 
and his brother, Ravana and Mandodari, Parasurama- 
and Bhisma, Nala and Kali, and others, in this book. 

We confess we have not yet come across such a de- 
lightful book where, in the shape of dialogues between 
these celebrities, the author has successfully demonstrat- 
ed the inner working of the old Indian or Aryan mind. 
He has thoroughly entered into and grasped the spirit of 
the lives of the parties who carry on the dialogues, and is 
equally through it at home in presenting it to his readers. 

We admire the facility with which he has handled 
the points of view of each speaker. There is only one 
defect and that is of the style, if it had been less Sans- 
kriticised and more vernacular, its popularity would have 
been assured. 

☆ 

■ “ SWAMI-BHAKTA SURAPALA ” a pamphlet of 18 
pages. 

It refers to a wellknown incident in the history of 
old Gujarat and is cast in the form of a play from which 

10 



146 


Drama Dialogues 


female characters are absent, and is meant to be acted 
by children. The language however is above their 
heads, as it is not simple. 

☆ 

" SAMVADA GUCHHA : PART SECOND By Govind 
H. Patel of Dharmaj. Printed at the Arya Sudharak Printing Press, 
Baroda. Pp. 227. Price Re. 1-8-0 (1923). 

The first part of these “Imaginary Conversations” or 
dialogues was noticed by us. We were of opinion that it 
was a unique work in Gujarati and a valuable asset. 
The dialogues given in this part are equally valuable and 
throw a good deal of light on our mythological and 
historical past. The dialogues between Ranaka Devi 
and Jayasimha, Viramati and Jagadeva, Rama and 
Mandodari, Kumbhakarna and Ravaii are admirably 
set out. 

☆ 

“ DIALOGUES WRITTEN BY KALAPI AND KANTA 
Published by Jivanlal A. Mehta Pp. 152 Price 0-12-0 (1923). 

Kalapi, the late Thakore Saheb of Lathi and his 
friend ‘ Kanta ’ the late Manis'ankar R. Bhatt had in ad- 
dition to verses, written certain attractive dialogues bet- 
ween various historical and mythological persons. They 
are printed in this book along with the ‘ Dharma Vichara 
of Swedenborg,’ written by Kalapi. 

☆ 

“KRIS’NA VAKILlT’’:— by Premayogi. Pp. 57 Price 0-8-0 
(1924), 

Here is a mythological story of Arjuna and Hanu- 
man vying with each other about the trial of their 



Developmeut of G-ujarafci Literature : 1907-1938 147 

strength in bridge-building and bridge-demolishing, in 
which Arjuna loses, and is prepared to eat fire. Krisna 
intervenes and by his cleverness, pacifies both. This in- 
cident is dramatised here. 

☆ 

« SAM VADIK A ”:-by Popatlal Punjaial Shah (1929) 

The book is a collection of dialogues, divided into 
two parts, those meant generally for every body and 
those meant for Jainas specially. The introduction 
gives a short history of this branch of literature. The 
dialogues furnish delightful reading and many of them 
have been successfully acted on the stage at school- 
gatherings. 




NOVEL 
( Historical ) 




NOVEL ( Historical ) 

☆ 

“ALEXANDER, NA SAM AY NUN HINDUSTAN” :-by G. M. 
Desai of Broach. Price 1-4-0 (1908). 

The writer is a hale and hearty old gentleman of 62 
years who hardly feels his age. He is well-known 
amongst his friends as a lover of letters, and the object 
he has placed before himself, viz., to give a picture of 
Indian Society in which domestic virtues such as filial 
love, reverence for elders, should harmonise with loyalty 
to the paramount power, and the subjects' affection for 
their ruler has been ably carried out. 

Several incidents for instance, the mythical origin of 
Broach (called Bhrigu Kachchh), the miscellaneous ad- 
ventures of Kesari, the hero of the novel, do not quite 
fit in with the plot nor with the title of the book; but it 
may be said to their credit that they do not jar upon the 
reader. 

The narrative, although it professes to portray 
the state of ancient Hindu Society, in no way differs 
from many other stories which deal with the same state 
of society in mediaeval times. However it abounds in 
rich descriptions of processions and marriages ( which at 
times look as if the writer had taken the cue from the 
same demonstration as are held in the pre cent times ) 
and of natural scenery, which shows a powerful pen. 



152 


Hovel ( Historical ) 


Two-thirds of the book does not deal with Alexan- 
der's adventures at all, which are reserved for the tail end 
of the story. To the details of the route march and de- 
ception of the first clash of arms betweeen Alexander 
and his Indian foe, even Vincent Smith could not take 
exception, so faithfully are they adhered to. But the 
result of the second fight, alleged to be near Multan, 
where Alexander was said to have been wounded and 
given shelter by the Indian King, as well Alexander's 
dreams, seem to be made up to embellish the tale. 

The book still furnishes fascinating reading; but above 
all, its merit lies in its simple, homely and clear-cut 
style, a style created by old time studies, a style which 
is slowly to the detriment of the language, vanishing and 
giving place to a stilted, Sanskritised style. To say it can 
be read with interest by boys, girls and the most ordinari- 
ly as well as highly educated persons is but giving it its 
due. 

☆ 

“KHUDRAT HO KHELA” Part I by F. A. MunshL (1910) 
This is a novel in Gujarati, portraying Turkish domes- 
tic life and based on Ottoman or European Turkish his- 
tory. It foreshadows events in Turkey leading up to the 
rise of Major Enver Bey, the most famous hero of the 
young Turkey party. It is most fascinating reading and 
one feels as if one were devouring a morsel from the 
Arabian Night's Entertainments. The events are charm- 
ingly connected and incident glides so imperceptibly 
into incident that you cannot put down this book till you 
have finished it. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 153 

The parts played by Zobeida* Layla, Salim Pasha 
and Okif Pasha are most admirable. The style is that 
poetical prose which in the hands of an Urdu scholar has 
made Gujarati so very pliant and the rhythmic cast of 
the sentences and sub-sentences, produces a soothing 
effect upon the reader. Mr. Munshi knows his Gujarati 
and Urdu both very well and has utilised them equally so. 

☆ 

“SINDH UPAR SWARI (INVASION OF SIND),” by Ghuni- 
1 al Vardhaman Shah (1912) 

The very first invasion of Sind by Mahmud Kasim 
is the theme of this novel. Dahir Rai, the Hindu king, 
was a great believer in astrology. He was told by an 
astrologer that whoever married his sister would become 
a king and so to prevent the catastrophe he married her 
himself. Such folly is still known in Sind, as ‘Daber!;* 

Falling a victim to such statements, the other Hindu 
Kings of Sind did not come to his assistance; because they 
were told that ultimately the banner of Islam was to 
float over Sind. Therefore they saw no good in offering 
resistance to the Musalman invader. 

The narrative is interesting and the scenes well des- 
cribed. It will serve to make the history of Sind, in 
earlier times, better known in Gujarat, where until now, 
very little interest is taken in the affairs of that part of 
the Presidency. 

☆ 

“VIRA DURGADAS” by Vitthaldas Dhaejibhai Patel. (1912). 

Mr. Vitthaldas Dhanjibhai’s name is known as a 
writer of good repute and this novel keeps it up. Miss 



154 


Hovel ( Historical ) 


Jane Porter's novel “Scottish Chiefs" inspired him to pro- 
duce something like it in Gujarati and the stirring inci- 
dents in the history of Marwad, at the time when Aurang- 
zeb conquered Jodhpur, during the minority of Ajitsimba, 
furnished him with a parallel to the adventures of 
William Wallace. 

The heroic part played by the Marwad warriors 
headed by Durgadas at this time needs no repetition, and 
the novel at every step takes us over that interesting 
ground. 

☆ 

“SOMANATH NCJN STVALINGA” by Chunilal Vardhaman 
Shah. (1913) 

This book is a gift to the subscribers of the Prajd - 
bandhu , a weekly newspaper. The novel treats of the 
sack of Somanath by the Mahmud of Gaznavi. There is 
sad lack of historical fiction in Gujarati, but books of this 
nature would go a long way towards remedying this 
defect. Historically sound in outlines, the novel in a 
most interesting way narrat s the adventures of Mahmud, 
and King Bhima of Gujarat. 

The interest is so well sustained that one does not 
like to put down the book till one has finished it. An 
easy style contributes much towards the merits of the 
work. 

☆ 

“PATAK NX PADATI NO PBAKAMBHA” by Chunilal 
Vardhaman Shah. (1911) 

This is a novel, interestingly written in popular langus 
age. It deals with a chapter in the early history of old 



Development of Gujarati Literature s 1907-1938 


155 


ujarat, and draws a picture of the beginning of the fall 
E Patan. Like all the former works of Mr. Shah, this 
istoricat novel, furnishes both distinction and entertain- 
ient # 

4 ‘NIZAM SHAHI NO VAFADAR VAZXR 5 ’:— by Chanduial 
3thalal Vyas. Pp. 247; Price Rs. 1-4-0 (1914;. 

This is a well-written historical novel and is con- 
erned with the loyal services rendered by a Hindu Vazir 
o his Mahomedan master. 

It is a stirring incident in the history of the Deccan, 
,nd as the language is very simple, it is likely to 
ommand a large circle of readers. 

☆ 

“PAT ANA NJ PRABHUTA”: — By ‘Ghauas'yama’ Pp. 240 . 
rice Es. 2-0. (I9l6\ 

This is a historical novel, recalling the times when 
lujarat gloried in its own kings. The period chosen is 
he one when owing to the invasion of the province by 
he Mahomedans ( Mahmud of Gaznavi ). Anahilwad 
Patan, the capital of Gujarat had lost much of its 
.importance. 

The narrative portrays the struggle'of the Jaina with 
he Rajputs for mastery, and incidentally depicts; the in- 
trigue of the Jaina as well as his valour. The creed of 
r Ahimsa/ did not stand in his way, and he wielded his 
sword as effectively as his brain when the ocassion 
demanded the use of the one or the other. 

The story is a “galloping' * one, and the patriotism 
of the inhabitants of Patan, whether Jaina or Rajput, 



1 58 


Novel ( Historical ) 


when threatened by an alien enemy is the most credit- 
able episode of the whole story . 

☆ 

GUJARAT NI GAR JANA or HEMACHARYA NUN 
J1YAN SUTRA- 95 by Chunilal Yardhaman Shah, (1917). 

Jainas enjoyed at one time in Gujarat immense poli- 
tical power, and many are the stories told of the way in 
which the Yatis took full advantage of their position; 
not always to their credit. However one of them. Hem- 
chan drachary a has left a name behind him, and the 
novel relates his doings in a fascinating manner. 

Mr. Shah’s historical novel always furnishes instruc- 
tive and entertaining reading and the present work is no 
exception to that rule. 

“ARUNA OR YARANGANA KE VIRANGANI.? ” by R. 
N. Shah. (1920). 

The historical incident of Aruna, the mistress of 
Rana Udayasimha of Chitore, fighting to save the honour 
of that ancient Rajput house and successfully turning 
back Akbar and his Mughal hordes, is the fine subject- 
matter of this interesting novel, and no one will regret 
the time spent in reading it. 

ft 

“MOGUL SANDHYA.” by Rajendra Somainrayana Dalai. 
B. a. (1921). 

The writer of this novel is engaged in a sordid 
profession, working as an ordinary broker on the Stock 
Exchange, and it is greatly to his credit that he has not 
allowed the pursuit of his business to come in the way of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


157 


his leanings towards literature. " Vipin " was his first 
novel and this is his second. 

It describes the treachery of the last of the great 
Moguls, in respect of the Rajputs. Although the narrative 
does not, on the whole, reach a high level, there are 
several bright passages and chapters in it which arrest 
the reader's attention. 

“PREETHVI VALLABHA.” By Kanaiyalal Maneklal 
Munshi, b. a,, lb. b. Advocate, High Court, Bombay. Pp. 268. Price 
Rs< 1-8-0. {19*1). 

Mr. Munshi, by his two previous historical novels, 
Pdtan ni Prabhutd and Gujarat No Ndtha , has establish- 
ed himself as a writer of no mean order. His delineation 
of human character, feelings and passions is superb. 

This particular novel is concerned with the seven- 
teenth expedition cf Taiiapa against Munja of Avanti 
(Ujjain) as a result of which the latter was captured 
alive and taken to Telangana. Before he was killed, he 
went through various experiences in the capital of his 
captor, and one of the most notable was the subjugation 
by him of Tailapa’s ascetic, widowed sister, Mrinala Devi, 
who had deliberately deadened ail softer emotions of her 
heart. Before Munja's sunny smiles and playful arts, 
Mriiiul first melted, and then gave way completely. 

Similarly the rousing of love's passions in Vilasavati 
by Rasanidhi ( Bhoja ) is admirably depicted. Our 
only regret is that instead of closing the whole story 
abruptly, the author has not “played’' Mrinala and Munja 
longer. 



158 


Novel { Historical ) 


“ PKEMAGHELI PANNA.” by G. M. Pandyfi. Pp. 839 
Price 3-8-0 (1928). 

This novel though confined to the times of Akbar 
and the heyday of Rajput chivalry, is also meant to give 
a picture of the present national aspirations; and for a 
first attempt is certainly well conceived and well written. 

☆ 

“ABRIDGED KARANA GHELO;” published by Gujarat 
Vidyapitha, Pp. 193 Price 0-18-0 (1928) 

Karana Ghelo was the last Hindu king of Gujarat, 
before it passed into the hands of the Musslamans. His 
last days were described in a novel of that name, which 
has become a classic in Gujarati. School editions of that 
novel have already been published by Government; but 
this abridgement is a new departure. The Vidyapitha has 
abridged the work and divided it into connected chapters 
for its school purpose, 

“AJOJI THAKORE: Part ].” By Uebharangrai Ees'avrai 
Oza B. a. Pp. 108. Price Rs. 2-8-0 (1924) 

This interesting novel is designed to put before the 
reader, a subject most vital to the present and future 
state of India, viz. the relations of the Indian States with 
the Paramount Power. The States are also passing thro- 
ugh a transitional period, and the novel shows how the 
world forces when they affect the scion of a Ruling House 
stir him and how he aspires to free his own people from 
the shackles put upon them. 

The opening pictures of the condition of things in an 
old-world Native State are certainly good. The later 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 19^7—1938 159 

pictures of the prince and his lady-companions moving 
amongst Egyptians and Turkish patriots and democrats 
are certainly stirring, though woe fully improbable and 
colossal. 

☆ 

“IRA. V ATI - A HISTORICAL NOVEL.” by Chhaganlal 
Thakordas Modi, b. a. Pp. 308, Price 2-8-0 (1925) 

The book is said to have been based on a Dutch 
novel. It gives a graphic description of the times of Em- 
peror Akbar, and we feel at times as if we were re-read- 
ing all that is written about them by Faizi and Abul 
Fazl. The religious discourses, so much liked by the 
Emperor, are reproduced here, and the consequent intri- 
gues rampant there to dethrone Akbar and put Jahangir 
in his place are also described. Iravati, the heroine 
though neglected, remains faithful to her lover. Alto- 
gether it is an interesting story well told. 

☆ 

“MUPJD-E-SHAITAN.-lHE DISCIPLE OF SHAITAN” 
by Tuakkar Narayan Vasanji. Pp. 215 Price Rs. 2-8-0 (1927), 

The other name of the book is the excesses of the 
Moplahs of Malbar. It is a vivid word-picture of the 
fanatical outburst on the part of the Moplah Mussalmans 
of Malbar six years ago (1921). 

Incidentally the author tries to expose the fallacy of 
those who preach that the Koran enjoins the principle of 
religious toleration. 

He also feelingly points out the sad result of treat- 
ing a very large part of her Indian brethren as “untouch-’ 



160 


Novel ( Historical ) 


ables” an evil rampant in its worst aspects in South 
India. It is based on a Martahi novel. Its style is the 
one usual with the author^ stilted and Sanskritised* It 
is full of historical information, 

☆ 

“ SULTANA EAZIA. ” by Sadik. ( 1928 ). 

It is a sumptuously got-up volume and though 
written in the form of a novel, shows the incidents and 
events in the life and reign of the Sultana in their true 
perspective. It is so well written that we are sure that 
every reader would like it. A young Mahomedan from 
Irak writing in an Indian vernacular so well is something 
worth noting. 

“RAMAN AGAR NO RAJ AVI”, by Hari N. Pathak (1934) 

The modern state of Dharampur, near Bulsar 
( known as belonging to Prant Rama Nagar ) is situa- 
ted in what is known as North Konkan. Its gadi has 
been occupied by the Surya Vamsi Sisodia Rajputs, and 
it has played a very prominent part in the old and medie- 
val history of Gujarat. 

It consequently possesses many brilliant chapters, in 
which Valour, Courage, Chivalry, and the observance 
of promises given at great sacrifice, stand out pre-eminent. 

The story narrated in these pages deals with these 
praiseworthy characteristics of its rulers and begins with 
the times when its King Maharaja Somadeva ( A. D. 
1680 ) was ageing but the state was still possessed of its 
pristine glory. It furnishes interesting reading. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


161 


“CUTCHH N I PADMINI”; — By Thakkur Narayana Yisanji. 
Pp. 40 Price Rs. 3/- ( 1935 ). 

Queen Rajain is the heroine of this story and King 
Punaro, its hero. It is a romance of old Cutch, the 
land of virile men and women. It begins in Vikrama 
Samvat Era 1015, and is concerned with many stirring 
incidents in the eventful reign of that King. 

These incidents have been set out in the usual ver- 
bose style of this voluminous author; but what we parti- 
cularly want to point out is the supplement of one 
hundred and eight pages at the end, consisting of three 
parts in which the writer has examined the reign and 
characters of King Punaro and Jam Lakha Fulani, as 
described in folk-lore and also from a historical point of 
view. He has consulted twenty-seven different works 
in Hindi, Sanskrit, Gujarati and Urdu to compose 
this supplement. It is a model, which other writers 
in this direction should follow. 

‘‘AIAHARAJADHlRAJA” by Madhavalal T. Raval, ( 1935 ) 

This is a novel depicting two incidents connected 
with the well-known Solanki king Siddharaja of old Guja- 
rat, one to his discredit, the other to his credit. The dis- 
creditable incident is his attempt to abduct a very beauti- 
ful married woman of the digger class, called Jasma 
Odana and her suicide in defence of her chastity. An 
amount of folklore is collected round this event and it 
may or may not have happened. There is a chance of its 
being apocryphal. 

11 



162 


Novel ( Historical ) 


His conquest of Malva is the other incident. Both 
are narrated in an easy, chatty style and are founded on, 
certain original sources which are mentioned in the foot- 
notes, The book is divided into three sections. The 
third is a monograph on the Sahasralinga Tank which 
Siddharaja got excavated and at which excavation he saw 
Jasma working as a labourer and was enamoured of her. 

This monograph is the drst of its kind in our litera- 
ture and is sure to prove a very good guide to those who 
desire to study the subject. 

☆ 

“INKILAB” by Gunavantarai Acharya. ( 1935 ). 

Rao Raidban, an old ruler of Cutch forgetting the 
noble traditions of his predecessors had started a career 
of violence and terrorism under the advice of foreigners. 
His oppression of his subjects passed all bounds and the 
inevitable happened. 

The worm turned and the Rao got what he deserved. 
One Kashigar led the revolt (Inkilab) against him and 
is the incidents of this revolt which are set out in stirr- 
ing language in this historical novel. Every chapter of 
it is readable and inspiring. 

☆ 

“DESHA DIWANA” by Gunavantarai Acharya. (1938). 

This book is given as a present to its subscribers 
by “ Praja Bandhu ” a very well conducted weekly of 
Ahmedabad. It is a historical novel, and deals with 
the history and achievment of Meramana, Khavas, a 
well-known minister of one of the Kathiawad states. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 105 

History as till now written, paints him as an 
intriguing and selfish individual. The writer of this book 
says that it accords with the chronicles written under 
the patronage of the Royal families; but popular tales 
and folklore, which represent the opinion and estimate 
formed by the people themselves, make him out to be 
a great patriot, who encouraged marine pursuits and arts 
and crafts in Kathiawad during an uninterrupted minis- 
tership of half a century. 

Mr. Acharya writes with a facile pen and the inci- 
dents he describes are so well narrated that the reader's 
attention is held fast. The period is one of excitement 
and anarchy, just after the cessation of the Mulkgiri 
and Chauth of the Marathas. Mr. Acharya has drawn a, 
very attractive picture of those chaotic times. His pre- 
face shows an attempt to read history aright. 

V 

"GUJARAT NO BUZATO DEEP AKA” byNa^madas'ankar 
Yallabhaji Dwivedi. ( 1936 ). 

Hindu rule came to an end and Islam’s influence 
came to raise its head in Gujarat with the close of the 
reign of Karana Waghela. The writer of this historical 
novel is at pains to show that the impression left in the 
minds of readers of a prior novel, called “ Karana 
Ghelo ” about the rape by king Karana of his minister's 
brother's wife, the treachery of his minister MSdhava 
who is said to have induced Alauddin Khilji to invade 
Gujarat to avenge the rape, that Karna was defeated by 
"the Mahomedan army and his queen taken to the 
Sultan’s harem, is not supported by history or 
chronicle. 



Novel ( Historical ) 


164 


He tries to paint a picture of Gujarat in those days 
when Islam was sought to be propagated by means of 
an insidious propaganda; and says that the attempt met 
with success because of internal dissensions, political 
weakness, and disunion in matters religious. 

The three hundred and odd pages furnish very 
interesting reading, and incidentally correct many wrong 
notions. We consider it a welcome attempt in the past 
history of Gujarat. 

“RAJAHATYA.” By Chunilal Yardhamana Shah. ( 1»37 ) 

Mr. Chunilal Shah with his usual facile pen presents 
in this novel, the decline and fall of Hindu Rule in old 
Gujarat. The object he wants to set forth is that when 
a king neglects his official duties he must prepare him- 
self for the worst of fates; that even in old times in 
India people knew the principle that the subjects of a 
king were justified in driving him out when he behaved 
in an unkingly fashion and carrying on administration 
through their chosen representatives. 

King Ajayapal was done away with to enforce the 
above principle. In three parts, in this novel, the author 
has brought out various aspects of the history of Gujarat 
in that period in a felicitous way. 

''BHARELO AGNI”. by Ramanlal Yasantlal Desai, M. 
A. (1936). 

‘Bharelo Agni' means ‘Fire smouldering beneath 
Ashes \ The mutiny in India of A. D. 1857, has inspired 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 185 

various writers and this novel is based on the stirring 
events that took place then. It was an event not con- 
sisting entirely of brutality at the hands of Indian troops. 
There were cases of chivalry and unswe ving Indian 
Loyalty towards British officers and their families. 

Mr. Ramanlal has very successfully portrayed these 
relieveing and pleasant features of an unfortunante 
chapter in the connection of India with Britain. We are 
glad that this story which appeared in instalments in a 
monthly is now published in book-form. 

It furnishes very charming as well as instructive 
reading: instructive because the writer sees in the events 
of those days the germs of tolerence of different religious, 
views, if India is to secure perfect peace and independence* 

☆ 

** SURENDRANATH ”, By Somes'var Maganlal Pandit. 
Ylrakshetra Mudraualaya Press : Baroda. ( 1906 ) 

This is a translation into Gujarati of a wellknown 
Bengali novel of Babu Romesh Chandra Datta’s deal- 
ing with the invasion of Bengal by Todarmal. The 
language used throughout is very simple, and the work 
is likely to be popular. 

We have thought it fit to notice it here, to show 
how the intercommunication of the vernaculars of our 
country is proceeding. A good work in Bengali is 
appreciated in Gujarat, and a good work in Gujarati 
should, therefore, find appreciation in Bengal. 



166 


Novel ( Historical )— Translation 


(1) “GRIHA-VINODA ANE DES'A-VINAS’A.” By 
T. D. Gadhia. ( 1915 ). 

(2) ‘'GERMAN KAISAR NUN RANA VASA RAHASYA ” 
By the same author. 

The first book is the translation of a Bengali novel 
by Satig Chandra Ghosh and refers to the well-known 
incidents in the lives of Prithviraja and Samyukta. 

The second book is, we think, the first of its kind 
in Gujarati. It is the product of war. While war-litera- 
ture has supplanted other branches of literature in 
English, and brought into prominence the life and 
characteristics of the German and his Emperor, 
there was no such informative literature forthcoming 
in Gujarati. 

This book supplies the want. It is based on a Ben- 
gali book, that of Devendra Kumar Rai and gives the 
reader glimpses of the life ( family-life included ) of 
the Kaisar and his spouse. 

* 

“TALISMAN OR TAVIJA.” By Dhimafc Navalram 
Lakshmiram. ( 1909 ). 

It does not require to be stated that this is a 
translation of Sir Walter Scott's celebrated novel. The 
translator comes of distinguished literary lineage because 
Ms revered father’s name counts for so much that is 
valuable in the literature of Gujarat. As Mr. Dhimatram 
says in the preface,- the translation is the outcome of sad 
memories; he worked at it to soothe his bereaved 
heart, he having lost two wives successively. 



Development of Gajarati Literature : 1907-1938 167 

The composition is fair enough in its way; but we 
think, a succint account of the historical back- ground 
of the novel, the events that led to the Crusades, and 
their ultimate fate, would have assisted the ordinary reader 
more fully to take interest in the incidents narrated therein, 
and would have made the preface more useful than this 
piece of autobiographical information that the labour of 
love was undertaken as an antidote to sad feelings. 

He could again have very well substituted the word 
“Musalman” in place of its English equivalent, 
‘‘Saracene”, which he has retained throughout. But all the 
same, the book furnishes interesting reading. 

☆ 

“NURAJAHANA” by Nalinkant N. Divetia. (1912). 

Belonging to a literary family, Mr. Nalinkant has 
begun to essay the paths of literary work early in life, 
Sardar Jogendra Singh's novel has inspired his work. He 
has translated it into Gujarati, where certainly it should 
find a welcome place. 

Translated well, it possesses the quality common to 
this kind of work, in as much as it entertains the reader 
without tiring him. Mistakes due to ignorance of Persi- 
an have crept in, like calling Meher-un-nisa, Mihar-un- 
nisa, Na^ir-Ahmed. 

“GULAMGIRI NO GAJAB.” by Mrs. Yimaia Setalvad. (1918) 

This book and the preceding one owe their publication 
to the enterprise of young Mr. Tripathi, who has shown an 
admirable public spirit in thus encouraging their authors 



168 


Novel ( Historical- Translation ) 


in these war-times. Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 
44 tJncle Tom’s Cabin” needs no introduction and, Mrs. 
Vimala's translation certainly does not detract from the 
deserved merits of the original. 

Accompanied as it is with the life-story of Mrs. Stowe 
and good illustrations, we are sure that the book 
would find many readers. The translation is not a slavish 
adherence to the text or a word for word one, but a judi- 
cious reproduction of the ideas of the original writer in 
simple Gujarati, and in that respect a model one. 

We think there is no need to have a literal translation 
of the book after this, for it seems that the present 
translator considers that to be a desideratum. 

☆ 

“THE STORY OF CONSTANTINOPLE ” : By Kesavlal 
Hargovinddas S’eth. Pp. 1&9 Price Re. 1-4-0 (1921). 

This book is intended as a present for the current year 
to the subscribers of 44 Praja Bandhu a weekly news- 
paper of Ahmedabad, It forms one of a series of histo- 
rical novels with which it has been presenting ics 
supporters every year since 1910. 

This story is based on Dr. John Neel's “Fall of Con- 
stantinople” and gives the reader a very good idea of its 
state, political and otherwise, in the fifth century A. D. 
With the Khalifat question to the fore in India’s Politics, 
a book giving details of that famous Turkish Metropolis, 
attractive at all times, should prove of greatest interest. 

“FANSIGAR” By Namaskar. Pp. 190. Price Rs. 5-fl934). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


169 


Col. Meadows Taylor’s “ Confessions of a Thug” has 
been translated into Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati. The 
Gujarati translation was made more than a generation 
ago and w is merely a translation. The present work 
(translation) by Namaskar has many novel and attractive 
features. Not only is the translation free, and therefore 
the rendering more natural but the introduction and the 
several footnotes disclose a deep study of the subject from 
a historical and psychological point of view. 

The Thugs come from both communities, Hindu and 
Mussalman. They both took a vow at the altar of the 
Goddess Bhavani, and were given to understand that they 
were conferring a boon on humanity by killing men with- 
out shedding blood. Thus a religious background was 
given to this cruel practice of strangling unsuspecting tra- 
vellers with a handkerchief and robbing them. 

Col. Sleeman’s workin this connection is well-known; 
it has been studied by the writer. Social conditions ob- 
taining in India about a hundred years ago also are bro- 
ught out prominently by him in his observations. In 
short it is an intelligent work accomplished from a scho- 
larly point of view. 

“S'AMBHAJI NUN RAJYA-AROHANA Kes'avalal BE. 
S'eth. Pp. 130, Price Rs. 1-0-0 (1922). 

This novel concerning the succession of ^ambhaji to 
^ivaji’s gadi is based on a Marathi book called “Asto- 
day”. There are various versions as to the cause of 
^ivaji’s death; one of them is that he was poisoned by his 



170 


Novel ( Socio-religious ) 


second consort Sairabai, so that she may get the gadi for 
her own son Rajaram. 

Stirring incidents at the time of the death of the hero 
of Maharastra are narrated here in a style in keeping with 
the subject, and the novel furnishes indeed very interest- 
ing and informative reading. 

☆ 

<j GRlHASTHA.” by M. M. Batura (1911) 

This is a socio-religious novel from the pen of an expe- 
rienced Parsi writer, who has already published two 
admirable works called ‘ Bhagvat Bhaona * and 
*Vanaprastha\ But for the name of this author on the title 
page, it would be next to impossible to know that the 
book is written by a gentleman of the Parsi community. 

The diction is so chaste, the language so correct, and 
the religious ideas so saturated with the higher and 
subtle forms of Hindu Philosophy that one wonders how 
it is possible for such an individual to exist in an at- 
mosphere where the whole surroundings of his community 
make for all that is non-Hindu and non-Indian, in 
favour, of Anglicisation. Malabari, Khabardar, 
Taleyarkhan and the present author, these are some of 
the cases which relieve the otherwise arid Sahara of Parsi 
Gujarati literature, which in the last quarter of a century 
has sprung up as a sort of a hybrid appanage to the 
everyday progressive literature of Gujarat. 

Mr. Ratura wants to show that anger is at the root 
Of all family unhappiness while its opposite (sattviki 
Vntti) leads to harmony and peace. This truth is illustra- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


171 


ted by means of a drama in which seriousness and 
humourousness are interspersed, while throughout the 
whole book runs a bright thread of an inimitable mastery 
over and an intimate knowledge of Hindu religious 
conceptions, Vedantic and Puranic, which astounds one 
by their sheer detail and correctness. 

Parsi and Mahomedan gentlemen who possess this 
sort of knowledge are very few in number and Mr. 
Ratura is one of them. It rejoices one's heart to see that 
in spite of the modern cry of sectarianism, there are sane 
heads who still recognise the older connections. Will- 
power which was able to perform miracles in the olden 
times, is prominently recognised by the author where he 
narrates the incident of Prince Nirmitra reviving his 
Head-wife Rajadhi Devi, by making to her a gift of 
half of his remaining life. 

In short, the whole book is bubbling over with good 
and grand ideas, which to others might strike as old- 
fashioned, but which to the author seem to be even to- 
day living truths. 

☆ 

U VIVIDHA SUKHABHASA PRATHAMABHASA.” By the 
late Yaidya S asfcri Ratansinh Govindji Dharamsy. Pp. 368, Price 
Rs. 2-8-0 (1914). 

In the forefront of this book, one finds a more than 
detailed biography of Mr. Devji Trikamdas Thakkar b. a. 
ix.b. a Vakil practising in the local Small Causes 
Court to whom the deceased author feels deeply grateful 
for assistance given in the printing and publication of his 
work. It makes out Mr. Devji to have attained to his 



172 


Novel ( Socio-religious ) 


present position out of sheer persistence and industry; it 
also makes him out to be a very great benefactor of his 
caste; all this and much more in a like strain must prove 
very flattering to him as perhaps it would lead his friends 
to see him presented as a completety transformed entity* 

The object of the book -which is an incomplete story- 
is to set out the evil of following impulses due to Rajas 
and Tamas and the good of following those generated by 
Sattva, The narrative has nothing original about it, but 
the earnestness of the writer is sure to appeal to the 
reader. 

☆ 

“RAVIKANTA : Part I.” By GhuniJal Narbherim Oesai. Pp. 
400. Price Ks. 2-0-0 (1914). 

In the guise of a novel, the writer has tried to set 
out pinciples of morals according to the Hindu 6astras. 
He calls his book-a book for showing the path of virtue. 
There is nothing sparkling, new or original in this work. 
It treads the beaten path, where each new-comer thinks 
he has got something new to convey but is successful 
only in communicating old truths. 

Perhaps the plan is not bad, since repetition in such 
cases does tend to accentuate and emphasize their 
worth, and very often bring back the wanderer to the 
right path. 

☆ 

“SWARGA JAtfANTl OR ADARS’A NI KATHA.” by C. 
N. Dwivedi. Pv. 251 Price 1-8-0 (1925). 

Undert he garb of a novel, the writer discusses 
Vedanta Yoga, It has always been found that such a hybrid 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 173 

satisfies neither the canons of Philosophy nor of fiction 
and the reader is simply bewildered to find out as to 
where he is. The bewilderment is, however, lessened in 
some cases where passages, comparatively simple and 
understandable, relieve the technical aspect of the sub- 
ject. The writer says that the present work is but a 
fragment and more is coming. We wish him joy of his 
expectations. 

☆ 

“MRADCLA:” By “Subandhu” Pp. 176. Price 0 8-0, (1907; 

A band of young men at Ahmedabad have formed 
themselves into a union for the encouragement of litera- 
ture in Gujarat, and amongst other useful works accom- 
plished by this “Bandhu Samaj” -which includes among 
it, many University educated gentlemen-is the success- 
ful starting and continuing of an admirable little month- 
ly, the “Sundari Subodha” entirely devoted to the interests 
of ladies, cheap (at Re 1-3-0 per annum), and full of 
interesting and useful contributions mostly of late from 
the pen of ladies. This monthly is in the fourth year 
of its existence, and thriving, as it deserves to be. 

The above booklet, containing a social novel, is a 
present made to the subscribers of the magazine, being 
the fourth of its kind. It breathes all the good senti- 
ments, generated in the breasts of boys and girls, the 
results of modem college and school education and 
furnishes a sample of the channel which the writers 
of the production are following. 



174 Novel ( Social ) 

“BE MUDRIKA.” by i). a Dwivedi. Pp. 157 (1908). 

This is a very short novel and we could run through 
it in exactly forty-five minutes. It professes to he a 
novel depicting the social life of the Hindus, but the 
main incident on which it is founded looks very much 
like one taken from a society completely alien to it. 

A Hindu father misled by certain astrological prophe- 
cies allows his daughter to remain unmarried till she is 
twenty and then marries her blindfolded to a husband* 
imposing, on either of them the condition that the one 

should not see the face of the other, til] after five 
years, on pain of instant death of the husband. Both 
are given rings unique in their make which they are to 
put on after five years and then recognise each other by 
the sign of the signet. 

The end is a happy one and the characters are made 
to look lifelike, but every now and then we come across 
a faint echo of Kumud Sundari and Sarasvati Chandra in 
the portrait of the hero and heroine. The style is tolera- 
bly good. 

“NARGIZ NATAKARA” by G. K. Delvadakar. (1910). 

This book purports to give in the form of a tale the 
doings of an honourable actress on an Indian stage. The 
actress is supposed to be the illegitimate daughter of a 
Naw&b of Dacca, and is m ide ultimately to marry a 
foster-brother of hers, who is a Hindu. She is further 
made to deliver a sermon on stage-morality and roundly 
expose the tricks of theatre-runners. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


175 


The story told is unnatural and improbable; and the 
purpose with which it is written, it entirely fails to carry 
out; we get no adequate idea of the heinousness of the 
crimes of those who enmesh youngsters into the viles of 
low actresses, and the inner workings of the green-room 
could have been much better portrayed. 

It perpetuates all the faults which we noticed in 
reviewing a former work of Mr, Delvadakar and we 
regret to say we find no good point in the book which we 
can bring out here. His quotations are as inapt and out 
of place as ever, and the composition is further disfigured 
by the interspersing of advertisements with reading 
matter and a large number of typographical mistakes. 

The photo of a Bengali girl in the dress of a Guja- 
rati seem to betray the absence of the faculty of ac- 
curacy and taste in the writer. 

* 

‘‘US , AKANTA , ’by Bhogindrarao Ratanlal Divatia, B. a. (1908). 

The author is a member of the well-known Bandhu 
Samaj of Ahmedabad, an association whose mission is the 
uplift of our society by means literary and social, and 
every member ot which is as it were under a vow to do 
some useful work with very little parade thereof. They 
have jointly started and maintained successfully a 
monthly called the ‘Sundari Subhodha’, while each mem- 
ber severally is again doing other meritorious literary 
work. Perhaps the present writer is the foremost of them 
all, for we come across his work now and then. 

‘Usakanta’ is a novel which in its preface lays claim 



176 


Novel ( Social ) 


to doing;semething in the line specialised by Jules Verne- 
] or ularisation of science by means of fiction. But we 
find that object forming but a small part of the picture, 
towards the end of this novel, while the background is 
made up of scenes taken from almost every phase of 
the modern social life of Gujarat. 

In a way it is the most uptodate novel of the times; 
even the infant institution of the Seva Sadan started by 
Mr. B. M. Malbari and the Servants of India order, start- 
ed by the Hon" Mr. G. K. Gokhle have places assigned 
to them in the plot. The many different incidents 
narrated in the book, e. g., the leave taking scene on 
the Ballard Pier at Bombay where Indian students bid 
a long farewell to their mother country, the sick 
chamber on the shores of the Jamna at Allahabad, are 
vividly worked out, and thus leave a deep impression on 
the mind. 

The toul ensemble of the novel is elevating and 
chastening. Prabhakara and Ushakant are the centre 
figures of the novel, and their character is brought into 
great relief by the back-ground supplied by the charac- 
ter of the heroine who holds fast to Ushakanta under 
great stress of circumstances. 

The narative runs on very smoothly and pleasantly 
from start to finish, and there is not a dull page in the 
whole of the book. 

☆ 

“YIPINA” by Raiendra Somanrayana Dalai, B. A. (1910^. 

This is a novel, written by a young gentleman enga- 
ged in the prosaic work of a share-broker. It purports to 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 177 

give a picture of tae modern life of Bombay and the Na- 
tive States, and this is the writer's first attempt, made 
two or three years after leaving College. We have no 
hesitation in saying that he has made the utmost of 
every opportunity he must have met with, for the book 
at every step demonstrates the results of keen powers 
of the observation 01 life in town and country, and diges- 
tion of what he has read. 

The delineation of scenes of Bombay life and the set- 
ting out of the intrigues in Native States give promise, 
commendable as they are even now, of much better work 
in future. But above all, what has impressed us most is 
the style of the author. It is all that one could desire; 
neither vulgarly simple nor pedantically Sanskritised. In 
his smooth, homely language, rising at times only to a 
little high pitch, when his characters require it, he has 
set an example of the capacity of simple Gujarati in the 
expression of even delicate sentiments to those who cannot 
but write Sanskrit in a thin Gujarati garb. 

We may say that at places, there is a striking imita- 
tion, perhaps ^unconscious on his part, of the scenes and 
situations in Sarosvati Chandra (by the late G. M. Tripathi) 
in this novel, e. g., where Vipin and Sisir meet and their 
bodies touch each other, one feels there is a faint echo of 
the meeting between Sarasvati Chandra and Alaka Kis'ori; 
or where some of his characters break out into English 
instead of Gujarati to give force to their words; or the 
intriguing in the Native States, where the whole idea seems 
to be conceived in the spirit of that particular part of the 
plot of Sarasvati Chandra . That unique novel has taken s 6 
12 



178 


Novel ( Social ) 


much hold of the present generation of Gujarat that it now 
dominates a very large part of their pen and heart. 

We may say also that the choice of some of the names 
of his characters is rather unhappy. In Gujarati society it 
is unusual to hear names like Ranga Rao and Jasmine, 
the one being a Parbhu or Beccani name and the other 
purely English. 

☆ 

“ CHANDRA KaJjA. n by G. K. Deivadakar. (1909) 

Mr. Deivadakar for the last ten years has been trying 
to figure as a Kinder-garten expert and as a story-writer 
in Bombay; and we believe, he has been able to make a 
stir at least in the Parsi community. The several parts in 
which he has continued and concluded the story of Nilnma 
and Mawlca he seems to cosider as his magnum opus; for 
we find in all his other stories, a reference to this particular 
one, in very adulatory terms. Aa a matter of fact, one 
story of his is a type of the others. 

The plot of the one under review can be told in a few 
lines : a Bombay &ethia out of avarice, robbed his friend, 
and in his turn was robbed by another swindler, of both 
his moneys and the virtue of his wife and daughter, while 
his other daughter, as if to avenge the former robbery, 
married the son of the illtreated friend. 

The whole book is interspersed with quotations from 
Urdu, Gujarati and English, at times whole chapters are 
stuffed with them. They are not all of them happy, nor 
apt'and often there is a repetition of the identical pieces. 

The relieving features are the simple style and the get- 
up of the pictures, which appear af if they were photo- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 179 

graphs of private individuals, utilised for this purpose. 
The writer flatters himself that he has secured a large 
reading public and we will not say anything to disturb 
this belief. 

☆ 

"SHEI SATYANO BHANOAR RAT^ASIMHA ” by V. 
Grj Mehta. (1910) 

This book is so small in size, that the hollow of one's 
palm can hold it. Ratnasimha, the hero, was a speculator 
but distinguished for his truth-telling. He could not pay 
his creditors and told them he would, if necessary, 
steal; from the palace of the king and pay them; and to. 
carry out his word, he does so, and is found out and taken 
to;the king, to whom he confesses the whole story and is 
pardoned. 

The book has no literary or any other kind of merit, 
and beyond satisfying the self-complacency of the writer 
serves no other useful pupose. 

“ KAMALA K.UMARI ” by B. Narasimhararoa (1910) 

This novel presents a true picture of Hindu domestic 
life in its worst and cruelest aspects in a vivid form. It is 
prefaced in English by that well-known Social Reformer, 
Mr. Ramanabhai Nilkantha. Child marriage, the agonies 
of young widowhood, the immoralities of the lives of those 
Upadhyayas who live in sacred places and other social 
evils of those who live in Gujarat and Kathiawad: such 
as the mournful beating of breasts by women in public &c, 
are mercilessly exposed and ridiculed here. It will do 



180 Novel ( Social ) 

good to the heart of any one to read such books, and see 
where we are socially. 

te S'ANTIDA '* by Mrs Sumati (1910) 

Mrs. Sumati is known as a valued contributor to 
several Gujarati magazines, but this book is, we believe, 
her first attempt to exercise her pen on an extended and 
connected story. 

Her object is to show that mutual forgiveness is at 
the root; of the connubial bliss, and the hasty nature of her 
heroine ^antida's husband and the extremely dilatory and 
happy-go-lucky temper of herself are responsible for the 
domestic calamity which resulted in the temporary separa- 
tion of a most loving couple. 

Her descriptions of the country round Poona and 
Lonavals, are specially charming. We like the book very 
much indeed, on the whole. 

“MOHAMaXI MAN TBANa TARUNl” by M. P. JJesni. (1911) 

This little book is a satire, in the form of a novel on 
the present day “reform” of Bombay ladies. Properly 
condensed the subject-matter shrinks into nothingness. 
Still out of it, the writer has managed to spin out a tale 
which ordinarily educated women are sure to enjoy. 

☆ 

“SUVAR*AKUMARI,”by C. M. Bhatfc (1913). 

The recent Aryan Brotherhood dinner at Bombay, 
where high and low caste members of Hindu society 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 181 

sat down in one row to partake of food served by Brahmins, 
was the cause of a storm of some dimensions in the several 
castes concerned. Some diners were excommunicated 
and all those who did not undergo Prayaschitta (Penance) 
were not taken back into caste. 

This incident set the writer of this novel reflecting; he 
is in favour of the fusion of sub-castes; and he considers 
the divisions of one main caste into several unmeaning. 
His panacea for the cure of this evil is Education and the 
prevention of child marriages. 

In presenting two different pictures of the present 
Hindu society — an Indian at Charing Cross— and one in the 
back woods of the country— the author alludes to the forces 
at work, just now, and he thinks the resultant is bound to 
be something happy. The story is well told, and the style 
is so simple that no effort is required to follow the point 
and main incidents of the tale. 

☆ 

“ BALA ” by R'imamohanrai Jaswantrai Desai b. a (1913), 

As as an earnest worker for the uplift of the 
cause of female education and instruction, and as the life 
and soul of "Sundari Subodha Mandar’ the writer of this 
social novel w ; th the motto of "Love and Labour" is well- 
known in Gujarat* This book is a continuation of his 
"Yogini”. 

It is a collection of pictures in which the lives of our 
young men and women are painted in three stages-con- 
servative or old, intermediate and modem. As such pictures, 
they are all right, the portraiture is correct, and at times 
vivid. The other object of the author, viz., to draw attention 



182 Novel ( Social ) 

of the reader; to words social service, is also well brought 
out. 

In places there are heard loud echoes of “Sarasvati 
Chandra;' * but the writer makes no secret of the the 
influence under which he is writing. 

But in spite of some of the merits, one cannot shut 
one's eyes to the choppy natue of the outturn. Episodes, 
having nothing in common with one another are strung to- 
gether in a loose way; homilies and sermons crop up in 
places where they just serve the purpose of distracting the 
attention of the reader from the sequence of events and 
give the book more an appearance of a collection of 
sermons than a narrative of incidents. 

But this is in keeping with the latter style of “Sarasvati 
Chandra", The pleasure that one derives from the perusal 
of a novel, pure and simple, e. g., the — “Somanath Nun 
£ivalinga" reviewed above-is therefore wanting here. 


“KAMIN1 ANE’ KAN CHAN.” PARTS I TO 8. by Chhagau- 
lal Naranji Mesri. (1913). 

This is a novel based on the moral precepts of Rama- 
Krisna Paramahamsa, and Babu Haran Raksit. As its 
name implies it portrays a picture of the evil influence of 
women and gold. Its different chapters are of varying 
literary quality. 

The young author has a good command over the 
Gujarati language and the chapter which relates the in- 
cident of the failure of the prostitutes to deviate the saint 
from his straight path, is written with ability. 



Development of Gruajjati Literature : 1907-1938 183 

"RASIKA CHANDRA”:— Part IY. By Bbogindra Ratanlal 
Divetia b. a. Pp. 256, (1913). 

Two parts and a half of the novel were written by a 
deceased writer, and the remaining half of the third 
volume was finished by another. We admire the temerity 
of the present writer who has undertaken to write out the 
fourth part. 

Not having read the previous parts, we are not in a 
position to judge of the present performance relatively. 
Though what is therein presented seems to by interesting 
enough. 

☆ 

“ ANTARA-DHVVANI : — Part I. ’ By Vrindavan Damodar 
P&rekh. Price Rs- 1-4-0, (1914). 

The author has intended this to be a novel, in which 
could be seen, as in a mirror, the social life of the people 
as well as the khatapat in a native State. 

At the first sight, it appears as if it follows the broad- 
lines of the famous Gujarati magnum opus the “Sarasvati- 
Chandra”. But in spite of the apparant imitation, we 
have found it interesting and well written. 

☆ 

“ KUNJABALA — By S’ivabhai. Pp. 181 Price Rs. 1-0-0. 
(1914). 

This is a domestic novel, and continuation of the 
writer's former work called “ Madhukara. ” This novel 
is of a kind which the middle or the ordinarily educated 
class likes to read and take delight in. 

The style and language ;help them and so far the writer 
has every right to congratulate himself. 

tz 



184 


Novel ( Social ) 


“MERl MADAM ” by Mrs. Dinbai [1915) 

Parsi life, like Parsi literature has carved out a niche 
for itself, on this side of India. This novel represents but a 
phase of that movement. The social life of this community 
is day by day trying to assimilate as much as possible and 
approximate English life, and the lady-writer has attempted 
to caricature this tendency. 

It is a small chatty book, which could be finished in an 
hour. She is thoroughly up-to-date with her materials and 
quite at home in the patois used by her fellow-companions 
and their menials. She has succeeded in exposing the rot 
of apishness which has been spreading over her people 
of late. 

☆ 

‘'HAMASTR KE SAMS'ER ?” by M^shrek (Sohrab Sheheri- 
y ar Irani) (1916) 

“ Mashrek ” is an Irani by birth, and Gujarati is an 
acquired language to him, but he has written this novel, 
like many others of his books, in that easy, chatty style, 
which a Parsi, bom and bred in Gujarat would do. He is a 
humorous writer too, and his humour peeps out here and 
there, in this novel, much to the relief of the reader. 

☆ 

“SNEHA-LATA” by H. R* Patel. P. 170. Price 1-8-0 (1916) 

This is a novel which would not be found heavy or un- 
interesting reading. The object of the writer is to portray 
love marriages as contrasted with physical unions. The 
price is exorbitant. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 185 

"AMULYA AMRITA”. by C. H. Shah. P. 348, Re. 1-12-0 

(1917) 

The writer calls it a Hindi Social Novel; and says in 
his preface that he has kept its language specially simple 
so that those Parsis who have a leaning towards Gujarati 
Literature may be able to read it. 

The plot is a hotch-potch of many incidents, and crude 
because of the first attempt of the writer. 

☆ 

‘‘SOLICITOR”, by Bhogindrarao Ratanlal Divet a, b. a. (1917) 

Mr. Bhogindrarao is trying to establish his name as a 
writer of short novels in Gujarati, and the book under 
review is meant to depict the two sides - the bright and 
dark - of an attorney's profession. For this purpose he has 
taken two solicitor-partners as his models, one of them 
honest and the other dishonest. Like all such narratives in 
the end, virtue is rewarded and vice f died. 

The main object, however, of the writer has hardly 
met with success. His treatment of it is superficial and 
does not touch even the fringe of the evil he means to 
expose. No intimate knowledge of the inner working of an 
attorney's office is shown beyond describing it as a group 
of ill-paid clerks, working under a hectoring master. 
Mr. Motilal Sattavala's treatment and handling of the sub- 
ject in his novel ( “Visami Sadi" ) is far superior and more 
correct. 

This novel merely emphasises the notion that an at- 
torney is a blood-sucking vampire, and sticks at nothing in 
search after lucre. Several aspects of modem female edu- 
cation and progress and glimpses of the life of a certain 



186 


Novel ( Social ) 


section of Bombay landladies are worked into the novel, 
which are expected to interest the middle -class reader. 

& 

“ EKA GRADUATE Nl KATHA by H«rilal Maneklal 
Desai b . a . (Id Id). 

The writer has tried to trace in this book the miseries 
of our Indian student from the start of his school-life till 
his graduation, and after. The futile efforts to secure 
service and in the case of a law-graduate, either practice or 
a Munsifship, find their inevitable place in it. 

He has attempted to give the story a touch of humour, 
but we think it neither successful nor rightly placed. 

☆ 

“ GRAMYa GAURI ” by H. R Shah. (1919) 

This is a novel, and the writer has meant in writing it 
to expose the headlongness of the rush which takes the fair 
sex in Presidency towns away from their proper function. 
He illustrates his thesis by means of contrasting a pair of 
county girls (Gowri and Jyotsna) with a pair of town girls 
and leaves the reader to draw the moral. 

He has succeeded in satisfying himself that he possesses 
the ability to present the plot and its denouement in a 
suitable setting of language and sequence of events. Of 
course, it is not first class work; it bears all the traces 
of a tyro’s pen. 

The only redeeming feature is the sincerity of the 
writer and his genuine abhorrence of the plutocrat’s profli- 
gate life. The other redeeming feature is perhaps the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


187 


pictures which show up faithfully the present day Gujarati 
belles of Bombay in their artificial and ugly make-up. 

The Sanskritised garb of the language is certainly 
inexcusable in a novel meant for the masses. 

☆ 

£< US’AKANTA ” by the late Mr. B. R. Divetia B. A (1920) 

We are glad the book has run into a second edition. 
We have already given our opinion on this novel when it 
was first published. The enterprising young publisher has 
added to its value and attractiveness by illustrations. 

☆ 

“ AFKIKA NI ASARAFIO ” : by Abdulla Khan Budhu 
Khan Panm, P. 431, Price Ks. l-Q-0 (1922) 

We generally review fresh books. This is a social 
novel and the writer being a Mohamedan, it deserves en- 
couragement, looking to the way in which he has handled 
the language. 

☆ 

** HRlSTKES'A CHANDRA ” : by Ramaprasad Kas'iprasad 
DesaiB. A. P.334. Price 3-9-0 11922). 

This is the first part ol a novel in which the author has 
tried to present religious life as lived to-day. It is v not a 
simple life, but full of several complex problems and we 
like its language and the way in which he has described 
those problems and the many phases of our life, which is 
still greatly under the influence of Western thoughts and 
ideas. 

It has got one or two bright chapters. 

☆ 



188 


Novel ( Social) 


u TJS'A AND ARUNA ” : by < r Bhanu” P 356. Price 
3—0—0 (1923). 

The puiport of the story is that the uplift of our 
country would come only when women .ike Usa and men 
like Aruna would work hand in hand. The plot is well- 
developed and the life of Muralis (dancing girls attached 
to temples) of South India well depicted. 

One such Murali is reclaimed by Aruna and she feels 
grateful to him till the end of her life. The book is a 
creditable performance for one living so far away from 
Gujarat. 

U 

t€ DIVYA JYOTI M : by Dhaus'ankara Hiras’ankar Tripathi. 
Pp. 227 Price 1-8-0 (1923; 

The author is an advocate of Love-Marriage and 
illustrates his thesis by a novel, written to suit the modem 
phase of our society. Some illustrious couples of our 
mythological period, according to him, contracted such 
marriage, and he asks for an approval and the con- 
tinuance of that vogue. 

☆ 

“N1RMALA” by C.M Bhatt Pp. 234. Price 2-0-0 (1924). 

The object of the writer of this short novel is to 
point out the evil and work for the eradication of the 
numerous sub-castes and subdivisions into which the 
four primary castes have drifted and in consequence, 
scarcity of eligible brides and bridegrooms. He is an 
advocate of the original Varnasrama Dharma. He is 
not a novice in Literature, and consequently says what 
he has to say with efficacy and unaggresively. 



Development of G-ujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


189 


He does not go u the whole hog” and want to 
abolish the caste system. He stands mid-way and even if 
the ideal for which he stands were achieved, much of the 
evil from which our society suffers at present would sure- 
ly disappear. His three heroines are well portrayed. 

☆ 

“JYOTI" : by Mrs. Bbanumati Dalpatram Trivedi, Pp. 192. 
Price Re 1 (1923). 

This is Mrs. BhanumatPs second excursion into the 
region of Literature. The first was a translation from 
Bengali. This one is a piece of original writing. Its 
burden is to show up the present deplorable state of our 
■society in spite of modem education and consequent 
advanced social views. Jyoti, the heroine is sold by her 
parents to an unsympathetic plutocrat, in preference to 
being married to one whom she loved with all her heart, 
although poor. 

She depicts the scenes between this ill-match couple, 
with a pen and an intelligence, which only a woman can 
do. We specially recommend to the reader one such 
scene at pages 86 and 87, where she stands up against 
her husband and refuses to depose falsely against Yogesa 
(which she was really intended to do) and so condemn 
him as a thief. 

The whole story is very pathetic and sympathetic 
and its special merit lies in the fact of its describing 
familiar scenes in appealing language. 



190 


Novel ( Social ) 


“MANU AND BEANU : PARTS I & II.” by M. N. Desa\ 
Pp. 561; 372. Price 2-0*0 each (1925). 

This novel depicts in a very interesting way the 
pitfalls in the life of a wealthy young man. It also gives 
all the good points of a young Hindu wife, although 
educated on modem lines; it paints the picture of the 
normal domestic life of a Hindu family in Bombay* 
These features are enough to make it popular. 

4 iJ ARA KE JHBRA ?” by the late Mr. C P Manjar. Pp. 
201. Price 1-J.-0 (1927). 

‘Money or Poision V This is the title of this Novel, 
and the writer has commendably shown that in the 
hands of unscrupulous person possession of wealth is not 
a blessing but a curse. The interest of the narration is 
well sustained and the sequence of events such as could 
be easily followed by an average reader. 

The ‘silent’ Munim is the hero of the piece, and the 
character of Ramu, the humble but loyal gomashta 
well drawn. 

tv, 

“JANJIR NE ZAtfAKARE by Champs’! bdes’i, Calcutta. 

(1928). 

Although it is Mr, ChampsVs first attempt at novel- 
writing, the book has run into a second edition. It is 
written in simple language and has a high ideal in view 
viz , that every one should act according to the dictates, 
of his or her conscience. 

There are instances given of Rajput chivalry and 
courage and aPogether the attempt is an encouraging one- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


191 


‘'SNEHA-PURNA” by GokuJdasDwarkadas Raichura (1928). 

This novel is written in simple language. Its object 
is the uplift of women in Gujarat and Kathiawad. The 
scenes described are so familiar and domestic that very 
little imagination is required to visualise them. It is 
bound to fulfil its object. 

☆ 

“NYAYA NO NATHA” by M. M. Gharekhan, B. a., ll b. 
Pp. 286. Price Rs. a (1928) 

A very interesting novel with the background of 
common incidents in an Indian family, and in the object of 
rendering poetic justice to its chief characters in the plot, 
the hand of the Advocate is visible in the Court Scene. 
It is a novel which one would like to read. 

☆ 

“GRAMA-LAKS'Ml: Parts I & II.” by lumanlal Vasantlal 
Desai m. a. (1934’. 

Gramaiaksmi, the wealth-goddess of a village. Who is 
she ? This is the problem the author seeks to solve: Is 
she a being of flesh and blood, like his hero's own wife 
Kusum full of nerve and fun, with an innate desire to 
serve and help her husband Aswin in the fulfilment of his 
ideal — uplift of his village, or is she a mere dream, a vision, 
he saw rising from the village— pond lily (Pankaja) on a 
fine moonlit night? In other words, is it possible to 
reform an Indian village and its inhabitants at the hands 
of the University graduate, a B. E., helped by his own wife, 
not much learned but willing to work ? 

A third part is still to come, and hence one cannot 
say what the result of Aswin's efforts would be, success or 



i 92 


Novel ( Social ) 


failure: so far he seems to have gone forward and reformed, 
Dhedas, field-labourers, cultivators and even dacoits. In 
fact Mehru, the decoit, in heroship runs very close to Aruna. 
His wife Vijali, beautiful, loyal to the core to her husband 

reminds one oi Rama Narayana Pathak's Khemi, the 
Dhed-woman. 

The author belongs to the Revenue Department and 
therefore knows the ins and the outs of it, and he has most 
skillfully woven into his novel, the pomposity of the re- 
venue officer when he goes into a village and the utter 
worthlessness and vanity of the work done there by many 
of them. The hollowness of the work done by the Co- 
operative Department officer is also humorously set out. 

Rama Patel, a cultivator of sterling merit, is held up as 
an ideal villager of the old type. Zamindars if they choose 
can do a lot of good to the village; if they choose however to 
feather their own nest by fawning on Government officers, 
like Vaikuntha Rai, they are capable of doing great harm. 

Incidents of everyday village life, its intrigues and 
its sorrows are very delightfully presented. There are 
one or two incidents out of the normal, like Ramarai and 
Krisnarai, two brothers, intriguing for the young widow 
Tara, to each other's knowledge and to the knowledge of 

their wives, or Aswin not realising that Tara too can feel 
sex-hunger. 

The book at the same time reveals the great thinking 
] ower of the writer, as it is interspersed witJi observations 
and reflections on matters, political, moral and economic, 
and ethical, in the form of short, terse pregnant sentences 
which read like sutras. We congratulate him on his work. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


193 


is GRAMA-LAKSHML” Part III, by R. V. Desai, M. a. (1936). 

Grama Lakshmi is likely to run into four parts, and 
the present one is its third part. The story as developed 
till now gives a vivid picture of the aspiration and the 
ambition, national and patriotic which are moving strongly 
the minds of the youth-boy and girl — of India. 

Village uplift is not an easy subject. Mr. Desai 
knows about is first hand and he has tried in this part to 
show the direction in which in could be successfully carried 
out. 

☆ 

“KABRASTAN : PART I.” by M. (1936). 

In the form of a novel, the writer has described the 
various phases of the Civil disobedience movement when 
the youth of the country shed their old garments and as- 
sume new ones. The old garments have been buried for 
ever in the grave-yard (Kabrastan) of the past. It is a 
spirited production. 

☆ 

‘ MRANALINI’’ by Q, M. Shah (1036). 

The author who is an Insurance agent by profession 
has cultivated an interest in literature and written his 
first book as a novel, in which he expounds the doctrine 
approved of by Gandhiji that it is not advisable for a 
young woman to be closeted alone with a young man. 

The writer has tried to show the moral evils result- 
ing from the present unrestrained life of the youths of 
India and he has been able to present a very good picture 
of the same. 



194 


Novel ( Social ) 


“SANJIVANI” by'Sopaoa’ (1936, v . 

The cessation of the Civil Disobedience movement 
brought its own problems so far as the home and the 
domestic life of those who took part in it was concerned. 
The duty of the released young man towards his parents, 
his wife, his friends has turned out to be a great obstacle 
in the conduct of his life on the lines laid down by him 
for serving India. 

Should he ignore the family debt and not help his 
father to repay it or should he live a comfortable life 
and leave the members of his family to their fate ? This 
problem and other similar ones have been discussed here 
in the form of a story of forty-nine chapters. The fore- 
word by Mr. Narahari D. Parikh puts the whole story in 
a nutshell. The language used is easy and simple, a 
greatly attractive feature. 

“VASUNDHARA NAN VAHALAN DAVALAN. ” by 
Jhaverehand Meghani b. a. (1938). 

This story, a realistic one, is a vivid representation 
of the life led by a certain class of society in Kathiawad; 
viz. the class between the middle and the lower one. 
The tatoo- woman Tejudi, the boy with a lip cut-a help- 
ing hand to the wandering Madari-the man who goes 
about with a monkey and a bear and gives street 
entertainments, and the blind, motherless child of four, 
form a trinity round which the story revolves. 

In homely language, studded with words and express- 
ions of Kathiawad's dialect-in the nature of a handicap 
to a reader of Guajrat,-Mr. Meghani has successfully 



195 


Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907— 19 , 18 

attempted to breathe life into them, and we feel as if 
we were eye-witnesses of the joy and the sorrow being 
felt by them as incident after incident is narrated by 
the writer. 

☆ 

“SUDHAHASlNl”; a social novel, translated by Mrs. Vidya. 
Ramanabhai, B. a. and Mrs. Soar ad a Mehta, B. a. Pp. 22z, Price 
1-4-0 ( 1906 ). 

This is a translation of the well-known adaptaion of 
‘Samsara* into English by Mr. R. C. Dutt, as the Lake n£ 
Palms . It was undertaken at Mr. Butt's request. 

The translators require no introduction to the- 
Gujarati readers. This pair of sisters furnishes a singular 
instance of collaboration. Having taken their degrees 
together, they have been working hand in hand in almost 
every public and social movement since then. We know 
of no other literature in India in which two sisters have 
worked so sympathetically. Their high education has 
fitted them only the better to discharge their domestic 
duties, and after leaving College, in spite of many calls 
on their time as mothers and wives, they have managed 
to be useful to their own countrymen. They are in 
evidence on many interesting questions, and they do 
their work with all the modesty and retiring disposition 
which is the special forte of Indian ladies. 

This translation although practically a third-hand 
affair, still has lost none of the beauties of the original 
Bengali, and Gujarati readers have been thoroughly 
made to comprehend the mode of life, the ways of talk 
and the peculiarities of their brethren and sisters of 



196 Novel ( Social ) - Translations from Bengali 

Bengal. They have done it in such simple language, too. 
Indeed, the translation shows what an admirable 
command the sisters possess over their native language 
and idiom. 

We welcome such contributions on two grounds: 
the first has already been mentioned in some of the 
previous reviews in this Journal, viz., that they serve to 
interpret the life of one part of India to another, and the 
other is that such works set an example to the other 
ladies of the province, worth imitating in more ways 
than one. 

We are hopeful that both the sisters would keep on 
persevering in the path they have so well chosen, and 
continue to enrich Gujarati literature with their praise- 
worthy work in future also. 

☆ 

“RATNA MANDIRA.” by EL H. Dhruva. 

‘Moti Mahal/ the well known novel of the Bengali 
novel-writer Harsadhan Mukhopadhyaya, is rendered 
into Gujarati under the name of *Ratna Mandir* by Mr. 
Dhruva. The original is fascinating and the translation 
therefore is well worth perusal. 

“GRIHA LAKS'MI ” by C. M Meshri. Rs. 1-12-0 (1907). 

This novel is an adaptation of a popular Bengali novel 
-‘Ray Parivar', by Babu Satishchandra Chakravarti, b. a. 
The adaptation to the social life of the Gujaratis is 
very well carried out, and reflects great credit on the pen 
of Mr. Meshri, who we understand is devoting himself 
to literature* 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 197 

The story illustrates the diverse sad phases of the 
joint family system, and very feelingly points out the 
moral of the hourly jealousies and bickerings between the 
various daughters-in law, which make up the daily routine 
of a Hindu's life. The denouement of the story-how the 
jealousy of an uneducated brother towards his educated 
brother egged on by his wife, passes by easy stages from 
robbery to forgery, from forgery to arson, and from 
arson to prison — is very strikingly brought out and the 
lucid language in which the work is written heightens 
considerably its value. So we cordially welcome the 
efforts of the writer in this field, where he has attained 
merited success. 

☆ 

“SADGUNI SUNIL At ' by Bhagabhrd F. Karbhfiri. (19091 . 

Mr. Bhagubhai is known amongst us more as an 
enterprising and a successful Jaina journalist. He has 
translated this novel, in memory of his deceased sister 
Manekbai, who died at the tender age of 16, from a 
Bengali work called ‘Ray Pariv»r\ Whereever necessary, 
he has adapted the incidents to the social life of Gujarat, 
and in clear and simple and homely language, has given 
us a work which one would never consider waste of time 
to go through. 

4 ‘SAMAJA” By • Vmjlsl Thakkar, Pp. 247 Price Rs. 1 1- 
( 1914 ). • 

The late Mr. Dutt's novel called “Samaja” is well- 
known to all readers in India. This book is a trans- 
lation of the same. It is preceded by a short sketch of 



198 


Novel ( Social ) - Translations from Bengali 


the life of the original author. The price is exorbitant 
and the printing not commendable. The rendering into 
Gujarati gives a good idea of the original. 

☆ 

“BAJANI” translated by M. M. Mahta. (1915). 

The Gujarati Sahitya Parishad has appointed a Bhandol 
(Funds) Committee and its secretary Prof. B. ;K. Thakore 
has exerted himself :n getting this book published. It is 
a translation of Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s novel of the 
same name. In an introduction Prof. Thakore sets out his 
own opinion of Bankings work and analyses the character 
of the different personae of the novel, and in raking up old 
bones from a graveyard nineteen years old, of this book, 
jn the shape of a transition made by the late Narayana 
Hemachandra, the pioneer in the line of introducing the 
best Begali work to Gujarat, points out his mistakes, and 
by contrast exalts the present work, in the moulding of 
which he says he has taken an active part with the two 
translators. 

That the labours of three men should have been re- 
quisitioned in translating one small work strikes one as 
being rather a disproportionate expenditure of time and 
energy, but perhaps some sort of driving force was required 
to finish the work as early as possible, and hence the 
conjoint efforts. The translation is well done and will 
win approval of all those would care to go through it. 

# 

“ CHOKHEB VALI ” : — By Dhans'ankar JBL Tripathi. 
(1916). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 199 

This book is an attempt to introduce to the Gujarati 
reader the Bengali masterpiece of Sir Rabindranath 
Tagore. The translation bears all the undesirable marks 
of a translation, as while reading it we do not feel read- 
ing an original Gujarati book but a book in which much 
looks borrowed. 

The dialogues at least could have been couched in 
natural language and not in those crisp, terse and short 
phrases which appear so well in Dr. Tagore's book, 
but which are quite out of place here, as they have not 
been made as telling in their effect as in Bengali. 

The Gujarati title is also, unfortunate as it is 
incorrect : ‘Ankhano Kano' is not correct Gujarati. We 
use the locative instead of the genetive when we want 
to describe a mote or grain of sand going into the eye, 
and say c Ankhaman Kano \ The title also does not 
bring out the point of view from which the novel is 
written. That is tried to be explained in the preface* 
Price is excessive. 

☆ 

CHANDRA S’EKHAR ” : — By Naray&ra Yisanji Thakkar. 
Pp. 37. Price Rs. 4-0-0 (1923). 

An intelligent translation and not a slavish or lite- 
ral one is one's thought on reading this book. u Intelli- 
gent because the translator has tried to improve upon 
the presentation of certain characters by Babu Bankim 
Chandra by means of certain original Persian authorities 
and show Taki Khan and Mir Kasim in a new light. 
This is the second edition of the translation and it is 
made attractive by useful footnotes and pretty pictures. 



200 Novel ( Social ) - Translations from Bengali 

“ RAJA RANI ** : — By Jhavercband K. Meghani. B. A, Pp. 
157 # Price 0-10-0 ( 1924 ). 

Rabindranath Tagore’s “ Raja o Rani ” is translated 
into Gujarati by Mr. Meghani in his inimitable style. 
Having lived in Bengal and studied the language 
first-hand and possessing a charming style himself, 
we need not say how well he has succeeded in 
his work. 

“ KULA-LAKSHMI &AMALA 55 ; — By Prasannavadan C. 
Dikshit. Pp. 376 Price 1-4-0 (1924). 

This book is the translation of a Bengali novel 
called “ Kakima ” by Banke Behari Dhar; it illustrates 
not an unusual feature of Hindu; life, the self-sacrifice 
of the senior members of the family, male and female, 
for the preservation of harmony in the joint family, 
when younger members become unreasonable and kick 
at the traces. As the feature is common to Gujarat 
and Bengal, readers can very easily follow the many 
incidents of the novel. 

n 

u YIRAJA YAHU ” Translated by : — Mahadeva Haribhai 
Desai, b. k. ll. B. Pp. 162. Price 0-10-0 ( 1924 ). 

A very pleasant translation of Babu &arat Chandra 
Chatterji’s Bengali Novel. Its great beauty is that it 
reads like an original work and sustains the interest of 
the reader unflaggingly till the end. 

“ KUMARI KAMANDAKI By Manilal JethaJal Yyae. 
Pp. 225. Price Rs. 1-4-0. < 1925 ). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 201 

A Bengali novel called * Rinaparifodha ' by Kali 
Prasnna Das Gupta has furnished the basis of this 
social novel which is written to show how virtue gets 
rewarded in the end* In order to show the ugliness of 
vice, several unpleasent pictures have been drawn by the 
author which are likely to attract more readers than the 
soberer ones. 

* 

SAYITANU SAYITRI VRATA ” By 31. J. Vy<ls. Pp. 

170. Price 1-4-0. ( 1926 ). 

The " Smriti Mandir 1 of Surendra Nath Roy has been 
more or less translated and adapted to the social condi- 
tions of Gujarat by Mr. Yyas. The chastity and piety 
of Indian ( Hindu ) womanhood is illustrated by this 
novel, which has kept before it the ideal of Savitri. 

☆ 

“GTJNJA NO YARA ’\~By Bhikhabhiii Purus'ottam VyF««. 
Pp. 376. Price 2-0-0 ( 1926 ). 

The title of the book means a Bridegroom of the 
Pocket ( Purse ) i. e. one purchased with money. It is 
a play based on Dwijendra Lai Roy's “ Banga-Nari ”s 
Hindi version. The evil of w Dehej ” existing in Bengal 
has its counterpart in other parts of India, and Gujarat 
is no exception to it; this is not the first book of its 
kind in Gujarati as the evil had been tackled by 
other too. 

All the same, its pernicious effect requires to be 
always kept before one’s mind and hence this play, 
written in simple language and attractive will be read 
with pleasure by many. 



202 


Novel ( Social ) - Translations from Engish 


* BAJANI " By M. M. Mehta. (1933) 

This translation of Bankim Chandra Chatterji's novel 
of the same name, was first published in 1915, when 
we remember to have noticed it. We are glad that a 
fresh edition has been called for. 

* 

« SUVASINI SABALA ” Part I :-By Chandravadan 
Khanasaheb. ( 1933 ). 

An adaptation of Reynold's 4 Parricide The first 
partTof this book shows that the translator does not lack 
in command of the vocabulary of the language. It is a 
small book, and would be found useful for whiling away 
an idle half hour. 

☆ 

44 ASSISTANT COLLECTOR” by Bhogindra Ratanlal 
Divatia, b. a. Pp. 327, Price Rs. 1-4-0, ( 1914 ). 

This is an adaptation of Penny's “ Inevitable Law.” 
The writer has been able to import into the adaptation 
such an air of originality that had he not stated in the 
preface that it was based on an English work it would 
not have been possible to find it out. 

The picture presented of the Assistant Collector 
educated in England and refined by his stay while there 
with an English family, and of his struggles to rise above 
his orthodox, uneducated uncultured and superstitious- 
surroundings at home is so graphically depicted that 
there is no difficulty for the reader to at once appreciate 
the inconvenience of the dual existence that such an edu- 
cated person is called upon to lead* Sad to say that in 
this particular case, his ignorant wife and equally igno- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 203 

rant but loving mother by their foolish actions bear down 
the "Assistant Collector” in every respect, till ultimately 
he loses his post, prospects and reputation. The book is 
sure to furnish a great object-lesson; the price, we think, 
should be reduced. 

☆ 

“KAMALINI 5 ’ translated by the late Mrs. UrmilS Dajaram. 

(1915) 

‘Karnala', a novel in English by Mrs, Satyanadhan, 
requires no introduction. This book is a translation into 
Gujarati of that novel, and we need not say that the task 
is well accomplished. One hardly thinks it is a transla- 
tion, as it reads so well and natural. 

* 

" MOHINI ” by Bhogindra Katanlal Divetia, e. a., (1915). 

An adaptation of Mrs. Henry Wood's novel, ‘Danse- 
bury House', this book is the first of a series of Gujarati 
novels which the Oxfoid University has planned. It is 
difficult at all times to adapt the domestic and social life 
of an English family to one in Gujarat, and specially so 
in respect of temperance and intemperance, which is the 
burden of Mrs. Henry Wood's popular work. 

High caste Hindus in Gujarat do not drink. The 
adapter very well knew this and so he has resorted to 
describing the family life of non-Gujarati i. e., a Parbhu 
of the Deccan, who does not object to drink. Even after 
overcoming this initial difficulty he has not found it, as 
he proceeded further, all smooth sailing. In very many 
places he has had to do violence to even a Parbbu's 
ordinary mode of life in order to make it suit the main 



204 


Novel ( Social ) - Translations from English 


incidents of the original novel. Workshop life as narrat- 
ed there seems as unnatural to India as love-matches 
and elopments. 

The book though well printed is swarming with bad 
spelling, and printer’s devils, while incorrect grammar is 
met with here and there. In spite of all these defects, 
it is a work which one likes to read from cover to cover. 
Mr. Bhogindrarao has been able to transfer to his book 
all the sense and spirit of the original, and the several 
descriptions he has given of the slums of Bombay and of 
the localities inhabited by workmen and their life, are 
first hand, and correct in every detail. We are sure the 
work would be welcomed on account of its unflagging 
interest conveyed in simple language. 

The price is out of all proportion to the contents 
and the cost. 

☆ 

“ JIGAR KE DIGAR ? ” by A. K. Desiii. ( 1917 ). 

Though the author calls this novel an adaptation 
from English, it is more a translation than anything else. 
It is full of English words, and so far gives a picture of 
the liberal use that Parsis make of this language in their 
everyday talk and affairs. The rendering is interesting, 
because the English as original is interesting. The so- 
called adaption however makes the characters unreal and 
impossible. It retains all the flavour of the English plot 
and the social life of our rulers. 

“ ABALA NO KINNO ” by Ardeshar Kharshedji Des&i, 
P P# 138. Price Rs. 1-4-0 ( 1918 ). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 205 

This book is not even an adaptation, but a transla- 
tion, of an English novel. It is full of English words, 
English phrases, and English expressions. One does not 
know what service the writer has rendered to the cause 
of literature, by this translation, excepting the satisfac- 
tion of his amour propre that every year he would publish 
one novel. To pass an idle hour, no doubt, such 
publications are desired, and they come out in their 
hundreds too. 

“SQNERI KHANJAR” by Samaldas Lakshmidas Gandhi. 
Printed at the Hindustan Press, Bombay, pp. 160. Price 0-12-0 
( 1923 }. 

Novels with socialistic background are few in number 
in the Gujarati Literature. The author has undertaken 
to remove this want and has based this novel on Jack 
London's ‘ Iron Hill \ It furnishes thoughtful reading. 

☆ 

‘-DUSHMAN DARAH OR A BOMBAY SHETHIA JILT- 
ED BY HIS LADY LOVE. 5 ' by R, H. Mistri, Pp. 226. Price 
1-8-0. ( 1920 ). 

We congratulate Mr. Mistd, who is the writer of 
many works of fiction on this production. Parsi Gujarati 
has of late been developing in a fashion which leaves 
much to be desired and it makes the heart of a Hindu 
Gujarati sore to see the turn it is taking-it is going perilous 
ly near becoming a patois* The present book has only a 
very slight interweaving in it of that style, although it is 
taken up wholly with Parsi characters. That is one 
merit: the other is the skilful way in which the interest of 



206 Novel ( Social ) - Translation from English 

the reader is kept up. Once you begin, you are not mind- 
ed to put down the book unless you have devoured the 
contents through. 

It reminds you of sensational stories like * Le Coq * 
and other detective fiction. Parsi life and society are 
known for their adaptability to all sorts of conditions and 
states and many modern Parsi novels are so many adap- 
tations of their English counterparts. The plot of this 
work also seems to have been drawn from some such 
source, but that does not detract from its interestingness 
or create any jarring note in the mind of an Indian reader. 

“DHUMRA S'lKHA.” by Ramnik Jayachand Dalai, b. a. ll b* 
(1932). 

This is a translation of Mrs. Sitadevi's story publish- 
ed in instalments in the Modem Review. It has been 
well translated and fully brings out the good points of 
the original, depicting the sad the state of Hindu society. 
We are sure this translation would be read with delight 
by Gajarati readers. 

☆ 

“SITAR NO S’OKHA./ by Bhogindarao R. Divetia. A. 
(1911)* 

To readers of Leo Tolstoy, his book called the 
“ Scrutzer Sonata” is well known. This is an adaptation 
of that book, and as the first attempt to introduce Tolstoy 
to Gujarati readers it deserves every commendation. It 
is so skilfully made that we hardly feel, that we are 
reading something borrowed from foreign literature. Not 



Develcpmei-t of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


207 


only is the spirit of the original preserved, but the 
language too is suitably simple. 

The question of marriage being a contract or a 
sacrament is now before the public in a prominent form 
on account of the Basu Bill, and a perusal of this work 
is sure to help the problem as Tolstoy has treated it from 
all points of view, national, foreign and international. 

Vs 

“VISMI SADI NI GOOLAMI/’ by P. V. Mehta and S- P. 
S'asiri. Pp. 132 Price 0-8-0. (1924). 

‘‘Slavery of our Times” by Tolstoy gives a graphic 
picture of the state in which our indigent workers and 
labourers live. This translation reproduces in simple 
language what Tolstoy has got to say on the question, 
and the mechanical artificial lives which our mill-hands 
and factory-workers have to live emphasises the problem. 
The book thus deserves to be read. 

“UMAANO VIDHVA VIPAD;” by Eatnasimha D. Parmar. 
Pp. 173 Price 1-8- «. (1923.) 

This is a translation of a Hindi novel. It portrays 
miseries of a high class Hindu widow ; at the same time 
it reinforces the ideal of a Hindu wife that her husband is 
God, and she has no right to criticise his good or bad 
actions. The story is spirited and well told and translated. 

& 

“PUNAB JIYAN.” oy K J. Patel Pp. 140 Price 0-12-0 (1924) 

This is a translation of a Hindi novel of the same 
name; it is concerned with the 4 *new spirit” poured into 



2d 8 Novel ( Social ) - Translations from Urdu 

the live of Indians by GandhijTs teachings* Its style is 
simple. 

☆ 

“NIBGUNA LAKS’MI AND SAGTJN LAKAS' mi and 
OTHER WRITINGS.” By the late Mrs. Vasantba Chandra saukar 
Pandya. Pp. 127. Price Re. 0-1C-0. (1917). 

In the introduction contributed by the husband to 
these posthumous writings, he shows what a a gifted com- 
panion in life he has lost in his wife. She was just 
entering on a carrer of public utility when she succumbed 
to a fatal disease. The firsf long story in these writings 
is a fine adaptation of that well-known Urdu domestic 
novel called the Mirat-Ul-Urus (the mirror of women ). 
Several years ago, it was translated by a Parsi gentleman 
and Mrs. Vasantaa has based her story on it. It is sure 
to be widely read. 

☆ 

“ INDIRA. ” By Mrs. Priyamati S’ukla Pp. 230 Price Rs. 1-4-0 
<1912). 

This novel is a translation of a Marathi work, and 
depicts several unpleasant aspects of the life of the inha- 
bitants of the Deccan. Scenes depicting immorality are 
freely interspersed in the body of the little book, and in 
spite of the authoress’ protestations to the contrary, we are 
afraid, its unsavoriness would be its chief attraction. There 
are errors of printing and of grammar in the work. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 -09 

“US’ANANDINI” by the late Mrs. Urmila Dayaram 
Gidumal. ( 1915 ) 

Prof. Bdin’s novels are well known, and this is a 
translation of one of his novels, called “ A Heifer of the 
Dawn.” To appreciate the skill and intelligence with 
which the deceased has carried out her task one needs to 
read the original, after the translation, and see if the subtle 
charm that pervades the work ®f the learned Professor, has 
been preserved in the translation too. 

We think it has been. Read cither this or that and 
you will find yourself in the same sylvan retreats, hearing 
the same romantic sounds, and surrounded by the same 
mysterious old-world atmosphere, without any detriment 
due to difference of language. 

•N/J 

*v 

“ANANGA RHTASMA 7 ' by Siikarlfil Aiuritlfil Dave n. a. Pp. 
G4 Price Re. 1-8 0 (101(5). 

This translation of Prof. Bain’s novel ‘the Ashes of a 
God’ preserves all the delightfulness and orientalism of the 
original; and as the translator says, to appreciate its 
beauty, its reading should be finished at one sitting, other- 
wise its delicate touches are sure to be missed. 

“KADAMBARI*’ (fifth edition), translated by Chhiganlal 
Harihll Pandyil n. a. (1917). 

Between 1884 and 1917, this scholarly work has under- 
gone five editions; this itself testifies to the great popula- 
rity the Ixiok has won in our midst. Every student of 
Sanskrit knows this magnum opus of Bana; to render it into 
Gujardti, so as to preserve the spirit of the original, its 
beautiful similics and metaphors, to dissolve its compounds 



210 


Novel-Romance 


and still to make the translation such as should not terrify 
or scare away the ordinary reader is a very difficult, if not 
a herculean, task. 

Mr. Chhaganlal has accomplished this task. Years 
ago, when the first edition of this book appeared, it was 
received with a chorus of approval and admiration. The 
scrupulous care with which the translator has conveyed 
every subtle thought, rendered every turn of language into 
faithful and accurate Gujarati, shows that it must have 
cost him hours and hours before he could have pitched 
upon the right phrase or expression. 

By means of short notes and a list of difficult words 
explained, he has further tried to help his reader and faci- 
litate his task of understanding and entering into the 
spirit of the original erudite author. No work is entirely 
perfect but this translation approaches very near it. The 
pi'esent edition has been embellished with several coloured 
and gorgeous pictures which greatly add to its attrac- 
tiveness. 

Its different introductions leave very little to be desir- 
ed in the way of getting information about the various 
phases of the original, literary, historical, mythological and 
others; besides they are thoroughly uptodate. We wel- 
come this edition heartily and trust that every library desk 
and cupboard would make an effort to find it a prominent 
place on its shelves. 

☆ 

•‘NILxI-NENI’’ by Sftkarlnl Amritlal Dave, B. a. Pp, 132, 
As. 0-8-0 (1917). 

Another of Prof. Bain's attractive stories, called a 
‘Draught of the Blue' has been translated by Mr. Dave. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 211 

Like his former translation this one too preserves the 
flavour of the original though here and there we find the 
language a trifle difficult because Sanskritised. 

& 

u INDU KALA ” translated by the late Nalinakant 
Narasimharao Divatia (1918). 

Professor Bain’s stories are too well-known to need 
any mention. They deserve to be translated into each and 
every vernacular. The present translator (now deceased) 
had already tried his hand at writing Gujarati prose before 
he launched into the scheme of translating this story 
which by its English title “A Digit of the Moon” has 
become such a favourite of all English-knowing readers. 

Nalinakant certainly did well in thinking of introducing 
Gujarati readers to this fine story and he has succeeded 
in his task, as we find that his work does not suffer in 
comparison with that of others who too have translated 
certain other of Prof. Bain’s stories and who were equip- 
ped with far better educational, qualifications than he was, 
who died young and without University education. 

“AS’IfcAMA HARINP' by Prof. H. M. Bbatt M. a. Pp. 89 
Price Fe 0-12-0 (1923; 

A very entertaining novel clothed in the garb of a 
Parana is written in Marathi by Prof. V. M. Joshi, M. A. 
and Prof. Bhatt has rendered in into Gujarati in an equally 
entertaining way. The translation does not look like a trans- 
lation but like an original. The subject-matter of the 
work is the question of widow-remarriage which agi- 
tates our society and has been skilfully and humanly 



212 


Novel-Romance 


handled from various points of view. It should be 
well received, 

☆ 

“THE TRIUMPH OF YALMIKT' : by N I. Maaruvsln. 
Pp. 06 Price Re. C-3-0 (1925) 

The charming allegory woven round the three Puranic 
celebrities; Vasistha, Visyamitra and Valmiki, by Maho- 
padhyaya Haraprasad &astri in his book in Bengali is a 
masterpiece; it produces the three lines of precept and 
practice peculiar to each one of them and for which one of 
them stood out. Valmiki's propaganda triumphed; it set 
no store by physical force or mental vigour for harmony in 
world forces; soul force, purity of heart, could alone bring 
peace to cne’sjmind^and happiness into the world. This 
book is a translation from a Marathi version of the Bengali 
work; but for all practical purposes it takes^the place of an 
original book and is very impressive, 

☆ 

" TILOTTAMA :s by M. R. Majmudar b. a., ll, b ; Printed 
at the Nava Gujarat Pre?s> Raroda, Thick card board with a 
coloured picture. Pp. 170 Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 1026 ). 

Prof. Bain's mythological stories have attracted 
many writers to translate or adapt them, and Mr. 
MajmudarChas been unable to withstand the attraction 
and has deviated from his usual path of finding out old 
Gujarat inverse manuscripts and editing them. 

It is, however, a happy deviation and affords him 
relief from the monotony of the beaten path. As a first 
attempt, the version is very creditable and this story of 
the world of the Apsar&s with all its proper surroundings 
will surely win its way successfully with its readers. 



SHORT STORY 




SHORT STORY 
☆ 

“VARTA LAHARI” : by S. Pramila and S. Aravinda. (1909). 

The ‘Sundari Subodha’ monthly hardly misses a single 
issue in which some social story bearing on the present 
condition of our society docs not appear. These stories 
never failed to entertain its many readers and it was a 
happy idea of these two ladies :to collect and publish them 
in book-form. We feel sure the book will receive a 
hearty welcome especially at the hands of the fair sex, 

☆ 

£ *'R ATN A-GrR AN THI OR TUNKI VARTAO” : by Chatur- 
bhuj Mamke^var Bhatt (1911) 

The object of the writer of these Short-Stories is to 
show the advantages of Travel. Travel out of India in the 
present times is the sine qua non of the regeneration of 
Indian Industries according to the writer; and keeping that 
object in view, he has woven round that central idea, a 
network of short, interesting stories, which all go to show 
that those who have moved out of their native place have 
prospered. 

The stories are narrated by an old S’astri for the bene- 
fit of the lettered son of a rich man, who was very much 
inclined to be what is called a bookworm, and who spurned 
all ideas of travel. The stories are interesting and well 



216 


Short Story 


written, but they suffer from the correctness of details, the 
reason being brevity. The compilation, all the same, fur- 
nishes entertaining reading. 

V* 

“NAY A YOGA VATO’* : Part II. By Yaidya Amratlal 

Sundarji Padhiar. Pp. 109, Price 0-2-6, 0-5-0, 0-10-0, according 
to style of cover. (1912). 

The writter possesses a happy style and a facile pen. 
His short stories are very interesting. They are meant to 
expose some of the worst vices, such as gambling, which 
prevail in the upper classes of Bombay Society, and they 
do so successfully. 

* 

‘TfcASIKA Y ART AO” : By Rama Mohan Rai Jaswantrai 
I)esai b. a. Pp, 143 Price Re. 0-8-0 (1914). 

These are short stories translated from English and 
published at different times in various magazines. They 
are now collected in book form and presented as a gift 
to the subscribers of the ‘Sundari Subodha', The stories 
claim to be <f a complete collection of the pictures of social 
experience". They are certainly readable, though a bit 
flabby and limp. 

“CHHUPO DUTA” Part I : by Abdul Kadar Hasan Ali 

(1916) 

These are stories of an Indian detective. They deserve 
mention only as they are written by a Bora Mohamedan 
gentleman. 

☆ 

“BE PREMA~KATHA r ’: by ChaTidras’airkar XTarmadas^nkar 
Pandya; b. A,, LL. B. (1916) 

“Two love-stories" is the title of this little book. As 
its name implies, it is just two little love-stories and nothing 



Development of (lujarati Literature • 1907— 10. >8 


217 


else. Written in Mr. Pandya’s usual style - neither high 
nor low - they are tiny chatty affairs, like sea-foam or 
soft fleece, beautiful to look at but not meant for touch or 
pressure* The object behind the stories in one case is to 
present an ideal picture of the love of a married couple and 
in the other to show how a wife is expected not only to 
read books but to manage household affairs also. 

“PANCHA PREMAKATHA : — 5/ By Chandrasankar N. 
Paudya. c. A., ll. e. Pp. 51 Price Re. 0-6-0 (1916). 

Mr. Xhandrasankar, whatever subject he touches, 
endows it with a special refinement of its own* These 
five love stories, though they tell us nothing unusual, are all 
the same gracefully written. They follow in their main 
outline, the usual run of such stories, at present found all 
over the cultured vernaculars of India, in fact two of them 
are translated from Bengali. Still the style in which 
they are written, together with the sincerity of purpose 
they display, make them eminently readable. 

☆ 

RUOHI NO BHOGA OR A VICTIM TO CUSTOM by 
R. G. MoM. Price Re. 0-3-9 (1915). 

It contains two short stories illustrating the evils of 
marriage-customs in vogue at present. 

☆ 

“ MHARI KAMALA ANE BIJI VATO ”:-By Kanayai&l M. 
Munsi. b. A.; hU b. Advocate. Pp. 134. Price Re. 1-4-0 (1917). 

Kanayalal Munsi is one of our best story-writers, 
short and long. His style is manly and virile, his thoughts 



218 


Short Story 


always sober, based on common sense, and his mode . of 
narration “taking”. One is never weary of reading his 
works. 

This collection of short stories, although some of 
them ate those with which he began his literary career, 
is delightful reading. The interest of the reader never 
flags, and the humour that now and then ripples over the 
apparent sober surface of a speech, lends a charm to his 
work which we miss elsewhere. 

☆ 

(1) “PEANaYA LILA.” (2) %RAZALTO RAJAHAMSA: — 
By Balakavi Pp. 43, Pp. 184 As. 8 aDd Be 1-12-0. (1918). 

These are two novelettes of the most ordinary kind, 
stuffed with impossible and emotional incidents, sure to 
delight the masses, if they care to buy them at these ex- 
orbitant prices. 

£ *MHAEI YISA VARTAO”. Kesavaprasad Chliotalal Desai. 
b. Am, LI,, b. (1919). 

As its name implies this is a collection of twenty 
stories written by the author at various times and 
published in different magazines. Their model is the short 
story appearing in the English monthlies like the Strand 
and London Magazine. They fulfil the functions of short 
stories in every way, and throughout the whole book, 
there is not a single dull page. 

The circumstances on which they are based typify 
or rather represent the present times, and hence there is 
no difficulty whatever in appreciating the worth and the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1038 219 

intelligence of the writer. Although it lacks the innate 
knack of the humourist, the situations painted by him 
are not without distinct interest. The stories certainly 
furnish delightful reading. 

I s S'ETH KE S'ETAN ?” by Gopiilji Oddhavaji. Pp. 114 
Price Ro 6-8-0 (1923). 

Short stories illustrating the tyranny of capital over 
labour, i. e., a master over his servant, are to be found in 
this book. They convey a much desired lesson. 

☆ 

“BETAVANA SRIS’TI by Prof. V. R. Trivedi m. a. 
Pp. 100 Price Re 0-10-0 (1924). 

This is a collection of small stories, written in the 
vein of rhapsody of imaginary events. They are pleasant 
to read for the time being, but would hardly leave any 
lasting impressions. 

“ JATI-SV ABHAVA S'ATAKA ” Parts I and II by 
Kavi S’ivalill Lallubkai Barot (1924). 

• It contains 100 spirited stories illustrating human 
nature, and are published by the Translation Branch of the 
Vidyadhikari, Baroda State. 

u UPANIS'ADA Nl VATO ” by Psnduraug Yitthal 
YalumA Pp. 64. Price Re. 0-6-0 (1924). 

These stories from the Upanisads are told in an 
attractive and interesting fashion. We like the simplicity 
of the language. 



Short Story 


220 


“AMI ZARNAN” By • Shayada Pp. 156. Price Re 1-8-0 
( 1925 ) 

“ Brooklets of Nectar, ” this is the name of the book, 
which consists of short stories, furnishing light reading, for 
w^ich there is a just demand at present,; ;and which 
demand if meets very well. 

☆ 

“ SATI MADALASA AND SttKANSA NO KAMA? HI ’ 
by: — Vim ala Gauri M. Pandj a. Pp. 68-69. Price Re 1-0-0 (1925). 

These two stories are written, specially for women to 
impress upon, them the ideals of chastity and purity of 
married life. The authoress has done her task well, spe- 
cially as the subjects lend themselves to a good treatment, 

“.KUMAR NAN STRI-BATNO” by InduM K. Yujnik 
& a , LL. B. Pp, 207. Price Re 1-0-Q. (1926^ 

Six vignettes of Indian Womanhood, so set in 'their 
frames of our domestic and social life as to transform a 
misogynist into a woman-lover. Without indenting on 
our ancient lore or Puranic tradition the compiler has pre- 
sented the ideal of woman's service to society and family 
so as to make her fit in with their existing structures. 
The modernity of education of the girls and women of these 
stories does not militate against the object intended to be 
fulfilled. That is the beauty of the author’s pen. 

4e CHIN AG ARP’ By 4 Bcchen \ (19f6). 

The Memon community of this province is backward 
in many respects. It also suffers from a number of social 
<evils. Some young men of the community have made up 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 221 

their minds to improve this state of things and this little 
tale simply told, is an attempt in that direction. 

# 

(1) « KURBANI NI KATHAO ” By Jhaverchand Meghani 
B. A. (2) ,‘OLIPO AND OTHER LOYE—TALES ” By 
J. Meghfuii. ( 1930 }* 

We have already noticed (1) when it was first publish- 
ed and are so glad that a third edition has so soon 
been called for. It is brought out at a reduced price. 
T3ie object of the Sahitva Mandir is to make available 
the folklore literature of Kathiawad and other patriotic 
literature at popular prices and all these books fulfil 
that test. 

"Olipo” consists of very readable and passionate 
love tales. 

☆ 

“ K ALP AN A KLSUMO” Bv Lalitamohan ChuniU Gandhi 
M A , LL. Ji. ( 193] ). 

This collection of seventeen short stories pictures- 
quely called the “Flowers of Imagination ”, which marks 
the debut of the young writer on the stage of Gujarati 
literature, is a remarkable work. It far outdistances the 
socalled short -stories appearing almost every fortnight 
or every month in the pages of numerous periodicals 
and journals, in imitation of English short stories, and 
which lack both force and imagination, and are forgotten 
as soon as read. 

Not so these short stories;: They are, in our opinion, a 
finger-post guiding tlic ignorant and tire umvaty wayfarer 
ns In what way lie should go, if he desires to reach hi- 



222 


Short Story 


destination, viz., writing of short-stories, “ which inter- 
pret character and human life-stores which make a dis- 
tinct emotional appeal ”, which after all is the function 
of a short story. 

He has been fortunate enough in getting Prof. 
N. B. Divatia to write an introduction for his book, and 
it is a most valuable contribution on the matter, review- 
ing as it does the subject from a scholar’s and a critic’s 
points of view. Mr. Gandhi has been able to pass the 
high test laid down by his critic who rightly detects in 
the writer’s art, both psychological analysis and brevity. 

All the stories are equally good, but even if the first 
one “ Love: Is it of the body ( carnal ) or of the Individual 
( possessing the body ) ? ” be read through it furnishes 
ample evidence of the above two characteristics having 
been fully brought out. The book bears the promise of 
still better work being turned out by the writer as he 
grows in years and as his pen gathers more practice. 

ik 

“J1VANA N1 ZANKHi”. by Ke&xvprusad Chhoffilai jDesfii, 
n A. ll. B. (1932). 

Mr. Desai has secured a high place in Gujarati litera- 
ture as a writer of short-stories, which are all written in 
a lucid simple style and pictures of Gujarati life are very 
vividly portrayed therein. 

•‘MANJARF’ Published by Ramu Thakkar. Pp. 214. Price 
Re. 1-4-0. (1933). 

This is a collection of fifteen short stories bearing 
on various domestic and social subjects published at 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 223 

different times in the weekly “Phula Chhaba.” They are 
very interesting to read, and many of them are told in a 
very affecting way. 

We specially commend the story, sarcastically called 
“The Happy Prostitute'', narrating the life-history o i a 
Hindu girl widowed at the age of fourteen, and her 
trials and her fate, till ultimately when she became a 
convert to Islam and a concubine of Musalman traders; 
all this because of the rigour of society which would not 
allow remarriage, the result being her being driven on 
the streets. It is a scathing commentary on our ways. 

Q 

“PR ATIM AO” : — By Jhaverchand Meghani. b. a. Pp 247. 
Pri g Re. 1-0-0. (1934). 

These Images " (Pratimas) represent seven stories, 
they are tragedies of modem life , and melancholy 
pictures of the present state of society. Mr. Meghani, 
who till now was painting word-pictures of the 
old folk-lore of Kathiawad, both in its martial and civil 
aspects, has, now turned to cinema-plots and he sees 
in the creations of cinema directors, the coming into be- 
ing of a new world altogether. He considers the direc- 
tors to be the interpreters of art in life, his stories 
a vivid picture of the life, romantic and real of the 
chief characters figuring in them, and cinema-goers will 
perhaps recognize in them, the subject-matter of some 
picture or other seen by them. The stories are well 
and feelingly told. Mr. Meghani's powers do not suffer 
because of the change in the field of the activities 
of his pen. 



224 


Short Story 


41 BHUTAKALA NA PADACHHAYA ” : — part I. by 
Guaavantarai Aeharya. Pp. 202 Price Re, 1/- ( 1934 ). 

This book, named *' Shadows of the Past'" contains 
eleven stories of the glorious past of Kathiawad. The 
history of Kathiawad during the mediaeval period is full 
of deeds of venture and courage, which resemble romance 
more than reality. Mr. Aeharya has tried to catch this 
'romance * and perpetuate it by means of this collection. 

All the stories are full of nerve and set out vividly 
the nerve displayed by the different heroic characters, 
Hindu and Muslim. Altogether the work successfully 
gives the reader an idea of the state of society in 
Kathiawad in those far-off days. Readers already have 
encouraged it well, as within a short time two editions 
have been printed. 

☆ 

“ BALAVAKHORA” by S. M. Shah ( 1935 ). 

The book represents the social stage through 
which educated boys and girls are passing at present. 
The title means “ Rebel.” Both Vilasa and Ivunja the 
heroine and the hero are the rebels. Vilasa was married 
much against her will to an old man-the uncle of 
Kunja. She loved the nephew; and conspiring with some 
friends they made the old man sign in terrorem a deed 
of divorce. Amongst the higher caste Hindus divorce 
does not obtain but the rebels were of opinion that they 
could create such a precedent and they did it. Perhaps 
it would not stand the test of law. It is however, a 
pleasant play. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


225 


The second book ( Sasuji : Mother-in-law ) is a 
collection of 24 humorous stories well maintaining the 
level at which Mr. Dhansukhalal is usually entertaining 
his readers. The incidents are very homely; that helps 
to fulfil the object with which the stories are written. 

☆ 

44 AKdHUN ANiirA ” By : — Yagnes’a H. S'ukal. Pp. 
148, Price As. 12 / ( 19*35 ). 

44 Ardhun Anga ” freely translated means 44 the 
better half;” and these are twelve, very interesting stories, 
[showing how 4f the better half ” in Hindu Society is be- 
ing treated at the hands of the remaining half. The very 
great misery, which is still the lot of women in these 
days of education and advance, is set out here in langu- 
age which is sure to be understood by the class of readers 
for whom the stories are written. For instance, the 
story, 44 Lost Heart ( Haiya Suni ) ” describes how the 
evil of parents selling their young girls to old and aged 
bridegrooms is still rampant in full force. The other 
story explaining why a graduate Lady Principal of a girl's 
school remained unmarried, shows up the perfidious nature 
of men in respect of the other sex. On the whole, we 
find it to be a delightful little book of stories. 

* 

44 DATA ASOPALAVA ” By : “Sneharas'mi Pp. 243 
Price Be. 1/8. (1935) 

Sjt. Jhinafohai R. Desai better known .‘by his pen- 
name 4 Sneha-rasmi’, has already won himself a name 
as an accomplished poet and patriot. Here, in the book 
under notice, we meet him, however in a new role, 

15 



226 


Short Story 


that of a story-writer, and we welcome Gat a Asopalava, 
a collection of seventeen short-stories, 

* Sneha-rasmi* remains essentially a poet even 
when he takes to story-writing. Mr. Desai is labouring, 
it appears, under certain limitations. Eight of the seven- 
teen stories either end in, or centre round, somebody’s 
death. The plots as also their developments, are such 
as would appeal to the more speculative type of readers, 
to those who live, move and have their being in urban 
atmosphere. In some places, however, the author 
strikes an entirely original note, characteristic of the 
poet in him, which will make a universal appeal. On 
the whole, the bpok will certainly enhance the reputation 
of Mr. Desai as an ingenious story-writer. 

ik 

14 TRILOCH ANA ” by Kakalbhai Kothari and Gunavantrai 
Acharya (1935). 

The book contains three stories, like the three eyes 
(Trilochana) of god &iva. The stories are called Kumari, 
Anila and Ila. The problem that the joint authors have 
set themselves to tackle is the eradication of the old 
system of marriage and the substitution of companion- 
ship between boys and girls in social service; such com- 
panionship may or may not eventuate in marriage. 

American writers and books have made us familiar 
with the problem and even there with all her advance- 
ment and progress, America has not yet been able to 
throw off the old shackles; much less it is posible in 
India and more so in Gujarat and Kathiawad. However, 
in the garb of an interesting story Messrs Kothari and 



Development of G-aj rr.t: Liter- hire : 1907-1. Kit *>/.? 

Acharya have woven a fanciful picture of the lifelong 
spinster, who desires tc eschew the world and cannot do it 
on an island inhabited by backward classes. It is an al- 
luring picture but all the same fanciful. 

‘■PANKAJA” by Rrunardfu /asant'.-i-, Dosfd. m. a. (1936;. 

This collection of short stories from the pen of Hr. 
Ramanlii: Dcsai is written in his fascinating yet simple 
style. He is now turning into quite a prolific writer of 
novels and bids fair to rival well-known writers of fiction 
in England and other Western countries. He has in the 
space of eight to ten years got 1-1 tc 15 volumes to his 
credit. 

‘ Tan j aka” is a collection of sixteen: short-stories and 
although his long novels run into three or four parts and 
therefore he has a wide field and an ample scope to 
develop his theme at leisure and make it interesting and 
attractive, here in spite of the necessarily contracted 
field of a short— story ; he has managed to afford to its 
subject-matter the same interest, attention and pathos. 
The very first story “Real A other” as contrasted with 
the step-mother is a case in point. 

f 

n 

“PALATATO SAKA.7A” by -Bama” (1930). 

This is a collection of If short-stories all bearing on 
the subject which is the title of the book, viz, “Society 
in Transition”. Our society really is in a stage of flux, 
and that stage is vividly brought out in these stories, 
which arc written in simple and colloquial language. 



228 


Short Story, 


The writer studiously avoids the subject of sex-appeal at 
present so much in vogue, in order to respect the objec- 
tions of those who still are not reconciled to the new 
fangled notions of sex affairs. 

The Foreword contributed by Lady Vidya Gauri 
Nflkantha sums up very tersely the functions of short- 
stories, and in the light thereof she reviews the work of 
the writer emphasising his experience of worldly matters 
which she finds to be both wide and varied. 

☆ 

‘•PALKARA (WINES).” by Jhaverchand Meghani, r, a. 
(1936). 

Inspired by several cinema shows seen by him screen- 
ing pictures with a universal appeal, Mr. Meghani has 
been tempted to throw the subject-matter thereof into 
stories and as such, the adaptations do bear out the motive 
which prompt him to write them successfully. Opinions 
may differ as to whether Mr. Meghani has done well in 
relinquishing his old love-the folklore and folk literature 
of Kathiawad — and embarking on a vessel, which to 
him is new and unfamiliar. 

However, his innate power of delineating human feel- 
ings and passions, in attractive and homely language is 
bound to come to his help, whatever the situation. It 
has come to his help here, and therefore the narratives 
do not lack attractiveness. 

# 

“YERANA MAN”, by Jha^orckand Meghani. b. a. (1936). 

“In the Dersert” consists of about thirty-two short 
stories from the able pen of Mr. Meghani treating of the 
various present problems in Politics, Economics etc, 



Development o£ f Goju-rati Li Lera tare : 1007-4938 220 

"TA N AKHA-Pait IV/’ by ‘Dhumaketu. 5 (1937). 

‘Tanakha’ means sparks and ‘Dhumaketu*, a comet. 
Dhumaketu is the nom de plume of Gourisankar G. Joshi, 
b. A. a writer who has already made his name in Gujarati 
literature. Writing short stories is his forte and he has 
achieved an outstanding success in that branch of 
literature by lifting the subject — matter of the stories 
above the level generally found in monthlies and journals. 
Love and the vicissitudes in the lives of love-lorn 
maidens and boys-this is generally what is found there. 

Dhumaketu has, however, by exercise of his power- 
ful imagination blended this sentiment of love with other 
human sentiments and has made his stories read like 
romance. What makes them more attractive is the style 
of narration and the homeliness of the language used. 
He has taken his characters from all strata of society, 
high and low, dwellers in palaces and slums. This human 
touch lends a charm to his work. 

☆ 

“S'llAVANI MELA.” by Umasankar Joshi. m. a . (1938). 

Sravani Mela (a fair in the month of Havana) is 
the title of the last of the fifteen stories found in this book. 
The story reminds one of the annual Sipi fair held near 
Simla, where jungle maidens and youths assemble in 
their hundreds, dance their jungle dances, make purchases 
and also arrange (matrimonial) matches. The descrip- 
tion of the fair, and of its chief visitors Ambi and Devo, 
are graphic, vivid and appealing. The other stories are 
written also on an equally high level. 



m 


Short Story-Translation 


The first story, for instance, depicts the innermost 
desire of old men of the older generation, who 
consider their life wasted unless they see their grandson 
(son’s son) playing in their lap and in depicting it, the 
author paints the light and shade in the domestic life of 
the middle class Hindu householder with an unerring 
brush* The whole collection is a welcome addition to 
the story literature of Gujarat, 

, "SHORT STORIES BY COUNT TOLSTOY’* B,> Bho~ 
gindrarao Ratanlal Divetia, B. A, Pp 96 Price Re. 0-4-0. (1912) 

The stories aie delightfully well adapted and they 
keep up the interest of the reader from start to finish. 
The book is sure to please and instiuct children, and also 
grown up people. Tolstoy’s simplicity and sincerity peep 
out from each story, 

☆ 

’“MURAKHARAJA AND HIS TWO BROTHERS. ,5 (1912) 

This is a translation of one of Tolstoy’s stories. The 
language at times is incorrect and a mere reproduction of 
foreign phrases without any attempt to clothe them into 
Gujarati idiom, and hence crude. 

But on the whole the interest of the story is well 
kept. It depicts the fruitless efforts of Satan to wean 
away a very simple but honest noodle of a peasant 
from the paths of rectitude and affection for his brothers 
and family. 

# 

“MANASA KETALI JAMIN NO MALIKA HOI 
S'AKE?’> ( 1913 ), 



jDcvelopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 231 

We have had to review before some pamphlets like 
the little one under review, published at Natal. They 
also were adaptations of Tolstoy's novels. This one is as 
good as its predecessors. Mr. Mohandas K. Gandhi is a 
well-known follower of the late Russian Rishi, and that 
is the reason why the Printing Press at Phoenix is busy 
turning out these lea: lets, 

**I«’aYARANGI BALAKO.” by Bhoj-i ndrariio R. Divetia. 
( 1913 ). 

Mr- B ha vania as N, Motivaia B. a., ll. b. has set 
apart a sum of Rs. 1000/- in memory of his father for the 
encouragement of Gujarati literature. Out of the inte- 
rest on the amount this little book is published. It is an 
adaptation of Tolstoy's ‘Those Girls.” Those who have 
read that little delightful children's book will not fail to 
appreciate the value of this adaptation. 

There are very few books in Gujarati which can be 
called children's books. Juvenile literature is still un- 
cultivated in! Gujarati, and hence we heartily welcome 
all attempts in that direction. 

-TClv&l VARTAO” II. By Yrajifil Jadavji Thakkar. 

pp. 308 . Price Rc 0 - 10-0 ( 1914 ). 

The work contains a fine collection of stoiies, taken 
from various sources, Hirni, Marathi etc., illustrating 
the present day domestic life among us Indians, and 
pointing out certain morals. 



232 


Short Story-Translation 


‘‘VlETA-VlnARA’’ ;-By Yrajlal Jadavji Thakkar Pp. 216, 
Price Rs. 0-12-C ( 1914 ). 

This book contains a bunch of nine stories, all based 
on love. Beyond entertaining the mind for the moment 
they are not likely to leave any lasting impression. They 
are taken from Bengali, Marathi and English sources. 

☆ 

'^AYALA-KATHA-SAMGRAHA’^-By A. S. Padhiar. 
(1914). 

It is a translation of several short stories-Manoran- 
jaka Vartavali-in Marathi and the easy style of the trans- 
lator furnishes entertaining reading, specially as the 
stories deal with the domestic side of a Hindu's life. 

In all these publications we have seen one objectional 
feature; it is that of interspersing reading matter with 
advertisements of other books. This greatly detracts 
from the merit of the book as the attention of the reader 
becomes otherwise occupied and he misses either the 
point of the story or the point of the advertisement. 

☆ 

“RIP YAN WINKLE AN& OKABHOR YAGALA” : By 
Chandulal Keshavlal Amin.. Pp. 82. Price As. 7f~ ( 1921 ). 

Two of Irving’s delightful stories. Rip Van Winkle 
and the Legend of the Sleepy Hollow are translated in 
this book. In the original they are so very simply writ- 
ten, that there seems to have been very little trouble 
entailed in giving a Gujarati version of them : we find the 
translation very readably. 



development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1983 233 

“TUNE!! YARTAO” PART YI :~By Bachubhai Popatlai 
Ravat, Pp. 346, Price Re. 1-0-0 { 1921 ). 

The book is a collection of sixteen stories, taken 
from Hindi periodicals with suitable changes to make 
them intelligible to us. They furnish, no doubt, attrac- 
tive reading, and we are sure the public would appreciate 
them. 

☆ 

“RATHA YATRA.” Price 1-0-0. ( 1921 ). 

It is a translation of Rabindranath's work and has 
been priced so cheaply as to make it popular. 

* 

"KURBANI NI KATHAO:’ 7 by J. Meghani, B. a. Pp. 111. 
Price As. 8 (1922) 

Though a translation of the “Katha o Rahim” of 
Rabindranath Tagore, it is difficult to conceive that it is 
not an original work. The twenty tales of self-saerifice 
narrated in this little book are gems of their kind. They 
are all taken from Indian history and Indian lore-Bud- 
dhist, Rajput, Brahmanic, Sikh, Maratha. 

The noble tales of sacrifice are so enthrallingly 
told that one comes to think that they will remain 
unmatched for ever in the annals of the world. They 
have been invested with almost a halo of divinity. No 
Gujarati should miss the perusal of this book. 

‘ THREE STORIES OF SARAT BABE:” translated by 
Mahldev H. Desai. b. a., ll. b. Pp. 187 Price 1-1-0 (1923). 

When Mahatmaji’s lieutenant Mahadev Desai was 
in jail, he did not pass his time in idleness; amongst 



534 


Short Story- 'Translation 


the many useful pieces of work he did there was a trans- 
lation of the three best written stories of ^aratchandra 
Chattopadhyaya into Gujarati. They furnish very instruc- 
tive and interesting reading and are full of a moral 
which it is not difficult to find out. 

W 

4 

“SAMS ALIA SAMASYA”: By Thakkar Narayana Visanji. Pp. 
316. Price 3-4-0 (1953). 

The paradox of an Aspasia being virtuous and a mar- 
ried woman the reverse, is handled by Mr. Thakkar in 
this volume, in the shape of four stories, which are more 
or less translations or adaptations and which have ap- 
peared separately in Gujarati newspapers. The writer 
has an intimate knowledge of the seamy side of life and 
its problems and hence been able to do justice to them. 

☆ 

* 5 PR AS ANN A KATHA KUNJA *\ bp Prasannavadan 

Chhabilaram Diksit. Pp. 70 Fr'eo 0-8-0 (1925). 

Two short stories of &riyut Prabhat Kumar Mukherji 
‘Parivartan’ and ‘Prayana Panthe* are translated in this 
small book. The stories are worth reading specially 
as they illustrate the every day affairs in the life of the 
prerent day Indian. 

☆ 

“STORIES OF TRAGIC PLAYS IN GREEK LITERATURE 5 ’. 
By Mrs. Lavangika P. Mehta, b. a . Pp. 250. Pricj 0-10-0 (1926'. 

This is a translation of an English book on the 
subject and is published by the Gujarat Vernacular Society. 
It gives a connected idea of the tragedies written by such 
well-known Greek dramatists as /Eschilus, Sophocles and 



^Development of Gujarati Lituralure : 1907-1938 


235 


Euripides. Such a book was wanted in Gujarati to give 
us an idea of the best that was in Greek Literature 
in this line, and we congratulate Mrs. Lavangika on her 
having done it so well and ably. 

☆ 

“jSUYRNAKES'I” :-By Mrs, Lavangika P* Mehta, b. a. Pp. 
120 Price Re, 0-12-0 (1927). 

The story-written by the French novelist Theo- 
phile Gautier is translated into English as ‘‘The Fleece of 
Gold”. Mrs. Lavangika has translated this English ver- 
sion, and a very creditable performance it is. She has 
thoroughly studied her subject and entered into the spirit 
of it, before beginning her work, as is shown by the notes 
contributed by her. They testify to her wide reading. 

* 

“DHQMRA STKHA” by Eamnik Jayacnand Dalai b, a . ll, 
(1932;. 

This delightful collection of short-stories, if not 
an exact translation of, is a creditable adaptation of, 
the stories of Shrimatl Ska Devi, the talented Bengali 
short -story writer who has been very popular in Gujarat. 
It is in her powerful portraiture anu character-drawing 
that she excels many a writer of short stories. Her stories 
in the Modern Review are read with admiration by all who 
happen to get it. The stories presented in this beauti- 
fully got-up volume are very delightful and do much 
credit to the pen that has written them. 

A S’ A X D A-Zvl A LA:' 5 Purl- 5. Jagannatb JuLaZibhai Laval 
Ppi 183. Price He. 0-5-0 (LOS). 



238 


Short Story- Juvenile 


This is written by a schoolmaster in active service, 
knowing well what the requirements of the little ones 
in his charge are. It contains entertaining little stories 
from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and also from 
popular folk-lore, to illustrate various subjects like bro- 
therly love, perseverence, reverence, faithfulness and other 
virtues. It contains in addition several stories of wit 
and humour also, and is interspersed with poems which 
are easy *o understand, being culled from wellknown 
poets. On the whole we find the book readable and very 
useful for the instruction of the juvenile class for whom 
it is intended. 

☆ 

“BALA YlNODA” Ry Jagannath Jethabhai Raval. Pp 116. 
Price 0-5^6 (1908). 

This book is a mixture of many subjects ranging 
from short, simple stories, to arithmetical puzzels in 
verse. The stories are didactic and informative and the 
collection could not have been made unless the writer 
had for a long time been purposely gathering his 
harvest Little children and even grown-up people are 
sure to be able to pass a pleasant half-hour with this 
little booklet in their hand. 

☆ 

* 5 AN AND A. MALA 55 PART II. by J. J, Rav.J (1909). 

This book contains short stories for children, which 
are simple, entertaining and instructive. The very fact 
that in fifteen years, there has been a demand for a fourth 
edition of this little work testifies to its utility and 
popularity. Mr. Jagannath has published many such 



Development of Gujafilti Liturature : 1907-193S 237 

works for children, and he has invariably done well in 
all of them. 

ik 

"S'lS'U SADBQlOHA MALA'" by V. P. Mehta. /1909). 

This is a collection of stories from the Ramayana, 
the Mahabharata and the Puranas, bearing on the diffe- 
rent human virtues. We see here, Aryan virtues set 
out at their best, and the book is written in such a 
simple style that it is bound to be popular with the 
masses. That there was a great demand for some such 
book cannot be gainsaid, and its utility for being placed 
in the hands of our boys and girls to teach them the 
better side of human nature as depicted in the lives of 
their great men and women can hardly be doubted. The 
problem of teaching morals has come into prominence 
of late and it is such books only that can furnish a solu- 
tion thereof. We need not say, we are greatly pleased 
with the book. 

☆ 

‘DRIS'TANTA S'ATAK" by ChhotaM Narbkeram Bhatt 
(1910). 

As the commentator of that monumental series, 
‘Gujarati Prachlna Kavya Mala’, Mr. Chhotalal Bhatt’s 
name is not unknown in the field of literature. With 
his happy knack of writing simple Gujarati he has transla- 
ted the above work from Sanskrit originally written by 
a Jaina Pandit. It contains a mixed assortment of 
precepts on ethics culled from the ranch Tantra, the 
Hitopadesha and other kindred compositions. It is simple 
and instructive, and the elucidatory notes, are particularly 



Short Story- Juvenile 


valuable. Young boys and girls are sure to be pleased 
with it. 

☆ 

‘‘BALA YARTA. 5 ' by G-angasankar Manisankar (1910). 

This is collection of short, easy stories written after 
the fashion of Aesop’s fables. It is meant for school- 
going children to whom we are sure it would prove of 
great benefit, as the author writes with all the authority 
of a teacher. 

“DES'ADES'A NI RASAMAYA VATO’ ; -By Harilal 
Maneklal Besai. B. A. Pp. 64 Price 0-5-0 ( 1914 ), 

Small stories relating to various countries. This 
little book is meant for children, who will find much to 
instruct them here. 

☆ 

SUMAN MALA ” :-Pp. 30. Price 0-1-0 (1914). 

This is the first part of an illustrated series of short 
stories, which the publisher wants to bring out very 
cheaply. Its cheapness is undoubted and the stories 
would please the masses, but the pictures require improve- 
ment, They are unlike life and look as if made up. 

“‘1. VIRA PRABHU NI VANI 5 ‘2. S'RI 1LAKUMAR 
CHARITRA.’ 3. ‘BHAYANKAR BHUTA.’ 4. ‘SHRI HARI- 
BAL MACHCHI CHARITRA 5 ” :-Frice As. 2/- each. (1918). 

All these little books consisting of about 40 pages 
each, have been published by religiously inclined Jaina 
gentlemen; the first contains messages of Mab&vira, the 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


239 


second is a life of Ilakumar from which much instruction 
can be gathered; the third is a novel depicting the evil 
consequences of drinking wine and undue attachment for 
tobacco and tea; and the fourth the life of a fisherman 
converted to the creed of Ahimsa. They are interesting 
tracts and very suitable for juvenile readers for whom 
they are intended. 

“DAMAYANTI CHARlTRA” :~by Mahssankar S. Psthak. 
Pp. 78. Price 0-7-0. ( 1923 ). 

The life of Damayanti is told in the writer’s own 
words and a moral drawn from it, viz., that readers should 
learn a lesson-not to gamble 5 and abstain from other 
evil practices, 

,4 A NICE PRESENT; 57 by G-irijasaukar B. Badheka. Pp. 144 
Price 0-10-0 (1923). 

“ELDER SISTER.’ 7 „ „ Pp. 215 

Price 0-8-0 (1923). 

The two veterans of juvenile literature at present 
influencing that branch of our literature, Girijasanker (Giju- 
bhai) and Jugatram, in these two books furnish very nice 
food for very young people. The ‘Nice Present’ consists 
of little admirable songs suited to occasions and occupa- 
tons on which children are always found engaged and the 
‘Elder Sister’ is supposed to regale those youngsters 
with e< chatty” stories though in reality teaching them. 

“BALA YARTA” ( PART III ) e— by Gijubhai, Pp. 92 Priqe 
Re. 1-0-0 (1923). 



240 


Short Story- Juvenile 


These are charming short stories meant to interest 
growing children; along with the book is furnished a 
brochure which is addressed to the story-teller and 
teaches him the theoretical and practical side of story- 
telling. 

☆ 

“SITA-KARANA*’ :~by Chandrasankar Pranagankar S'ukla. 
Pp. 1S7 Price 0-12-0. (1923) 

The prominent incident in the lives of Rama and 
Sita, viz., her being carried away forcibly by Ravana is 
narrated in this book on original lines. The style adopt- 
ed is “chatty” and that is the secret of its success. We 
are of opinion that both children and adults of both sexes 
will read it with much pleasure and thereby derive great 
benefit and instruction. 

“MUKULA” :-By Miss Premalila and Miss Saudamini Nll- 
kanth. Pp. 155. Price As 8 ;1923). 

In Ahmedabad, there is a Society of Little Ones (Shi- 
shu-mandal ) and they publish a hand-written monthly, 
and call it “Mukula”, just because they are ‘‘budding” 
writers. A number of stories, translated and originally 
conceived by them have been collected in the above book; 
though intended for juvenile people of their age and like 
acquirements, they furnish delightful reading to others too. 

The little authors belong mostly to the gifted fami- 
lies of the two sisters, Mrs. Vidya Nilkanth, b. a., o. b. e. 
and Mrs, Sbarada Mehta, b. a, and they keep up, indeed 
very well, the literary traditions of their mothers. It 
was a happy idea ? of Mr. Indulal Yajnik to collect and 
publish such a selection as the one under notice. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


241 


-1. KERINAN BHAJiy AN # 2. DH&PASALL 3 BALA- 
VIHAIIA. 4. HATO 55 ^Published by ti an diva Bala Sahitya, 
Mandvi ( 1923 ). 

These are attractive little [volumes, illustrated and 
written for the benefit of children. The stories are such 
as would interest the juveniles, and the get up of the 
books is such as to approach very nearly that of books on 
the subject published in England. The work is being 
turned out on right lines. 

r. 

“R AS AD A YAK A EaTNA-NIDHI” ;-By R.G. Modi, M. A, 
Pp. 297: Price 2-4-0 ( 1923 \ 

The book contains one-hundred small stories such as 
children would like to hear and profit by; it contains 
some pictures too. 

☆ 

"OUR STORIES 55 :-by Suxnati Nagardas Patel and Nagardas 
Fateh Pp. 79, Price 0-8-0 ( 1924 ). 

A dainty little volume. Sure to please the little 
ones for whom the stories are intended. 


“THE IDEAL BOOK OF EXEMPLARY TALES 55 :-by S, 
D. Pandit, Pp. 336. Price 0-14-0, ( 1925 

Instances of truthfulness, simplicity, and oth?rhuman 
virtues, culled from all literatures of the world figure in 
this collection. Exemplary traits in the character of 
Julius Ceasar, Khalif Umar, George Washington, Guru 
Govind Singh, and numerous other celebrities are to be 
found here. It is a representative and useful. collection, 

16 



242 


Short Story- Juvenile 


“KRIS'NA-CHANDRODAYA CHITRA-KATE A 51 by 
Fulachand Jhaverbhai Shah of Nadiad. ( 1924 ) 

This is a small book containing a life of Krigna illu- 
strated with pictures by the author. 

☆ 

“ANANDA DHARA.” Parts I, XI, III, IV. :-by Ramanlal 
Nanalal Shah. 

This is a collection of short-stories likely to inte- 
rest and amuse children, with pictures. It is an enjoyable 
collection. 

☆ 

“BALA VARTA” PART IV. ( 1924 ) :-by Gijubhai. 

This is a collection of stories for children, narrated 
by the collector in his inimitable Kathiawadi style. 

☆ 

“FU LAM ALA,” PART L by Ramanlal N. Shah, Pp. 180 
Price 0-14-0 ( 1927 ). 

As an entertaining collection of stories of juvenile 
interest the book is likely to be welcome. 

☆ 

“DRISHTANTA-MALA” :-by Dina Sevaka. (1928) 

A small book full of illustrative stories leading to 
Bhakti. 

☆ 

“ANANDA-KUNJA” :-by RamanlaJ N. Shah (1928) 

This is Part I of short stories for delighting and in- 
structing children. They really giye delight, as they are 
simple to understand 9 



Development of Gnjnrati Liternture : 1907-1938 243 

“VASANTA.” a very short story of 12 pages, written 
by the late Mrs. Aryaman Mehta deserves notice simply 
because it is written by a woman. It is the story of a 
little boot-black, who because of his honesty succeeded 
in life. 

☆ 

“YANA R A SENA Nl YaTO.“ by Kesavaprasad Chholalal 
Desai b. a., ll. b. (1930). 

'Viinara Sena Ni Vato' is the catching title of a col- 
lection of interesting short-stories for children by Sjt. 
Ke^ava prasad Desai. Vdnara Send was a very fitting 
epitaph given to the army of the juveniles during the 
Civil Disobedience Campaign in 1930-31 and the send 
forms a very peculiar phase of the great national struggle. 
Mr. Desai has, therefore, very happily chosen the title of 
this new book. 

Mr. Desai has made a creditable contribution to the 
attempt in this particular direction and seen s to have 
developed a special faculty for juvenile literature. His 
delightful stories presented here in a well got-up book 
make very pleasant reading to children. The book is 
an opportune publication and places within the reach of 
every parent a suitable gift for their children at a 
ridiculously cheap price, as the book is cloth-bound and 
printed in thick, antique paper in bold type. The 
author deserves congralutions from and gratitude of the 
little ones’; 'world. 



244 


Short Story- Juvenile 


“VIJNANA NI YISA VaTO.” by Martand S’habhandra 
Fandya B. A g. (1931). 

‘‘Twenty Science Stories,” comprises twenty informa 
tive and interesting lessons, clothed in the garb of stories 
told to juveniles on such familiar and domestic subjects 
and articles as trees, roofs, mete Is, water, soap, sugar cane, 
etc. The characteristics of each are well brought out. 



FOLKLORE 




FOLKLORE 

* 

“GUJARATI JUNAN GITO.” by Kavl Bhavanisankar of 
Limbdi. (1912). 

The little songs which children learn at their mother's 
knee, the verses which they recite when at play with 
other children, the riddles which they are called upon 
to read at this age, furnish quite a fascinating literature 
in all the known languages. The same is the case with 
Gujarati; and looking to the tendency of the presentday 
school-education there appears to be every likelihood 
of these beautiful songs being lost to literature, firstly 
because school-books containing poetry with copy-book 
texts are ousting them, and secondly because no attempts 
are being made to rescue them from thus being wiped out. 

All honour due therefore to the Education Depart- 
ment of H. H. The Gaekwad which notified the award of 
a prize to such a publisher, and to this Kavi who under- 
took this compilation and carried off the prize. 

The songs are very little things, falling very sweetly 
on the ears when sung by groups of small children, 
accompanied by suitable action. To be appreciated they 
have to be read and heard. 



m 


Folklore 


“KATHIAWADI SAHITYA ” :-by Kahanji Dharmasimha 
of Rajkot. (1918) 

The indigenous literature of Kathiawad is very rich, 
and portrays the wild, romantic and picturesque life of its 
inhabitants in vivid colours. It chronicles historic events 
and is also brimful of incidents which throw strong light 
on the social side of the life of its varied population. Un- 
fortunately these verses lie scattered about in some cases 
in inaccessible corners; but in most, are preserved by 
means of oral communication from mouth to mouth. Till 
now no sustained effort has been made to collect and 
publish them. 

This little book under review is an attempt to fill up 
the void, and we think it is a commendable one. The 
amours of well-known couples like Sora Rani and Hala- 
mana Jethvo, Fuland& and Lakho, have been versified in 
very feeling words, the chastity of Ranakdevi who burnt 
hereself on the funeral pyre with her husband rather than 
submit to the embraces of the King of Patan, is also cele- 
brated in verse, which is full both of pathos and vigour. 

Besides this, the book contains many other duhas 
(couplets) which are didactic and characteristic of the 
rough and uneducated men by whom they are composed. 
Short notes here and there enable the reader to understand 
the rather peculiar provincialism of Kathiawad. We think 

this book should be on the table of all lovers of Kathiawadi 
literature. ^ 

“BHARAT A LOKA-KATHA ; PARTI.’ 5 by Manilal Xchacha- 
rilm Dosai. b a. (1916). 

If any single institution with a literary man at its 
head has richly benefited the language and literature of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 249 

Gujarat by the publication of useful works it is the 
Gujarati Press and its late proprietor, Mr. Ichcharam 
Suryaram Desai. Scores of good books, hundreds of 
standards works, and a like number of compositions of 
struggling authors have come out of the Press. 

Amongst the many-sided activities of the late founder 
was one for the preservation of a certain kind of oral 
literature, which with the passage of time was bound to 
expire, unless perpetuated in some way. This literature 
is that floating mass of stories, historical and others, 
which lives only in the mouth of the professional story- 
teller or bard. Unless care be taken to collect it from 
the various mouths that retail them the whole branch 
stands in danger of being wiped out. The reason is that 
owing to the advent of the printing press, interest in such 
stories has declined. 

With his unerring instinct, Mr. Ichcharam saw the 
use to history and allied subjects dealt with in these 
bardic narrations; and at considerable expense he took 
steps to have them copied down from firsthand sources. 
The result is a collection of twenty-two fine stories, likely 
to appeal to both the high and the low, besides being 
useful in other ways. Unfortunately the collector did 
not live to see them published; but his son, who worthily 
follows his father's tradition has brought them out and 
thus fulfilled his last wishes. 

☆ 

“BHILO NAN GITA’ 5 collected by N. M. Pathek. 1916). 

The Bhils are ethnologically said to represent the 
aborigines of India, before it was overran by the Aryans, 



folklore 


250 

On this side of India they are found in large number's 
in the Revakantha and Mahikantha Political Agencies and 
in Khandesh and Malwa. In spite of their contact with 
civilised people they have preserved most of their 
original or rather aboriginal customs and usages in their 
entirety, on account of the isolated life they live in the 
jungles and on the hills in which these parts of the 
country abound. 

As between themselves they use a certain kind of 
patois in conversation but with others they talk Gujarati 
or Marathi, picking it up from their town or village 
neighbours. 

A collection of songs sung by this community was 
no doubt a happy idea and the specimens oollected in this 
book furnish very interesting reading. Almost every song 
is typical of the life they lead in the jungles and on the 
hills. Their humble fare of Mowra flowers and maize, 
their pride in their cattle, their simple forms of marriage 
and courtship are all reflected in these songs which 
also exhibit the subtle influences overtaking them on 
account of their constant intercourse with the outside 
world, as evidenced by their imitation of some of the 
customs and manners of a Hindu's life with its joint 
family system. 

The Introduction to the collection is written in very 
simple and terse language, but is full of information. 
One remark made in it is worth noticing, viz., that the 
Bhils living in the jungles never tell an untruth, while 
those who have come in contact with civilised or edu- 
cated people, cannot resist the temptation of telling 



terelci nett cf Gujaiati Liteiature : 1907-1938 25l 

falsehoods. There was no such book as this in Gujarati 
and we are of opinion that it would meet with a cordial 
welcome at the hands of all those who would care to 
read it through. 

☆ 

“RAJA BHOJA AND KAVI KALIDAS.” by Ambalal 
Bulakhiram Jani, B. A. (1919). 

Neat Printing, fine get-up, nice pictures, these are 
some of the features of the book. The stories of Kalidas 
and Raja Bhoja furnish an ever-entertaining theme of en- 
lightenment and interest, and also of pride to every 
native of India, and hence they require to be told in a 
way which should reach men and women even with 
limited opportunities for education. Any attempt in that 
direction is commendable and the present book is just 
such an attempt. 

☆ 

‘‘‘KATHIAWAD Nl JUNI YARTAO. 1 ’ by Haragovind 
Premasinkar Trivedi. Pp. 264 Price 2-4*0 (1922). 

Kathiawad has been, from of old, the land of romance 
and chivalry. There is an amount of “floating” literature 
in the province, embodying tales of romance and chivalry. 
If caught and perpetuated it is likely to prove of great 
importance from a historical and linguistic point of view- 
Very few afforts have till now been made to collect and 
publish such stories and many of them must have perish- 
ed with the Bhats and Charans who had them by heart. 

The collector of these stories had an innate love fcr 
them from his childhood and he has now been able to give 
us about 29 of them and told in a pleasing form. The 



252 


Folklore 


glimpses we get of the life of the natives of Kathiawad 
from them are both attractive and valuable. 

A sympathetic Introduction by Prof. B. K. Thakore 
ho says that he has heard similar stories as a child sitt- 
ing in the lap of their Dhobi narrator, sums up their uti- 
lity from various standpoints. 

'GRASD MOTHER’S TALES” :~By Jhaverchand Meghani. 
B ft a., Pp, 128 Price Rs. 0-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

As its name suggests, this is a collection and a 
very commendable collection, of tales alleged to have 
been told by grandmothers to their grandchildren. It 
is a very old custom in Gujarat for old ladies of the 
family to narrate interesting tales to little children be- 
fore putting them to bed. The custom is losing its univer- 
sality owing to the trend of modern school education; and 
it is only by means of such felicitous attempts that this 
branch of our old literature can be preserved. The tales 
are charmingly told, and reminds one of the excellent 
K^rbcmi ni Kaihao. 

☆ 

‘’SAURAS’TRA NI RASA-DHARA; OR THE NECTAR- 
STREAM OP ’ SAURASHTRa:” published by the SaurSs'tra 
Sahitya Maudir, Raupur. Pp. 216. Price 1-8-0 (1923). 

Saurastra ( Kathiawad) is from days of yore famous 
for its hospitalify and chivalry. The indigenous literature 
of this province is full of romance-romantic stories, 
depicting the chivalry of its sons and the courage and 
the chastity of its daughters. Most of the literature 
however is preserved not in books but in the minds of 
the storytellers (bards). 



Development of G-ujuriili Literature : 19(h~1938 

Efforts have been of late made to gi\ e a permanent 
form to this floating literature, and the collection of 
stories under notice is one of them. Each and every 
story has come from the mouth or pen of some one 
steeped in this kind of lore and the preservation of this 
kind of folklore as well as tragedies in real life is a boon 
of no inconsiderable value. 

2 £. 

«KATHIAWADI S'AKITYA. ” I'A ET 11: By iviihnnji 
Dharamsi, Printed at tha Sanfitaa Jain a Print::--" Pres® . Raj !«'!•., 
Pp. 124. Price Re. 1-0-0 {1923;. 

The Literature of old Kathiawad, consisting of Dohds 
and Sorathas and other poetical dialogues, required 
to be preserved. This is an effort in that direction; 
though it overlaps the work of some others, still there 
is some undiscovered ground also, and as such it has 
its use. 

☆ 

6t THE BEAUTIFUL NIGHT: v By Jhaverchanu Dicgham. 
B. A. Pp. 112 Price Rs. 0-3-0 (1925). 

The songs sung at night delineating thj different 
phases of a woman's life, in Kathiawad, by women, in 
that particularly attractive fashion, called gar aid to the 
accompaniment of clapping of hands and moving round 
and round in a circle, are collected here. Those who 
have been fortunate enough to witness this peculiar 
* feminine pastime, never forget it, as the whole entourage 
is so charming and attractive. 

The songs though indigenous have not been com- 
mitted to paper, many have been forgotten and many are 



264 


Folklore 


in danger of being forgotten. The service, therefore, 
rendered by Mr. Meghani in publishing them is in- 
valuable. The Introduction is a gem in itself, it roman- 
ticises the ordinary and everyday phases of a Kathiawadi 
woman's life in his warm and stirring style. 

☆ 

“ NAYARATRI NA GARABA by N. M. Damani and V* 
V. Padhiar, Pp. 80 Price 0*5-0 (1925). 

The Qaraba or songs collected here although said to 
be extremely local, i. e., sung in a place called Chorwad 
(in Kathiawd), bear all the common traits of those which 
are heard in other parts of the province in praise of the 
Mataji (goddess) during the first nine nights of Asvin. These 
popular songs embody an amount of folkore, and never 
lack interest. 

☆ 

“ INTERESTING STORIES.” by Gokuldas DwarkadaS 
Raichura* Pp. 200. Price 1*8-0 (1925). 

The stories are interesting and bring out certain wel- 
come traits of indigenous tribes inhabiting Kathiawad, such 
as the M&rs and Ahirs, whose men are brave, honest, 
truthful, and beautiful in addition. The literature of 
stories, however, collected around these tribes is entirely 
oral and requires to be preserved in print. 

☆ 

«•' GRAND-FATHER’S TALES, * by Jhaverchand Meghari. 
B. A., Pp. 116 Price 0-8-0 (1926). 

This is a companion volume to Grand-Mother's 
Tales and brings out in great relief the folk-lore of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 190/— 1938 - 

Kathiawad. The tales are told in print in such a way 
that for the moment the reader forgets that he is reading 
the movements of the characters in the stories in cold 
print, experiencing as he is the thrills and sensation of 
hearing their recital. 

Those who have heard the Story-tellers of 
Kathiawad recite such stories will appreciate the valueable 
service rendered by Mr. Meghani in thus preserving 
the original style and communicating its charm to his 
reader, who becomes transformed into a listener. The 
descriptions of the characters are vivid and graphic; see 
for instance that of the Sadhu or Jogi at p. 9. 

☆ 

u KATHIAWADI SONGS ” by Jhavcrchand Meghfuii b. a 
Pp. 178. Price 1-0-0 (1926). 

This collection of songs indigenous to Kathiawad, the 
second of its kind, if anything excels the first. The 
songs are very popular anfl presented with the back- 
ground of the illuminating Introduction written by Mr. 
Meghani; the very soul of Kathiawaai domesticity, 
peeps out from them. Their charm is manifested in al- 
most every line and we cannot give enough praise to the 
talented compiler for the service he is doing to his 
province and our Literature by such publications. 

“LOKA SANGITA" by Narayar-a Moreshvar Khare. Pp. 86 
Price 0-12-0 ( 1926 )> 

This is a valuable collection of popular songs sung 
&nd not only read extensively in Gujarat, They are so to 



256 Folklore 

speak scientifically treated in this little book without los- 
ing their most attractive feature, their popularity. Such 
a collection was required and it has been produced. 

% 

“KAKKAVATF* :-By Jhaverchand Meghani B. A., Pp. 105 
Price 0-8-0* ( 1927 ). 

Married and unmarried girls in all provincas of 
India have their own vows to observe, the rites or ceremo- 
nies to be performed on special days before particular 
gods and idols with a view to win their blessings and 
favour. Such observances are called varata in Gujarati 
and a large amount of popular lore has accumulated round 
each one of such varata . 

Tales relating to such observances are collected and 
set out, one may say scientifically, in this little book, 
which furnishes delightful reading and perpetuates cer- 
tain valuable literature which otherwise would have 
disappeared. 

☆ 

“BEAUTIFUL NIGHT 7 ’ PART III. by Jhaverchand M©- 
ghani, B. a. ( 1928 ). 

This third collection of popular songs sung by females 
in Kathiawad is in keeping with the two former ones in 
excellence and in serving to perpetuate what otherwise 
would have perished in this branch of literature, as these 
songs have never been collected and printed before. 

The most useful part, however, of the book is its 
well-written Introduction where the ballad literature of 
our province has been examined in the light of European 



Development of G-ujara-i Liter, lure : 3907-1938 2-57 

ballad literature, with the eye and intelligence of an expe- 
rienced critic. 

It is the first contribution of it-, kii'd and as such 
very valuable. 

“THE OUTLAWS OF SGBATHV* by J haverchand Meghnni, 
b. a. ( 1928 ). 

In five weeks the first impression oi this book of 2,000 
copies was exhausted and a second called for and as 
eagerly taken up; this is a feat even in the sale of Gujarati 
“bestsellers,” The compilation consists of the narratives 
of the adventures of many notable outlaws of Kathiawad. 

The adventures read like romance and are so well 
narrated that one almost falls in love with the free-booter, 
who in certain respects even out-Robin hoods Robin hood. 
The book is so spiritedly written that one who does not 
read it, would feel himself the poorer by not haying 
read it. This is the First Part only. 

' ☆ 

S *KANKAYATI” by Jhavercband Meghari, b. a. { 1928 .) 

‘Kankavati 1 means the little pot in which Kumkam- 
the red colour with which men and women ( except 
widows ) mark their fore-head as a sign of auspiciousness 
is kept- The title aptly describes the contents of the 
book, which are stories relating to vows taken by married 
and unmarried girls and women for the attainment of 
various objects in their life, connubial happiness, birth of 
a son, etc. 

17 



25S 


Folklore 


This colour-pot plays an important part in the 
discharge of her functions in respect of the vow taken, be 
cause it is with the colour contained in it that she marks 
the different objects of her worship, trees, little girls, 
married women etc. 

The very comprehensive Introduction contributed to 
it by Mr. Meghani reviews the literature of vows of diffe- 
rent countries of the world including Japan, and besides 
being an interesting review is a unique one of its kind in 
our literature. It is a most valuable and informative work. 

& 

‘SORATHI BAH A BY ATIA ’ PART II. by Jhaverchand 
Maghajni, b. a. (1929) 

The first part of this work-The Robin Hood of Kathia- 
wad-we have noticed already. The second part in every 
way keeps up to the high level of its predecessor. It 
handles the life-history and adventures of free-booters, 
Jogidas Khumana (1816-1829 A. D.), Jodho Manek (1858- 
1867) and Jesaji Vejaji (1473-1491). The first is called 
the “ Rob Roy of Kathiawad/* 

The stories are very stirringly told and the innermost 
meaning of such lives of adventure and the romance lying 
behind them effectively brought out. Mr. Meghani pro- 
mises a review of the literatures of the world on the sub- 
ject and it should prove greatly interesting. We have no 
doubt about it. ^ 

" HAL ARAD AN OR LULLABIES ” by Jhaverchand 
Meghani, b. a. ( 1929 ). 

This is a work by Mr. Meghani. Its introduction 
entitled * Voice of Parental Affection ’ reviews the 



Development of Guja’Titi Literature : 1907-1938 259 

literature on this subject from all points of view, as found 
in the several civilized countries of the world. 

•vi 

v- 

“CHUNDADr’ by Jhaverchand Meghfini, b. a. { 1929 ). 

The first edition of the book was published in April, 
a second was called for by August following. This testi- 
fies to its extreme popularity. Somehow or other Mr. 
Meghani has been able to get a strong hold over the lives 
of the people of his province and some of his books sell 
like hot cakes. This book is a collection of songs sung by 
women at the different stages of a Hindu wedding. 

To the Gujarati reader they strike a familiar note 
but the value of the book lies in their ordered arrange- 
ment, which at a glance furnishes a faithful picture of the 
feelings and the occasion which prompt the song. As 
usual, a thoughtful, considerate and comprehensive intro- 
duction adds to the value of the compilation. ‘Chundadi’ 
is the wedding garment in which the bride clothes herself 
on the occasion of her wedding. 

☆ 

“KANKAVATI” Part II. by Jhaverchand Meghani, b, a. 

( 1936 ) 

The metal or wood container which holds the red 
power with which men and women in Gujarat mark their 
foreheads and worship gods and the sun and the tree and 
the plant is called a Kankdvati , a vessel for Kumkum 
the auspicious red-powder. The title chosen for the book 
is symbolic, because the little girls whose vows ( vrata ) 
aud sports are set out here always use this little 



260 


Biography 


vessel and its contents to bring auspiciousness to their 
doings. 

Mr. Meghani has treated this part of the domestic 
life of these juveniles as part of the folklore of Kathiawad 
and his introduction enlightening as it is, makes it clear 
that these practices cover a lot of ancient wisdom. 
The twenty-two pen-pictures furnish attractive reading. 
The list at the end explaining local terms is a very 
thoughtful provision for those who are not familiar 
with them. 

☆ 



BIOGRAPHY 




BIOGRAPHY 

☆ 

“LIFE OF GARIBALDI with a map arid four pictures : by 
Narsimhabhai Xshvarbhai Patel : Yiraksetra Mudralaya, Baroda 
Pp. 415. Price Re. 1-0-0 (1907). 

The wave of patriotism, typified by the phrase Bande 
Mataram, has been beating against Gujarat too, and the 
above work is but one out of many material signs of it. 
The book is headed Bande Mataram , and opens with the 
song printed in extenso. It further manifests the feeling 
of unification that runs through the country, in as much as 
the author has chosen to print it in Devanagari character, 
and has stated on the title — page that any one who likes 
may publish the book “for the good of the country” (de£a- 
hitarth^ ). The get-up of the work is superior and the 
printing alone must have cost much; but the price is kept 
advisedly low, so as to bring it within easy reach of all. 

The work is based on the Bengali version of Babu 
Jogendranath Vidyabhusana M. A. with some help taken 
from Marathi and English authors. The life of the recluse 
of Carera was full of stirring incidents and romantic episo- 
des; the lesson it taught has been written for all ages on 
the page not only of the history of his own country, but of 
the world, and the object of the author — who has most 
successfully managed to preserve the interest of the origi- 
nal, which never flags from cover to cover — has been 



^64 Biography 

solely to present to Gujarati readers a faithful picture of 
what self* sacrifice can do towards the regeneration of a 
fallen country. If the study of such biographies can help 
to instil into the mind of the reader habits of self-sacrifice 
and self-abnegation for the good of the many, this book 
is certainly calculated to do it. 

It is written in a style which is neither high nor col- 
loquial and which at all times keeps an even level. 
There was want of such a good biograpy in Gujarati and 
the present writer has supplied it, and we feel grateful for 
the same. 

"tr 

“SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK LIVES OF PLTJT- 
ARCH rendered from English into Gujarati, by Balv&ntrai K, 
Thakor*. B. a. Rajkumar College Rajkot, and Havila! M. Bhatt, m. 
a. Professor, Baha-ud-din College, dunag dh. Pp. 338 Price Rs. 
2-0-0 (1907). 

This collection comprises the lives of LycurgusNicias, 
Dion, Themisiocles, Pelopidas, Pericles, Agecilaus and 
Alexander. We may say at the outset that the work is 
no mere verbatim translation of the English rendering of 
Plutarch’s Greek lives, but a well-thought out and deli- 
berate attempt - so far as we are aware, the first of its 
kind - to introduce into Gujarati literature the philosophy, 
history, and literature of the Greeks, through the medium 
of a collection of biographies. 

The study of mere history as history, as was done 
in the old Gujarati school series, or philosophy as philoso- 
phy, as in the prose-writings of Kavi Narmadasanker, is 
neither attractive nor popular. The authors have, there- 
fore, hit upon a happy medium. To the translation of 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 265 

each life* are appended several independent articles, which 
explain all the salient historical and philosophical phases 
of that life, and show in a concrete form, the atmosphere 
in which that life was passed and its surroundings.. For 
instance, the appendix to the Life of Alexander, consists 
of six articles: (i) the Greek Pantheon, (ii) the Olympic 
games, (iii) Greek currency, (iv) Greek chronology, (v) 
short biographies of famous men mentioned in Alex- 
ander’s Life, and (vi) a chronological list of the chief 
events in the Greek history. 

The authors have all throughout depended for their 
information on such well-known writers, as Thucidides, 
Herodotus and others. What is still left obscure, is made 
clear by valuable foot-notes, which are copious and well 
written. 

A very valuable and useful feature of the book is the 
partial removal of that defect which mars almost all good 
Gujarati books, viz., the want of a good index. An index 
of names at the close of the work comes very handy, and 
an index of subjects would have rendered that part of the 
book perfect; but perhaps want of leisure is responsible 
for its absence. We wish this book an extensive circula- 
tion. 

☆ 

& RL KRISHNA JIVANA 77 : by Jivanlal Amarsi MehtU, 
( 1909 ). 

Mr. Jivanlal has been known to us as a writer never 
allowing his pen to remain idle, and the above work is one 
more useful fruit of it The three beautiful poems, in 
Bengali called ‘Raivataka/ ‘Kuruksefra/ and ‘Prabhasa’ 



266 


Biography 


written by Babu Nobin Chandra Sen require no introduc- 
tion to Bengali readers. They depict, in terms which 
appeal to all, the main incidents in the life of Krisna, 
though the story told is more romantic than religious or 
mythological. Here, we have not got a direct translation 
from Bengali but one from the Marathi version made by 
Mr. Parulkar. 

In spite of its being a third-hand composition, the 
beauty and pathos of the original peep at us from every 
line of the translation. This translation has been published 
in parts in a monthly called the Vais'ya Pair ilea, and 
even then we were struck with the mastery displayed by 
the writer, whoever he was, as we did not know him then, 
in presenting to the reader, most effective pictures of 
several prominent incidents in the life-history of the 
Pandavas. 

The dialogue between the newly widowed Uttara and 
the Vanamata of Abhimanyu, ^ailaja and the depicting of 
the scene, where Uttara goes to the funeral pile of her 
husband to take a pinch of the ashes and thus by a fiction 
fulfil her duties as a Sati to burn with him in order to 
preserve the child in her womb in Chap. VI, are perhaps 
the most affecting in the whole book, a book which pre- 
sents the life and life-work of Krisna in a peculiar light. 

“A LIFE OF KING EDWARD VII, THE PEACEMAKER/' 
by : B. C. S'astri. (1910). 

Up till now no such readable sketch of the life of 
our late Sovereign has been published in Gujarati. The 
joint authors have made a close study of all the incidents 



.Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 267 

in the life of the King-Emperor, and reproduced them in 
their own words. The language employed by them being 
very simple and the story interesting we have no doubt 
that it would be extensively popular amongst the masses, 
\yho do not know English, and for whose special benefit it 
has been published. The pictures are nice, and the get 
up of the book is commendable too. 

☆ 

66 IS'VARCHANDRA VIDYASAGAK. ” by S’ivaprasad 
Dalpatram Pandit (1911 

We have already had occassion to favourably review 
a brochure written by Mr. Pandit, called Devi Aghora 
Kdmini . It is of great moment that the doings of the 
great men in one part of India should be known to their 
countrymen on its other side, and as such, this book 
deserves every welcome though it is the second of its 
kind. 

It is the outcome of sincere admiration on the part 
of the writer for one of the greatest social reformers of 
Bengal and is written in a good readable style like its 
companion book Devi Aghora Kamini. We wish it may 
meet with the encouragement it deserves. 

41 HAZRAT MOHAMMAD PAYG AM BEE. ” by M. K. 
Pirzada Mottamlayn. (1911) 

We are always glad when we have got an oppor- 
tunity of coming across Gujarati works written by our 
Mahomedan brothers. They serve to remind us that 
in spite of all the talk of their being separate in language 
and interest from their Hindu friends, there is some such 



268 


Biography 


thing as the love of the language of one’s Mother Country 
( Watan ), and that there are Mahomedan gentlemen 
who do not forget the fact, but on the other hand bring it 
into relief by their pen and conduct. There have been 
one, two or three lives of the prophet of Arabia in Gujarati; 
but in point of scholarliness, lucidity of style, utilisation 
of all materials in English, Urdu and Gujarati, in respect 
of the subject matter of the book, and keeping up of 
unbroken interest in the narration from start to finish, 
it would be difficult to find, a volume which would beat 
the one under notice. 

The Pirzada leads the reader through every phase 
of Islam, from the state of idolatrous Arbia, down to the 
time of the final triumph of the cult of iconcclnsm. The 
social state of Arabia before the advent of the Prophet 
was of the most miserable type. Slavery of women, 
killing of female children, and other gross superstitions 
were rampant, which Mahommad made it his business to 
eradicate. How he brought light into the Era of Igno- 
rance is detailed with great perspicacity by the author, 
and we consider this book a commendable addition to 
the literature on the subject in Gujarati. 

& 

i£ SWAM! KAMATIRTHA, PART L ” {1911}, 

We have already noticed before the useful work being 
cone by this Society for the encouragement of cheap 
literature- Swami Akhandananda who is the life and soul 
of this enterprise has brought out yet another publication 
in the shape of a sketch of the life of Swami Ramatirtha 
whom he knew personalty. A life of this patriotic sou 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-193S 


269 


of India was badly wanted and this sketch although it 
does not meet the need fully, still goes a long way 
towards it. There are three other short useful essays 
attached to the sketch. 

“ SAMKAT GEORGE-. ” by R. A, Mehta. (1911). 

This small hand-book deals with all the important 
incidents in the lives of their Imperial Majesties. The 
illustrations and the neat printing on thick glazed paper 
make the book attractive. We wish the language was 
still more simple and homely. 

“ SITA-RAMA CHARITRA, FART I. " by Kapadia Nem- 
ehanda Girdh-arlaL (1911). 

There is no special merit in the book,: excepting 
that it accentuates the never-to be-forgotten lesson 
furnished by the saintly lives of &ta anfl Rama. It is 
written by Kapadia Nemchanda Girdharlal; and in several 
places points out the differences in the narrative between 
the ordinary Ramayana and the Jaina Ramayana. 

The book is written specially for ladies, but it is 
likely to prove useful to both the sexes. It tells nothing 
new and one fails to understand the special utility of 
many such books, which are always flooding the book- 
market. 

" BIOGRAPHY OF THE KING EMPEROR GEORGE 
V." by D. N. Mehta. (1911). 

In this happy Coronation year,- almost every verna- 
cular of Sndia has come out .with the biography of oi*r 



270 


Biography 


beloved Sovereign and Gujarati has not lagged behind. 
The story in this volume is succintly but pointedly told; 
naturally a larger proportion thereof is taken up wifh His 
Majesty’s tour six years ago in Incl n. A short introduc- 
tion in prose and poetry by t e venerable scholar 
Ranchhodbhai Udayaram is the distinguishing feature of 
the book. 

‘‘BHARAT NAN STRl RATNG” :-Vol. I. By Bivaprasad 
Dalpatram Pandit Pp. 6£3 Price. Rs. 1-4-0 (1912). 

All possible sources have been ransacked for this 
collection of the lives ol eminent Indian women. It is 
larger and more comprehensive, because it is later in date, 
than the wellknown 4 Sati Mandal.’ 

☆ 

“LIFE OF MOHANDAS KARAMOHAND GANDHI” by 
Dr. Pranajivan J. Mehta. (1912). 

A work of this kind was a great desideratum, so wrote 
the present writer in East and West , in an article which 
he contributed to it while reviewing the Rev. Mr. Doke’s 
work in English. It was still more badly wanted in 
Gujarati, and we are glad that a special friend of Mr. 
Gandhi has accomplished the task by translating the 
English work into Gujarati. It is prefaced by an introduc- 
tion which is in the nature of a small supplementary book 
on the subject. 

Dr. Mehta has seen South Africa, the field of Mr. 
Gandhi’s labours, and has ever since 1898 been in active 
correspondence with him. As a result whereof, he is able 
to put in his own independent performance many facts and 



Development of GujaiTui Literature : 1907-1938 271 

incidents which mn beyond the ken of Mr. Doke. Mr. 
Gandhi's views on the prr-se; t state of India, social , econo- 
mic and political, as discussed in his letters, are, to say 
the least, very fresh and original. Many oi them, such as, 
that the Railways have done great harm to the country, 
that modern civilisation has demoralised the people, that 
the present system of education has undermined the 
foundations of health and family-ties of students, would 
be condemned as heresies; but one has to remember that 
Gandhi is a follower of Tolstoy, and that he supports his 
conclusions by facts and arguments. 

The translation is indeed well done and we welcome 
both the introduction and the translation, which together 
fully bear out the object of the writer, viz., to present the 
Spartan hero of Sold h Africa as he is. 

☆ 

" LIFE CF MISS FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE." :-by 
Mr.?. S'araclii Mehta n. a . (1912?. 

The book is the performance of a lady of the Nagara 
community, Mrs. Sarada, who has already made her 
debut on the stage of Gujarati literature. Some months 
ago we had an occasion to review the work which she had 
carried out in collaboration with her sister Mrs. Vidya, 
b. a. being the translation of a novel by R. C. DuLt. We 
commended the work for its many qualities and the pre- 
sent one in no way falls behind it. 

The humane work performed by Miss Florence Night- 
ingale could not have been brought to the notice of Guja- 
rati readers by a better writer, than Mrs Sarada, who 
herself being married to a medical gentleman, can very 



272 


Biography 


well appreciate the quality and the intensity of the sacri- 
fice made by Miss Nightingale. 

Xr' 

“ S TEI-BO D H A K SATl-CHARITRA.” :-by Mrs. Saguna 
Bhamisukkram Nirgunram 0 (1912). 

The book is the production of the pen of a Nagar 
Brahmin lady, and she has retold the often repeated but 
never wearying tales of the lives of Damayanti and Drau- 
padi, Taramati and Slta and Savitri in language fit to be 
understood by her sisters and now and then interspersed 
with verses of popular poets. To this she has added two 
original chapters, comparing the several lives in the book 
and drawing a moral from them, and also giving from the 
standpoint of a Hindu woman the duties of a wife or 
Stridharma . Both the chapters are worth perusal. 

“S'RX S'ANKARACHARYA CHARXTRA” :-By tf. H. 
S'astri. (1912). 

The numerous events that have crowded into the 
short span of life, lived on this earth by Swami &ankara- 
charya, are all set out by a loving hand in this work. Of 
the half a dozen books and lectures existing in the Guja- 
rati language on the subject, the writer has made a good 
and profitable use. All the same the last word on Sankara 
and his life work has come, from Prof. Ananda &ankar 
Dhruva. some months ago, as a contribution to the Vasania, 
which still remains unmatched. 

* 

u BHARAT A NA MAHA PURUS'O.” (1912). 

This is the first part of a series, which the Society for 
Encouragement of Cheap Literature wants to bring out 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1933 


273 


in connection with the great men of India. The present 
work embraces the lives of (1) Yogiraj Haridasaji of 
Lahore, whose feats in Yoga won admiration even from 
Englishmen, (2) Maharaja Chhatrasalji ( S. Y. 1054 ) of 
Bundelkhand, and (3) Bhisma, of the Mahabharat fame. 
The object with which the series is projected is fully 
borne out by this Part, as it tells in easy and pleasant 
language the life history of these ;three remarkable men, 
who each has left a name and an inspiring example 
behind him. 

☆ 

“ GURUDATT VlDYARTHX NUN JlVANACHARXTRA. M 
Pp. 25 4. Price 1-4-9. (1913). 

The life of this marvellously equipped son of the 
Punjab who died at the early age of 26, is written in 
English by Lala Lajpat Rai, of which this book is a trans- 
lation. The earnestness and purity of life and thought of 
Gurudatt deserves to be better known than at present and 
we think that this translation is sure to accomplish that 
purpose. 

☆ 

“ BHARAT NA VlRA PHRUS’O. ” : Published by the 
Society far Encouragement of Cheap Literature (1913). 

Bengali, Marathi, and Hindi sources have been utilised 
in this compilation, which is a collection of the lives of 
Indian heroes, Rana Pratapa, Maharaj 6ivaji, Prithviraja 
and other well-known Kings, Ministers and Generals 
- forty-four in number - have their lives recorded here, 
by a loving hand, in simple language. It is the first part 
of what one might call an Indian Book of Gtolden Deeds. 
The preface is indeed thoroughly written, and the sugges- 



274 


Biography 


tions made there, that the rising generation of boys should 
be fed on such tales of heroism instead of on the stories of 
wild birds and animals, is well worth consideration. 

☆ 

“THEODORE PARKER.” ; by the late Narayaaa Hema- 
Chandra. (1914). 

The book is a biography of the well known American, 
Theodore Parker. It was originally written by the late 
Narayana Hemachandra, whose quaint language has in 
this edition been touched up here and there. 

& 

“A SHORT LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. 9 ’ Pp. 304 
Price Re. 1- 0-0. (1914). 

This sketch of Napoleon's Life is a translation from 
the Hindi work of Indrachandra Vedalankar, the son of 
Mahatma Munshiramji, the wellknown and veteran Arya 
Samajist. A life of the great hero is interesting reading 
at all times, and the translation is done in such a way as 
to take away nothing from that interest. 

« BHARAT NAN STRl RATNO. 99 : VoL HI. Pp. 448. 
Price Re. 0-10-0 (1914). 

The present volume is in keeping with the two pre- 
vious ones, and maintains all the good points of its predece- 
ssors. Living women as well as those of other faiths, like 
the Buddhist and the Mahomedan are included, and alto- 
gether a readable and informative compilation is the 
result* 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 275 

« SWAMI RAMATIRTHA: ” Yol. L Pp. 365 Price Re. 
1-0-0 (1914) 

All the previous volumes separately published of the 
sermons of Swami Ramatirtha are now sought to be 
embodied in one volume, by the Society for Encourage- 
ment of Cheap Literature. We have already expressed our 
admiration of the commendable work done by this 
Society, and this publication confirms it. 

“ A SHORT LIFE OF PANDIT GURUDATTA VIDYA- 
RTHI WITH HIS WRITINGS: ” Pp. 123 Price Re. 0-8-0 (1914). 

Pandit Gurudatta has been introduced to the readers 
of Gujarati Literature already by the Arya Samaj, and 
this work is distributed as a present to the subscribers 
of Arya Prakasa, the local organ of the Sabha in these 
parts. The sketch is a very readable translation of the 
life written by Lala Jivandas of Lahore and it brings out 
vividly all the strong points in the life of the Admiral 
Critchton of India, who died at the very threshold of his 
youth. 

His scholarly writings required a scholarly and 
sympathetic pen for translation and we felicitate Mr. 
Chandrasankar on the happy way in which he has made 
it, considering that he had to deal with such a technical 
subject as Vedic words and their significance. 

DEVI AGHORAKAMINI. ” by S’ivapraead Dalpatram 
Pandit. (1914) 

Devi Aghorakamini has left a name in Bengal as a 
very philanthropic lady, and this manual contains - the 



276 


Biography 


reports of a speech dealing with her life and work 
delivered by Mr. ^ivaprasad Pandit under the President- 
ship of Mrs. 6arada Sumant Mehta b. a„ at Ahmedabad. 
It is a commendable attempt on the part of the author 
to make one side of India acquainted with the good that 
is being done on its other side. 

☆ 

« A LIFE OF THE HON’BLE GO BALA KRIS’NA 
GOKHALE : PART I. ” by P. J. Desai. (1915). 

This is the third volume in the series projected by 
Mr. Pandurao, of bringing out the lives of the great sons 
and friends of India. It is by far the best written life of 
Mr. Gokhale we have come across in Gujarati. Its chief 
recommendation is that it is written from the heart; the 
writer has identified himself thoroughly with the great 
Ni^kama Karmayogin about whom he has written. Every 
Gujarati should possess and peruse this little book. 

« YAS’ODHARA CHARITRA. ” by M. K. Kapidia. ( 1915 ) 

Kavi Pugpadanta has written in Hindi a life of 
Yashodhara the object of which is to preach the doctrine 
of Ahimsa. This book is a translation of it, and is full of 
gruesome and revolting incidents of sacrifices to the god- 
dess and of several other unsavoury matters, which 
overlie the moral intended to be conveyed, so thickly 
that it remains hardly visible. 

☆ 

“JOAN OF ARC” by Hasam Hirji Charariia, (1915). 

This life of the heroine of France was needed in 
Gujarati, We find it is written in simple language, and is 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


277 


informative in character. The reproduction shows that 
the writer has studied his subject well. 

☆ 

“LIFE OF S’ETK TRIBHUVANDAS BHANJI.” by Bho- 
gindrarao R. Divetia. B. A. (1915) 

This book traces the rise in the life of an humble 
Jaina individual who by dint of honest dealings amassed a 
fortune and spent for the good of his community. It is 
sure to furnish a fine ideal to his co-religionists and is 
intended for free distribution. 

☆ 

“MAHAN A ALEXANDER.” by V. J. Thokkai. (1915) 

This life of Alexander the Great is die result of a 
study of various works in Gujarati and English, and also 
Bengali. It is likely to prove of great use to those who 
want to read biography in a general and interesting and 
not critical style. 

☆ 

"MANCHERJIK MARZBAN. C. I. E.” by his son Mar- 
zabiin Manchtrji Ah vzbaa. (1915). 

Air. Marzban is not a novice in the art of authorship 
and although this record of the life of his lather is a mere 
chronicle of some outstanding features in the Engineering 
career of the old gentleman who, at the age of 76 still, is 
in enjoyment of sound health; still he has done well to 
perpetuate it in print. 

The many handsome public buildings of Bombay 
and some private ones too have all been planned 
and supervised at some stage or other by him, and 



278 


Biography 


indeed it must be very gratifying to him to survey his 
own handiwork in his everyday evening drives which he 
still takes unfailingly. The book is embellished with 
several photographs which form the best part of the work. 

☆ 

“S’RI MAHAYIRA JIYANA YIStIra/ 3 by Parikh Bhimji 
Harjivan. (1916). 

These are outlines of the life of Mahavlra Swami, 
written by a Jaina, so that it goes without saying that 
it is written in a spirit of veneration. Its chief attractions, 
however, are the several pictures, which illustrate in a 
prominent form, the different ordeals through which the 
saint had to pass in order to attain the proud position 
he occupies with respect to Jaina religion. 

☆ 

“S'RI S’lVAJI CHHATEAPATI.” by Dahyabhai Earn.- 
Chandra. (1916) 

This handsomely got up volume is a marvel of 
cheapness. The very full and detailed life of £ivaji 
written in Marathi by Mr. Keluskar has been translated 
for this series, It is not possible to find a better work 
on the life of the Maratha hero anywhere than in this 
biography. 

‘‘BHARAT A NI DEYIO : PART. I 3 ’ by M. H. Mehta (1916). 

The Lives of Bhagavati Devi and Aghorakamini are 
written, rather translated, in a commendable style and 
the book deserves a place in every library. 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


279 


“JAG A YIKHVATA PURUS'O:” Part IV. By Vraj- 
10,1 Jadavji Thakkar. Pp, 388 Price Re. 0-13-0 (1916) 

This part of the Eminent Men of the World series 
contains the lives of Gladstone and Bismarck, the one a 
Brahmin and the other a Rajput in life and thought, as 
noticed by the writer of the Marathi Version Vinayak 
Kondadeva Okef and that of Bismarck of the Hindi 
work by Indra Vedalankar, the son of Mahatma Munsiram 

the founder of the Kangadi Gurukula. Both are well 
translated. 

M 

“BHARAT NA PURUS’O/' by S’ivaprasad Pandit. (1917) 

This is a collection of the lives of thirteen 
saintly Indians, like Narada, Dattatreya, Sankaracharya, 
Vallabhacharya, Chaitanya, Dadu, Bhaskarananda and 
others. Many sources have been tapped by Mr. Pandit for 
the work and the result is a charming book. 

“S’RI AD5TA S’ANKARACHARYA JIVARASARA:” By 
Manild.1 Dalpatram Joshi. Pp. 27. Prico As, 0-6 -0 (1917) 

While studying the works of Sankar in College the 
writer conceived the idea of bringing out the life of this 
great religious leader in pamphlet form. It faithfully 
sets out the main incidents in his life, in simple language. 

☆ 

-•SIR RAYINDRANATH THAKL’R NAN SAMSHA- 
RANo.” Translated by Ambalal Billakrisna Purani, b. a Price 
0-7-0 (1919). 

“My Reminiscences” from the pen of Sir Rabindra- 
nath Tagore, when being published in the pages of the 
Modem Review furnished instructive, delightful and 



280 


Biography 


interesting reading to those who could follow the poet 
in English. It was a happy idea to convert them into 
Gujarati and we are sure they would be read in the 
vernacular with as much avidity as they were in English. 

“MOHAN A SANTA” By Sevak Pp. 24 Pi ice Re. 0-4-0 (1920) 
In this pamphlet, its author has attempted to com- 
pare incidences in the lives of Krisna and Mahatma Gandhi. 
The comparison is certainly ingenious and the similarities 
are oftener than not far-fetched. 

☆ 

“SHAUBHAGYAYATI NU SAMSARaCHITRA,’' (1920) 

The biography of the late Mrs. Manekbai Kahanji 
Dharamsi, gives in detail how she educated herself and 
made herself useful to her sisters both in Bombay and in 
Kathiawad. At one time, she took an active part in 
the social life of this city and is still remembered here for 
the courage with which she did so. 

☆ 

“S'RI RAMAKRIS'Ni KATHAMRIT. Part IV' by N. B. 
Pandya. (1920;. 

This is a very readable translation and the story told 
in it so vividly brings forth the character and the virtues 

of the Saint that no one who reads it is likely to think his 
time wasted. 

☆ 

“DES'ABANDB.U CHITTa RANJaN DAS” By S'ivaprasS-d 
D alp at ram Pandit. Pp. 36 Price Rs. 0-4-0 (1921) 

A short biography of Babu C. R. Das was required in 
Gujarati, as, though many press-notices of the details of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 281 

his life have appeared in Gujarati, they were not till now 
put together in the form of a book. In furnishes instruc- 
tive and interesting reading. 

☆ 

“ (1) HAZRAT MOHAMMED PEGAMBAR, (2) BHAGA- 
VANA-BUDDHA, and (3) BALAYARTA” the first by Nrasimha- 
prasad Kalidas Bhatt and the second and the third by Girjasankar 
B. Badheka. Pp. 56, 76, 79. Prices Be. C-3-6; 0-4-0; 0-6-3. (1921) 

These three publications represent only a part of the 
self-imposed task that the teachers and managers of the 
Daksina Murti Vidyarthi Bhavan at Bhavnagar have 
volunteered to shoulder, without any hope of returns excep- 
ting that of the good of the students entrusted to their 
care. 

The two biographies are very well written and 
the Bald Vdrtd is an admirable work - a collection of 
stories - which little children can enjoy, esteem, appreciate 
and improve by. We wish works for juveniles were all 
written on the principle of this book. 

☆ 

“VlBA STVAJI.” by the late M. N. Mehta. (1921) 

This is an official publication by the Education 
Department of H. H. the Gaekwad. It is a translation 
of Principal H. G. Rawlinson’s ‘‘&ivaji, the Maratha.” 
The translator having served for a long time in the 
Deccan, and being familiar with the ground and the 
peoples in respect of which the original has been written 
has been able to impart a living touch to his work. He 
has further not followed the text slavishly. As to the 
murder of Afzal Khan it is wellknown that historians 



282 


Biography 


like Prof. Jadunath Sarkar and Rao Bahadur 
Parasnis differ from the partisan version of that 
fanatic writer, Khafi Khan; and Mr Mehta has been at 
pains to present that side of the question too. Altogether, 
we find it an excellent readable book. 

"SWAMI VIVEKANAtfDA : Parts VIII and IX; 53 By 
Batansimha DIpasimha Parmar. Pp. 572 and 64; 7 05 Price Ks. 2-0-0 
and Pa. 0-2-0 (1921). 

These two books close the Swami Vivekanand Series, 
inaugurated by the above society. Part VIII contains 
the Swami’s Speeches and Part IX is his Biography 
compiled from various sources. It is an up to date work, 
and is bound to make its influence felt in the Gujarati 
reading public, as it is well written and sets out all the 
incidents in the life of this Noble Son of India in their 
full impressiveness and interest. 

☆ 

‘•THOMAS ALYA EDISON:” By Revasankar Oghadji 
Sompura b. A. Pp. 231. Price Rs. 2-0-0 ^1923). 

The fascinating chapters of this wizard of America 
are well known. An up-to-date life of Edison in Gujarati 
was a desideratum, and this well rendered translation 
of the work of his two devoted pupils, Dyer and Martin, 
ought to prove a welcome addition to our literature of 
biography. 

☆ 

“BALA K A LIDAS : PART I.” by Prasannavadan C. Dixit. 
(1921). 

Kalidas’s works are full of passages of great use in 
the spheres of moral, ethics and kindred subjects, A 



t)4velopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-i938 28$ 

translation and collection of such passages would be 
always desirable if they are properly selected and 
rendered. The present work is an attempt in that direc- 
tion and as such well worth encouragement. 

“PAOIT MOTILAL NEHRU'’ by C. N. Joshi (1921) 

A cheap and well written short life of the late Pandit 
Motilai Nehru would be welcome in every Indian 
language today, in so far as next to Mahatma Gandhi 
he has become a world figure. The book under notice 
furnishes such a life, and contains well arranged extracts 
from his speeches and utterances, 

☆ 

“ S’ RIIM ATI DOCTOR MRS. ANANDIBAI JOSHI.” by 
S. D. Pandit. (1922). 

There are several biographies of this well known 
Indian lady in Marathi, Bengali and Gujarati. The present 
version however, follows the work of the well known 
Marathi writer of Bengal, the late Prof. S. G. Deuskar. 
The book, it need not be said, is most readable and 
instructive, and we are of opinion that it should be read 
by each and every Indian, as it would show that when 
occasion cads for it, Indian ladies are not found wanting 
in grit and nerve. 

The way in which Miss Johnson, a Missionary lady 
tried to coerce Mrs. Joshi on board the ship to be con- 
verted to Christianity, the way in which the engineer 
of the steamer, himself a Christian, taking advantage 
of her unprotected position tried to lure her into infamous 
paths, and the way in which she battled against these 



284 


Biography 


unenviable situations raises her a great deal in the reader’s 
eyes. Fortunately, the style is such that even moderate- 
ly educated persons can read and understand the book, 

“MAHATMA GANDHI NIJN JIYANA : " By Jayakrigna 
Nagardas Yarma, B. a., ll. b. (Bombay) M. Sc. (London), Bar-air- 
law and £ Bhanu ChiDdra.’ Pp. 344. Price Bs. 4-0-0 (1922). 

This is the most detailed and up-to-date life of 
Mahatma Gandhi in Gujarati or for the matter of that in 
any other language so far as we are aware. It is. written 
in a very simple style and we welcome it as a valuable 
asset of our literature. It will take some time before 
its completeness is outstripped or even reached by others. 

☆ 

“NAPOLEON BONAPARTE” Parts 2, 3, 4 by Gokuldas M. 
Shah B. A,., LL. B. (1922) 

A very good translation of Abbot’s well known 
biography of the Emperor. 

* 

“KA RAYAS A Nl KAHANT 5 Translated by^ Naval ram J e 
Trivedi m. a. Pp. 151 Price Re. 1-0-0 (1923) 

The book is in the main a story of Arabinda Ghose’s 
life in the prison and as such, a translation of his Bengali 
work. Some of his letters to his wife Mrinalini and his 
brother Varindra are reproduced here with his famous 
Uttarpara speech and some articles from the Karmayogin , 
They enable even in this sketchy form, the reader to 
grasp the central idea of Arabinda Rabu’s later activities, 
“ to realise God in life.” 

The larger work is the more scholarly and the more 
systematically accomplished of the two, as it is planned on 



285 


Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 

ampler lines. It is beautifully got up, testifying to the 
taste and refinement of the author. Mr. Thakkur is no 
stranger to Gujarati readers; he has of late migrated from 
the region of fiction to that of philosophy and religion; 
and it would not be any exaggeration to say that 
he has equally well succeeded in the latter. Besides a 
very informative introduction bearing on Arubinda's life, 
he has been able to present his view of the Gita, the 
Upanishads and other religious works in such a way as 
to show that he has clearly grasped the secret of his life; 
the life of the noblest son of India is thus perpetuated in 
our language. 

It was a want which was being felt and it has now 
been met. The photographs in each of them give the 
reader a good idea of Arabind as he was in his youth 
and as he is now. Echoes of the Barisal trial bring back 
to one's mind the able and selfless services of Babu C. R. 
Das in the cause of his friend. 

☆ 

4 ‘GUJARAT A NUN NuRA 5 ' By Kaiyanji Vithalbhai. Pp. 295 
Price Re, 1- (1923) 

‘The Light of Gujarat’-these words are applied to Dar- 
bar &ri Gopaldas who has joined the N. C. O. movement 
and given up his principality in Kathiawad. This book is 
his biography and focusses all incidents in his life, leading 
to his present position. 

☆ 

“MAHATMA TOLSTOY” by G. K. Amin. Pp. 604 Price 
Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1923 ) 

At various times small books dealing with the life and 
lifework of Tolstoy have been published in Gujarati, but 
ft had remained for this Society to publish such a subst&Ur 



286 


Biography 


tial work as the one under notice. It is the translation 
of a Marathi book;^but one does not feel that it is so. The 
life of Gandhiji’s Guru which we read here is all-embrac- 
ing and comprehensive. 

☆ 

“ SAHAJANANDA SWAMI 5> by Kisoralal Ghanasyama 
Mashruvala B. A., ll. b. Pp. 173 Price 0-11-0 ( 1923 ) 

Sahajananda was the founder of the Swami Narayana 
sect which claims so many votaries in Gujarat and Kathia* 
wad. It was this great Acharya who humanised the 
lawless tribes of Kathiawad and brought them to the path 
of god-fearing religion. His life is a valuable addition to 
the series that this Press is publishing of the different 
Hindu Avataras. It is a most readable book and gives 
certain incidents in the life of this Swami, which were not 
known till now. 

☆ 

“ SWADHARMA NIS'THA ANE DAIVI JIYANA ” by J. 
D. Dave Pp. 766 Price Re. 0-6-0 ( 1923 ). 

This large volume is taken up with the lives of those 
great men, who have left foot-prints on the sands of time 
in India in the path of Religion. Lives of Rama and 
Krisna, of Vivekananda and Ramakrisna Paramahamsa, 
and numerous other saints are given in a form which is 
sure to appeal to those in search of knowledge in that 
subject. 

☆ 

* SIKH GURITO " (1923) 

The book comprises the lives of two famous Sikh 
purus, Ntaaka and Govinda Singh. They are based on 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 287 

various Hindi works. The book contains a number of 
short stories culled from the same source. The book is 
highly readable and sure to prove popular, 

☆ 

“ S'RI NAVANATH CHARITRA ” Part II by S'ri Datta- 
traya Buva Pp. 342 Price 2-4-0 ( 1923 ). 

The first part of this book has been noticed. The 
interest created by that volume in the Life of the Head 
of Gorakhamadhi in the Junagadha state is kept up in this 
part also. 

6t JAIL DIARY ” Translated by D. B. Kalelkar b. a. ll., b. 
Pp. 160. Price Rs. 0-10-0 ( 1923 ). 

This is a translation and a very good translation 
of the Jail Diary of &rijut Rajagopalachariar. It reminds 
one of a similar work of Mahatma Gandhi, written within 
Jail in South Africa. Besides giving a lot of information 
about Jail life, which is news to many, it reveals a spirit 
of resignation, a standard of spiritual life, which is ex- 
emplary and does credit to the heart of an intensely 
patriotic Indian. 

☆ 

“ BUDDHA AND MAH A VIE A ” By K. O. Mashruvala. 
b, a., ll. b. Pp. 114. Price Be. 0-8-0. 

“ BUDDHA LILA SABA SAMGBAHA ” translated by 
Mashruvala Pp. 396 Price Rs. 2-8-0 (1923). 

Among Mahatma Gandhi’s manifold activities may be 
named one or two which have considerably helped the 
cause of education and enlightenment in Gujarat. One of 
them is the foundation of Puratattava Mandir and the other 



288 


Biography 


is the admirable series of books published by the N ava- 
jivan Press on various subjects. ;Both are actively 
engaged in the work of the publication of books on use- 
ful topics, some of them on subjects of every day use but 
written on entirely new lines. 

Not a month passes but that half a dozen books are 
published by one or the other or both of them. The subjects 
chosen are sometimes so very close to the present day life 
of Gujarat that they clash with the selection of others, 
interested in the same line, and it is not an unusual thing 
to see two books published on the same subject by diffe- 
rent publishers in one and the same month. 

The two books under notice, like the pair concerned 
with the bomb outgrage period in Bengal, also noticed 
elsewhere, furnish an apt illustration of this furious 
activity. Buddha and his doings are the principal subjects 
in each of these two books. The latter is a translation 
from Marathi and goes more into detailed particulars than 
the former witch is written from an entirely different 
stand-point. It is more or less an essay, wherein the 
two creeds of Buddha and Mahavlra are outlined and 
their fundamentals compared ; the incidents in their 
respective lives are sketched out, merely to support or 
illustrate the conclusion arrived at by the author. The 
Sara-samgraha has helped him with a certain portion 
of materials. In Marathi, the work has won encomiums 
from such Savants as Sir Ramakrisna Bhandarkar, and it 
is but meet that such a book should find a place in our 
literature. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 289 

☆ 

“ISHIJ KHRIST by Kishorilal GhanshyamlSl MashruvalS, 
Published by the Navajivan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad. Pp. 
79. Price Rs. 0-4-0 (1923). 

All the chief incidents in the life of Jesus Christ are 
narrated in this short biography with the knowledge and 
reverence that the subject demands. 

V 

“MAHANA NAPOLEON.” by N. B, Pandya Pp. 797 Price 
3-0-0 (1924). 

Based on Abbot’s Life of Napoleon and written 
after consulting pertinent works, like Lord Rosebery's 
and others, it is the best Life of Napoleon existing in 
Gujarati at present. Its style is worthy of the subject 
and at the same time not so difficult as to prevent 
ordinarily educated persons from understanding the book. 

☆ 

DES'A BANDHU ’’ by J. M. Bhatt. Pp. 200 Price 1-0-0 

( 1925 ). 

Everything relating to the late Desabandhu Das is to 
be found here, *his literary, legal and political activities. 
Translations from Sugar SangUd are not forgotten. Such 
a biography of the late Indian Patriot was badly wanted 
in Gujarati, and it has been brought out with com- 
mendable promptitude. Itis illustrated with pictures. 

BHARAT NAN STRIRATNO” Yo!s. I, II, III. by S’iva- 
prasad Dalpntram Pandit. Pp. 600, 608, 768. Price Rs. 2-8-0, each, 
• ( ls)24 ). 

This is the second edition of the biographies of noted 
Indian women. The subject-mutter has been touched up 

19 



m 


Biography 


in many places and more matter added. Till the collec- 
tion is replaced by any other monumental work it is bound 
to hold the first place in its line in our language. 

* “ S'RI BHIS'MA CHARITRA, PART IL ” by Yaidya 
S'^stri Damodar Kanji. Pp. 211 Price 2-8-0 ( 1924 ). 

A most interesting book. The preaching and precept 
of Bhlsma Pitamaha are an abiding source of inspiration 
to Hindus. They are set out here in a very impressive 
way, 

“TATHAGATA” by H. D. Trivedi. Pp, 64 Price 0-5-0 (1924) 

The chief incidents in the life of Bhagvana Buddha 
are set out here in an attractive form. 

☆ 

“BAHADUR SHAH alias ZaFAR” by Saclik. Pp. 385 Price, 
Bs. 3-8-0 (1925). 

The heart-rending misfortunes that dogged the clos- 
ing stages of the decline and fall of the last of the Moguls 
and his descendants are set out here by the writer in the 
shape of narrations by the actors in that unfortunate 
drama. Whether they are correct or not is a different 
question; but they do stir one's sympathies, and for the 
moment inspire dislike for those who brought them into 
straits. 

☆ 

“EXPERIENCES OF YE RAY ADA” by Gandhiji, Pp 165 
Price Rs. 0-12-0 (1925). 

Gandhiji contributed his experiences of the Yeravada 
Prison, in instalments to the ‘Navajivan.’ They are now 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1933 291 

collected and presented as a book to the public. It need 
not be said as to how very instructive and interesting 
they are. Every Gujarati must read them. 

☆ 

“LIFE OF S'RIMAD DEVAOHANDRAJI ” by Shrimad 
Buddhisagar Suriswaraji. Pp. 100, 51. Price As. 12/- (1926). 

Devchandraji (Samvat years 1746-1812) was a very 
learned Jaina ascetic, responsible for many acts of charity 
and known as a writer. An introduction of great value 
by Mr. Mohanlal Desai adds to the utility of the book, 
which contains striking extracts from his works. 

“ SATYA-VlRA S'RADDHANANDA ** by Jhaverchand 
Meghani, 3. a. Pp. 124 Price 0-8-0 (1927). 

A very admirable original work full of details of the 
life work of one the best of our countrymen. It should be 
widely read. Its low price should help it in gaining a 
large circle of readers. 

☆ 

“LIFE OF STVAJL” by Kakalbhai Kothari. (1928) 

This is an up-to-date biography, which has utilised 
all materials to hand, dispelling the many falsehoods and 
illusions about the great Hindu Leader. There have been 
Lives written of him but they were stale, lifeless, and not 
up-to-date. This one has a force and a vigour of its own 
and has at a bound secured its proper place in our 
Literature. 

& 

“THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DHONDO KES’AYa 
IvARVE Translated by Kisaming G. Chavda, (1928) 



292 


Biography 


Prof. Karve, the founder of the Indian Women’s 
University has become a man of world- wide publicity 
and his autobiography written in Marathi is a book, 
depicting the wonderful personality and indomitable 
courage of a man poor in worldly resources but rich in 
determination and self-sacrifice. His life is a standing 
lesson to all those patriots who want to raise India in the 
scale of nations. The translation is very well done and 
the interest so well sustained that one does not like to put 
down the book - a big one as sizes go - before one has 
finished it. 

“S’RI DATTA-PRABODHA KALPADRUMA: PART 
XV ” by : D. B. Tsmbe (1928). 

This is a continuation of the three parts noted by us 
before. It contains in addition the LLe of $ri Jnane.3vara, 
the great religious teacher of the Deccan. 

tl DARDI. *' by : Gopitlsankcr V. Bbachech. (19.8). 

An autobiography of the author who rose from a 
mere clerkship to a Deputy Collectorship and later to the 
Dewanship of Jamnagar, leaching a lesson of staunch 
faith in onself and determination to overcome difficulties. 
It contains poems on metaphysical subjects also. 

☆ 

“ GURU GOVIND SiNGH. ” by Thakkar Narayana 
Viaanji. (1929). 

Thakkar Narayana has projected a series of books ’ 
bringing out the goodness and the greatness of the Hindus 
and their religion. He is fitted to write on the subject, 



i)eveiopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 293 

because of one particular reason amongst others, viz., that 
he studies his subject at its original source and is always 
eager to absorb any new light thrown on it. He reads 
much before publishing a book. This characteristic 
feature of his work has produced an admirable life of the 
great Sikh religious leader. Guru Govind Singh. There was 
a want of such a book in our libraries and it is now met. 

1. 44 BUDDHA AND MAHAVIRA ” 2. 44 RAMA AND 

KRfS’NA ** by : Kishorlal Gbansbyamlal Mashruvala. b. a, lb. b. 
Pp, 148 Price Aa. 8 and 10. (1929). 

These are reprints of the first edition of the two 
books. Rama and Krisna are coupled together, so are 
Buddha and Mahavlra, as both were preachers of Ahimsa. 
The writer has made a deep study of the books bearing 
on the subject and has evolved a picture of the subject- 
matter of his books, which is correct in outline; it also 
successfully carries out his object, which is to show how 
and why these heroes of India deserve worship at the 
hands of their fellow beings. 

He has tried to avoid every reference to their 
divinity and presented them merely as human beings i. e., 
not as uncommon beings or supermen. He has followed 
the lines of Babu Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, in his 
Krisna Charitra, and accomplished his work very well. 

“ LALA LAJPATRAI by : 3 haverchand MeghaJii, b. a. 

(1930). 

Lala Lajpatrai’s life is a valuable contribution. It 
reads more like a story, a novel, a novel rather than a 



Biography 


294 

biography and thus attracts all sorts of readers. It is 
worth perusal, at least for its simple and original style. 

't 

“BHAILAL VYAS NA SAMSMARANO” by: I>. B. Shukla 
( 1932 ). 

This is an In Memoriam volume. Bhailal Vyas was a 
man of humble means and a Government servant. He 
had an extremely straight official life, and still was able 
to do good wherever he was. The condolatory letters 
printed in this book show in what high regard he was 
held by those who came in contact with him. He was 
besides a writer, a poet and a thinker. It; was an exemy- 
lary life he lived, and the book is likely to inspire others 
to live such a life. 

☆ 

1. “CHHATRO NE' ! To Boarders”; 2. “VIRA GARFIELD ’• 
( 1932 ). 

The same enterprising society has selected two very 
well known American works for translation into Gujarati : 
Booker T. Washington’s “ Character Building ” is the 
foundtion on which the first book rests; and W. N. Thayer’s 
“From Log Cabin to White House” is admirably translat- 
ed in the second. One wishes all biographies intended for 
popular reading were cast in the mould of Thayer’s work 
and their spirit and point as well preserved and presented 
as in this model-rendering by Mr. Ramanlal Devashankar 
Bhatt. Anyone who takes it up for reading will not put 
it down till he has finished it, so very interesting it is. 

‘fJAWAHAIt NiiHRtJ.” by N. M. Dave. (1932). 



development of Gujarati Litei’ature s l90?~ 1938 295 

This short sketch of the liie of the Pandit was a de- 
sideratum as none such existed in Gujarati. In order to 
bring out the special characteristics of Pandit Jawaharlal 
in public life, the writer has embellished the sketch with 
extracts from his public speeches. 

☆ 

“ VANASPATI-S’ASTRI JAYAKRIS’MABHAL ” Yaidya 
Bapalal Garbaddas Shah (1932). 

Indian botany and forestry, as well as plant-life and 
physiology, are still in an undeveloped stage. If any 
single individual in this part of India has made it the 
object of his life-study, it was the subject of this short 
biography. His was a name to conjure with and many 
Indian and European scholars have not only paid their 
meed of praise to the deceased but have acknowledged 
their debt to him for guiding them right in their studies 
and identification of Indian plants and drugs. 

He was a self-made man : from an ordinary cook-boy 
to a distinguished Vanaspati Shastriship is a feat of no 
mean order; and this book tells us how the miracle- was 
accomplished. 

It is written by one who was his pupil late in life, 
himself greatly interested in plants and drugs. That is 
the reason why he has been able to write such an enter- 
taining and instructive book. 

☆ 

"RAJA CHABILARAM BAHADUR”, by Mausankar 
Pitambardas Mehta. (1934). 

The Visalnagara Nagar Brahmins claim that this 
famous Mogul officer belonged to their caste. His bio- 



29 f> Biography 

grapher makes him out to belong to the latter caste. He 
flourished (A. D. 1665-1719) during the decline of the 
Moguls, in the reign of Farrukh-Siyar and was instru- 
mental in getting the Jaziya tax removed, and thus 
getting relief for the Hindus of the Fmpire. In writing 
this biography Mr. Manashankar has consulted all 
available material, and produced a work which is very 
interesting and full of information. He has used discrimi- 
nation in the selection of the sources on which he has 
relied and thereby the book becomes valuable. 

☆ 

“ASHARAM DALICHAND SHAH” by M. A. Shah. (1934). 

The late Mr. Asharam Dalichand Shah was the 
father of the late Mr. Justice Sir Lallubhai Asharam 
Shah, a distinguished Judge of the Bombay High Court. 
Sir Lallubhai owed the many good traits in his character, 
assiduity in work, scrupulous fairness in the administra- 
tion of justice, large-heartedness and a happy social nature, 
to his good father who had most carefully brought up his 
two sons to become cultured and prominent members of 
society. Asharambhai had passed almost his whole life 
in Hathi&wad, a life of 80 years and was an eye-witnes of 
the process by which the British governed in the 19th 
century. 

Though a bania by caste, he knew how to use arms 
and was therefore able to do gallant deeds in the sup- 
pression of outlawry which was a common feature in 
Kathiawadi life then. He was a very observant man and 
has left behind him notes of his observations as to the 
state of Kathiawad as he saw it politically, judicially, 
and administratively. There was very little happe nin g, 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 297 

in the Native States then of which he was not aware. 
Many Princes and their ministers considered it advisable 
to consult him on various problems facing them and he 
gave them frank advice. 

On retirement, he set himself to publish the materials 
he had collected on “ Proverbs ” and the book, which, 
has undergone two editions is a rich mine of stories and 
tales illustrating the proverbs, and a perennial source of 
instruction to those who desire to become worldly wise and 
of delight to those who seek pleasure. There is a letter 
in his handwriting printed at the end tendering certain 
advice to his sons from an Orthodox Hindu’s point of 
view. The well-known man-of-letters Prof. B. K. Thakore, 
b. a., I. e. s. ( Retd) has given the benefit of his long ex- 
perience as a writer to Mr. Mulachand in the preparation 
of this book. 

< ^PRALHAD ,, by Mrs. Shrimatibala Majmudar. (1934) 

The history of Pralhad, which every Hindu is sup- 
posed to know is divided into nineteen chapters, in this 
small book. It forms a part of the Sayaji Bala Jnana 
Mala series, which till now under the fostering care of 
H. H. the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda has published 
100 volumes. 

The story is told in such a chatty style by the young 
authoress that children, for whom it is mainly intended, 
are sure to take to it. 

Q 

(1) n SHRI RAJACHANDRA NAN VlCHAR RATNO 
(19S6). (2) “ SHRIMAD m JIVAN-KATHA.’' by G. J. Patel. 



2$ 8 Biography 

The first book gives selections from the thoughtful 
writings of Shi imad Raj achandra, a Jaina thinker, whom 
Gandhiji considers his Guru in matters spiritual, and the 
second incidents in his life. Both are well executed. 

“ APANGA m PRATlBHA. » by M. B. Desai. (1936). 

“ The Story of My Life 99 by the blind American 
Lady, Hellen Keller is an enchanting book showing how 
she successfully battled against her physical disability 
- blindness - and was able to live a life better and more 
enjoyable than that of those who can see. There are two 
forewords’, one by Pandit Sukhalalji himself suffering from 
defective eyesight and still a distinguished scholar, and 
Kaka Kalelkar, who has as usual poetised the subject. 

The [translation is so well rendered that it reads like 
an original book. “The Story of My Life’* is continued by 
Plellen Keller as the * ‘Midstream.” We are sure that it 
would be translated at no distant date. 

☆ 

“ AL KUBR A. ” by Amin. (1936). 

Bibi Khadijah whom the prophet Mohammad mar- 
ried, was a remarkable Arab lady. It was she who was 
the first to believe in the message of her husband and 
embrace Islam. She is thus for all time dubbed “ The 
Great Lady 99 - A1 Kubra - and the mother of all who 
profess the Muslim faith. The tale told of her life reads 
like a romance and although this book - which narrates 
it - is the translation of an Urdu book - it sets out very 
lucidly all the remarkable features of her - to Islam - the 
most distinctive life. 



299 


jDotelopment of Gujarati Literature s 1907-1938 

The language used in the translation is very easy 
and smooth running, and does credit to the pen of a 
Mahommedan writer who is equally at home in Gujarati 
and Urdu. The short 'preface' contributed by Munadi 
describes in very feeling terms the status of woman, in 
prelslamic times and the reforms effected by the Prophet 
of Islam, The book contains an illustration of Bibi 
Khadijah's last resting place. It is a rare illustration. 

SHRTMAD RAJACHANDRA. ” by H. T. Mehta. (1936). 

Shrimad Rajachandra, though a Jaina by pursuasion, 
was an all-round religious thinker. Although he died at the 
young age of thirty three in Samvat year 1957 (1S01 A. D.) 
he had so ably trod the path of religion and morality that in 
case of difficulty in solving such problems Mahatma 
Gandhi turned to him. He still considers him his teacher. 
This First Part of "the book is the Fifth Edition of a 
collection of his writings on various subjects pertaining to 
religion, morality, straightforwardness, in business and in 
conduct. 

It is a voluminous collection still, as Mahatmaji 
observes in his Foreword “ it breathes truthfulness 
He says “ The critic can find in the writings matter for 
criticism; those who confide in faith will find much to 
interest them. " A Hindu or Non-Hindu is sure to pro- 
cure JJmanand ” - “ self-delight ” through them. His 
preaching was so powerful that at one time it was 
thought that it would bring about a schism in the 
sampradaya . But he did not live long enough to do so. 

# 

FORAMA : LaHARI: 6 to 9.” by Shardaprasad Varma. 

(1936), 



300 


Biography 


Thirty-six lives of great men who were Indians ( and 
one European Mr. Forbes ) and who have benefitted India 
in various directions are given here in chatty and attrac- 
tive style such as would interest children. It is a novel 
idea successfully carried out. 

☆ 

“ MHARI JIVANAKATHA- JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. ” 
Translated by Mahadeva Haribhai Desai* B. A., ll. b. (1937). 

Mahadev Desai, the Boswell of Mahatma Gandhi re- 
mains as busy and occupied as Mahatmaji himself. In 
spite of that, he has found time to translate the autobio- 
graphy of Jawaharlal Nehru, a volume of nearly 1000 
pages, a fact which goes to evidence his great admiration 
for Jawaharlal. We have to say this because of some critics 
thinking the other way ; as in his well thought out introduc- 
tion of twenty-three pages, he has very frankly discussed 
the observations of Panditji in respect of Gandhiji and 
tried to answer them. But at the same time he has equally 
well brought out the other aspect of Panditji's opinion too. 

The translation has a very good index and is render- 
ed in that simple and telling style which Gandhiji and 
many others who belong to his immediate circle, have 
made their own. Footnotes to explain certain citations 
add to the value of the work and testify to the great 
labour which Mahadevabhai has bestowed on his self- 
invited task. The book is a very valuable addition to 
Gujarati literature. 

☆ 

“OTERATI DlWALO” : by D. B. Kalelkar, B. A. (1937). 

The Sabarmati Central Jail in which Kaka Kalelkar, 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-193:$ 301 

the writer of the fascinating book, was confined 
during the Civil Disobedience days, is situated in the 
North of Gandhiji's Ashram, therefore he has called the 
book, “Northern Walls He studied so to speak the 
scant flora and fauna of his prison domain and has narra- 
ted their lives i. e., of flowers, trees, birds and animals 
and also of vermin in the most chatty way possible. 

Those who have read of La Tude’s companions-the 
mice in the Bastille Prison of Paris would be interes- 
ted in the narration of similar experiences of Kaka 
Kalelkar told vividly, graphically and simply. The 
book would interest both young and old. 

☆ 

“BUDDHA CHAR1TA” : by Dhamfmarida Kosambi. (1938;. 

When Acharya Dharmananda Kosambi writes any- 
thing on the life and times of Gautama Buddha, it is a 
guarantee of the fact that the reader gets everything that 
is genuine and based on authority. This interesting 
volume is the best life of Buddha till now to be had in 
Gujarati. 

Its characteristic feature is that it tells the truth 
even at the risk of offending religious feelings and 
pet theories of people; for instance, the author shows 
conclusively that Buddha did not inculcate Ahimsa, 
non-killing of cattle for food ? in the sense understood at 
present. What he preached was a prohibition of the 
sacrifice of cattle, robbed from poor people by the rich 
man who performed a sacrifice. He also shows that in 
those times Jaina $ramanas partook of flesh food, and 



302 Biography-Literary 

that the revolt against it came later. The story is told in 
an engaging way. 

☆ 

_ " BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GOVARDHANRAM 
MADHAVRAM TRIPATH I” : by Kantilal Chhaganlal Pandya, 
B. a. ( 1910 ). 

This book has removed a great reproach which had 
hitherto been unremoved from Gujarati Literature. The 
late Mr. G. M. Tripathi and his works fill an unusual 
amount of space in the life of the present literature of 
Gujarat and a well-written record of his life and life- 
work was a crying necessity. The brotherly affection of 
his younger brother, N. M. Tripathi and the able pen of 
his nephew, Kantilal, have jointly furnished to us, a 
work, which should stand for some years to come as a 
model for what a biography should be. 

Himself decended on both sides from a literary 
parentage : his father Mr. Chhaganlal Pandya being known 
as a translator, pa r excellence , of Bana's Kadambari \ 
and his mother the sister of Mr. Tripathi, having been 
to him what Dorothy was to Words worth,— young 
Kantilal has been able on the threshold of his career to 
provide for us, what we have called above, a model work. 
Almost everything relating to Tripathi that the public 
should know is here given in a style which is easy to read, 
lucid in expression and narrative-like in form. That 
the writer is not wanting in judgment and originality 
of thought, is specially brought out in the latter part of 
the book, where a critical survey of Tripathi’s life is 
made. So much for the excellences, 



Development of Gujarati Lituialure : 100.'— 1988 30d 

As for the other side of the sheld, we may say that it 
is furthest from our thought to give any pain either to the 
writer or to his relatives. But after finishing the reading of 
this book one feels as if the very feature which Carlyle 
wanted, -according to the writer-to be avoided-viz., that 
it should not be a “ white, stainless 99 record, but that 
it should compute both ‘ c profits and disprofits ".-is not 
avoided here. Partiality for his hero is here naturally; but 
unconsciously it has made the biographer present him to 
the public as a paragon of perfection or something very 
near. This, by no means, could be true of any human 
being. Mr. Kantilal has in an infinitesimally small 
number of cases referred to the “ disprofit \ but age, 
experience and progress in life, we are sure, would make 
him later on weigh faults and good points properly. 

Secondly we find, a fine style has been marred in one 
or two places by pure reproductions of such Anglicisms 
as “ So and so was in So and so's confidence, when 
in Gujarati would have said “ Reliance on So and so". 
In Gujarati while speaking of inanimate objects in the 
plural, in the genitive case, the correct form, we be- 
lieve, is to use the singular and not plural number. We 
have come across one or two such instances, a matter 
not of much moment, and one to which no reference 
would have been made but for the fact that it detracts 
from an otherwise chaste language. We offer our hear- 
tiest congratulations to Mr. Kantilal for his rare 
production. 

NANDASHANjvAR JIVANA CHlTRA” By Viuayak 
Naudshankar Mejia, b. a., i. a s. Pp, 258 Price Re. 1-0-0 (1910;. 



304 


Biogra phy-Literary 

This “ Picture of the life of Nandashankar,” is 
written on a novel principle. It is rot exactly a biogra- 
phy, tfs its very title implies. It is a collection of sayings 
and Statements of the deceased, jotted down from memory 
in the style of Boswell, rendering the work very pleasant 
to read. There is no heaviness in it; it is all light read- 
ing. R, B. Nandashankar, is wellknown all over Gujarat as 
the author of a unique historical novel, the Rarana Qhelo, 
depicting the last days of Hindu rule in Gujarat. 

Besides this, his work as a teacher and a revenue 
officer hardly counts except with those who knew him 
personally. The same is the case with his extremely 
mild and amiable nature, which won for him many friend® 
ships; so that for a regular biography perhaps there was 
not much scope, and Mr. Vinayak has, therefore, done 
very well in confining the discharge of his filial duty to a 
mere narrative of reminiscences. 

The opening portion of the book for several pages 
hardly touches the personality of “Master Saheb” as R. 
B. Nandashanker was popularly called. It is taken up so 
much with grandmotherly stories of his ancestors and 
caste men, which are very entertaining to read but of 
ephemeral interest. The self-satisfaction with which a 
Nagar of Surat ( the caste to which he belonged ) or for 
the matter of that of the whole of Gujarat and 
Kathiawad regards himself, the way in which he 
considers himself to be the cream of Hindu society in the 
province (even if one were to disregard the egotism which 
results from such a state of mind) peep out at the reader 
from every line of this portion, 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 305 

Besides this, another feature oi the book is the free 
use made by the writer of Persian and Urdu words, phra- 
ses and quotations, some apposite and some not, some 
wellknown and others obscure, which rather detract from 
the merits of an otherwise intersting work. The same 
is the case with German quotations. Serving in Upper 
India Mr. Vinayak has been betrayed into using the 
former inspite of his care to avoid them. His intimate 
knowledge of German has overflowed its proper bounds, 
and flooded a channel, too weak to contain the impetu- 
ous onrush on account of its narrowness. Besides this 
there are printer's errors. The book required careful edit- 
ing, judgment having to be used as to what portions of 
the work should be published and what omitted. 

But after all this is said, it must not be forgotten 
that the book has supplied a real want, and filled a gap. 
It has set the style for such “Chatty" works, and thus 
opened a new channel into which Gujarati literature "may 
run with advantage. On the whole we welcome the book, 
and leel grateful to Mr. Vinayak for furnishing us with the 
means to partake of a feast, which though it will not last 
long, still consists of pleasant, light and wholesome food. 

☆ 

“PREMANANDA” by Bhanusukhram N. Mehta (1918). 

Premananda one of the best poets in the older sec- 
tion of Gujarati literature, has been exercising a fascina- 
tion over this writer of his biography, and he has proceed- 
ed to his work with great love for the poet. His compi- 
lation shows all the marks of great laboriousness and 
gives much information in a compact form, information 
20 



306 


Biography -Literary 


which was lying scattered here and there. H. H. the 
Gaekwad of Baroda is a great patron of Vernacular Lite- 
rature, and we have received eight books published out of 
the interest of a munificent sum of rupees two lacs, set 
apart for the express purpose of encouraging the same. 

Most of these books are translations and in a couple 
of instances we have come across the rare phenomenon of 
father and son both contributing to the series e. g., while 
Bhanusukharam is selected for this work, his son has been 
selected for the next work. Similarly Prof. Trivedi and 
his father R. B. K. P. Trivedi have both been fortunate 
enough to attract the I eye of the selecting authorities. 
The series called the Shri Sayaji Sahitya Mala is divided 
into several sections, Ethics, Biograghy, Science, Stories, 
Religion, etc. 

☆ 

“BHALANA” by Ramalal Chunilal Modi. (1919). 

The book relates to a poet, of the name of Bhalana 
known to old Gujarati, chiefly for his translation of 
Bana’s Kadambari, in verse. All available materials: 
have been consulted by Mr. Modi, and he has been able 
to produce a work, which, as he himself says, though 
not of first class merit, would still be a finger-post to 
those who wished to follow a more ambitious road. 

☆ 

“GIRDHAR” by Jagjivan D. Modi (1920). 

The book is the biography of the Gujarati poet 
Girdhar. There was room for such a book, and though not 
an ideal work, still it is sure to be useful. The writer 
Mr* Modi seems to have a quaint idea. He thinks he 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


307 


has got the poetic faculty, and that faculty he traces to 
a poet, who flourished 200 to 300 years ago, simply 
because he belonged to his caste and native place. The 
book betrays signs of labour and assiduity, and is written 
by one who takes great interest in its subject-matter- ? 

☆ 

“GURJARA S’AKAR JAYANTI”; — Pp, 226. Price Rs. <L 
(1921). 

This is a collection of papers read at the anniver- 
sary meeting of fifteen ( Gujarati ) departed poets, 
men of letters, writers etc., by their friends and admirers; 
so much information, criticism and observation of the 
most modem type, on their life works, collected in one 
volume, is a very happy idea, and will no doubt be 
greatly appreciated by those in search of information 
regarding their works. A reprint of the speeches of the 
Presidents of the first two sessions of the Gujarati 
Sahitya Parishad, extends the scope of the utility of 
the collection. , 

Q 

“VIS'NUDAS” : by Bhanusukhram N. Mehta. (1921) 

This book is a biography of a minor Gujarati 
poet who flourished about the 17th century. 
Mr. Bhanusukharam is an indefatigable contributor to 
H. H. *s series, &nd “has already figured as a biographer 
of Premananda and Mirabai, the premier poet and poetess 
of Gujarat. His success, in those attempts is more or 
less a question of debate, but his assiduity is bound tq 
arrest attention as his field of work extends from th$ 
history of a spider to. that of a poet. 



m 


Biography-Literary 


All available materials and manuscripts have been 
looked at by the writer : so at least, is stated in the 
Introduction. A biography even on these lines, of this 
poet, was a desideratum, and we are sure that in case 
of those who take an interest in the writings of this 
poet and follow Mr. Bhanusukharam in the field would 
find some useful items in this little book. 

☆ 

“PADHIAR JIVANA KATHA : By Jivanlal Karsanji 
Thakur. Pp. 155. Price Ae. 10. (1922). 

The late Vaidya Amratlal Sundarji Padhiar was 
well-known as an author of a series of books written by 
him all beginning with the word ‘Swarga* or heaven 
such as ‘Swarga nun Vimana', ‘Swarga ni Kunchi* etc. 
His life was so simple and straightforward that his 
friends called him the * Sadhu or Saint of Saurashtra \ 

His biography was a desideratum and we are obliged 
to the writer for writing his life in as simple and 
easy a style as he himself would have done. All those 
who read his works, his stories, his sermons, his teach- 
ings, with great avidity, will, we are sure, peruse this 
book with equal satisfaction. 

☆ 

“RATI BHAVANISHANKAR NARS1MHARAM : By 
Ckhotalal Dalpatram Kavi Pp. 156. (1922>« 

Born about eighty years ago, Kavi Bhavanishankar 
displayed in his work the characteristics of the old type 
of versification to a large extent; and was more or rless a 
follower of Dalpatram's school. Modern influences also 
affected him and in respect of social reform, he was as 



Development of CJ-njarati Literature : 1907—1938 309 

good a reformer as anyone else. The present biography 
is written by Kavi Dalpatram’s son, a caste fellow and 
ranging as the period does, over nearly eighty years, he 
has been able to make it very interesting by means oi 
side-lights thrown on the mode of life obtaining in Kathi- 
ad, at the time the poet was bom. 

The great merit of the the description lies in the 
way in which these little details have been set out 
and one reads them with great delight as they are 
reminiscent of a world that has passed away. The Kavi 
has written about his works, prose and poetry, and their’ 
chief recommendation is their simplicity, a reflection, 
pure and simple of the poet's life. This biography was 
due to us and we are glad it has been published. 

☆ 

"MAHATMA S’AIKH SAADI. ” by Sldiq. Pp. 206. Priced 
2-0-0, (1924)* 

Sadiq Karbalai who has written this book on the 
basis of! the ‘Men of Letters Series' in English, is a young 
man from Iraq or Mesopotamia, whose mother-tongue is 
certainly not Gujarati, and it is a marvel how he has been 
able to put all he has to say about Sa'adi, the well known 
Persian poet and author of the world-renowned Gulestan 
and Bostdn, in such comparatively correct and chaste 
Gujarati. Everything known about him has been put- 
down here, with illustrative extracts and altogether the 
work has been done in such a way as to furnish a land- 
mark to students of this branch of literature. 



810 


Biography-Literary 


“ NARASAT YO BHAKTA HARINO »\ by Kanaiyalal M* 
Munshi. b,a., ll, b. rp, 114. Price Es. 1-8-0 (1933). 

' Narasimha Mehta known generally as the Adi-Kavi of 
Gujarat has, of late, assumed prominence, once again, by 
certain questions raised as to the exact year of his birth. 
The subject has been named the ‘Riddle of Narasimha 
J^ehta'; and several Gujarati scholars have tried their 
hand at solving it, one of them being the writer of this 
dissertation, Mr. Munshi. The controversy is still raging, 
^nd hence it is difficult to say anything definitely one way 
or the other. Mr. Munshi places it between Samvat years 
1530 and 1580. The generally received year is Samvat 
year 1469. 

Besides this controversy another one has attached 
itself to the poet; it is this : whether the celebrated work 
called “ Hdramdld ” is written by Premanand or Narasimha. 
On a consideration of various reasons, Mr. Munshi comes 
to the conclusion that it cannot be the work of the latter. 
He also says that he is prepared to revise his opinion on 
getting additional material. 

In a later chapter he has tried to spell the life of Nara- 
simha out of his verses, that is, he reads into some of them 
the narration of incidents and events in his own life as set 
out by the poet, a piece of autobiography. It is an inte- 
resting piecing together of isolated fragments, and reads 
like a rhapsody composed under the influence of rest 
enjoyed (?) by him in the Bijapur Jail. The work bears 
the stamp of the impetuousness or impulse of the writer. 
The illustrations are based on imagination. 



ESSAY 




ESSAY 

“ PRAKRATI SAUNDARYA by Nandanath Kedaia* 
nath Dixit, B. A., M. C. P. (London) (1916). 

A short essay on the beauties of Nature, animate and 
inanimate, prepared some time ago by Mr. Dixit, of the 
Baroda Educational Department, is now reprinted in 
Devanagari characters. It certainly testifies to the love 
of Nature entertained by the writer, as well as to his 
happy style in describing her beauties. 

“BANKIM NIBANDHA MALA •*. translated by J. K. 
Pathak. (1917). 

Babu Bankim Chander Chatterji wrote other works 
besides his well-known novels, his Kri£na Charitra and 
and Dharma Tattva. As a humorous writer, as a master 
of sarcasm, few if any Indians, have equalled him; e. g., 
his “skits”- the Loka Rahasya and the Matrimonial Penal 
Code are inimitable. Though we possessed in Gujarati 
his novels, and his other serious works, we have not till 
now had any rendering of his miscellaneous writings and 
sketches, humorous and others. 

The present book removes that deficiency, and we 
are sure that whoever reads it and we wish that many 
should do so, would not regret the time and trouble. 



314 


Essay-Literary 


Bankim Babu’s humour is something to be enjoyed; the 
innocent laughter it raises is not lost in translation. 

☆ 

“NIVJ&ITTI YINODA”. by Prof. Atisukhsanker K, TrivedL 
M. A,, ll. B. (1917) 

Prof. Triyedi now ^and then writes on important 
subjects. These essays are written in a simple effortless 
style, and are the result of unlaboured thought. They 
embrace many topics, practical and sentimental and 
while reading them one thinks as if the writer were cons- 
ciously or unconsciously affected by Lubbock’s work on 
the same lines. 

They make pleasant reading and the reader feels 
that they are written straight from the heart of the 
author. There are three “skits” at the end, which seem 
to relieve the monotonous .'seriousness of the previous 
pages. 

“ PUSTAKALAYA ” by K.. 0. Besai. (1917). 

Library keeping has developed into an art in Europe 
and America. We are much behindhand in this subject. 
This little book-a pioneer in its line-shows how A 
library is to be arranged and managed. A few references 
have been made in its pages to the admirable work be- 
ing done by the State Library Department at Baroda 
which is the only model of its kind in India. This 
little book furnishes much useful and interesting reading. 

u SAKS’AR JlVANA *\ by the late Govardhanram M. Tri- 
pathi, B. a., ll. b. (1919), 



315 


Development of Gujarati literature • 1907—1938 

A melancholy interest attaches to this publication, 
as the writer died before he could complete it. It first 
appeared about eighteen years ago as a magazine arti- 
cle in the Quarterly Samalochctka and at the time 
attracted the attention of several thinkers by the philo- 
sophical writer's predilection for the subject. However, 
as it was essentially a theme for those who were learned 
and cultured, it lay in that shape till young 
Ramaniyaram conceived the idea of bringing it out as a 
separate book. 

In addition 1 o the deep learning displayed by the 
late Mr. Tripathi in elucidating the literary life lived 
by the Indians of old, specially such notable scholars 
as Vyasa and Vasishtha, in the present publication by the 
Introduction contributed to it by Prof. B. K. Thakore of 
the Deccan College, Poona, the latter displays an equally 
sound erudition in tryingito facilitate the understanding of 
an essay which in several places is obscure and in many, 
above the head of the ordinary reader. The notes at the 
end, also written by the Professor, still further assist the 
student. Notwithstanding all these accomplishments, 
the book, we are afraid, would be read by a very few. 

☆ 

PRACRINA SAHITYA Mahadeva Haribhai Desai, 
B. a., ll. B. Pp. 125. Frice 0-12-0- (1922). 

A series of books for resuscitating the past of India 
has been planned and this book, which is a translation 
of Dr. Rabindranath Tagore's Prachina Sdhitya, telling 
the tales of the Ramayana and other events in his own in- 
imitable style, is a laudable effort to acquaint Gujaratis 



316 


Essay-Literary 


with it. We are afraid however, that the book, will be 
found difficult to be understood by the masses. 

☆ 

“NAEAYANA GADYA-GaNGA by Thakknr Naiayana. 
Yis^nji. Pp. 413 Price Re. 1-8-0. (1922). 

This is a collection of articles on literature and 
history from the pen of Thakknr Narayana Visanji 
contributed by him during the last decade to various 
Gujarati journals and periodicals. At the time they were 
published, we read them with deep attention and 
appreciated them greatly. His incisive style, trenchant 
criticism, versatile genius and assiduous study were 
apparent in every line, and we are glad he has been 
persuaded to give them a book-form and thus make 
them readily available in one place. 

☆ 

“ WRITINGS OF KALELKAR ” By Dattatreya Bala- 
kris'na Kalelkar, b. a. Pp. 747 Price 3-0-0 ( 1923), 

Dattatreya Balakri&aa Kalelkar, populary known 
as Kaka, is a Daksani by birth with Marathi is his 
mother-tongue. One of the ablest and sincerest 
lieutenants of Mahatma Gandhi, he too has been an 
inmate of the jail. He has written enormously in 
Gujarati, th« language used being that of a Gujarati 
born and bred. This big and substantial volume of 
nearly 800 pages contains his writings on various subjects, 
and to appreciate his style, ability and intelligence, they 
must be read in the original. 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 317 

"SAHEBRAMA AND OTHER WORKS” : By the late 
Ranajifcram Yavabhai Mehta, B. A #l Pp. 410, Price Rs, 2-4-0 (1921). 

In Ranajitram, cut off in his youth, Gujarati lite- 
rature has! lost a most conscientious and laborious worker. 
It pleased God to take him (away when be was just on 
the threshould of his useful career and it would be 
difficult to replace him. His silent but sedulous studies 
and efforts have been always directed towards the 
* uplift' of our literature, specially historical, and he 
has left a mass of materials in manuscript which await a 
worthy successor. 

He was in a sense the founder of the: Gujarati 
Sahitya Parishad, for the idea originated with him, and 
in publishing this volume of his unpublished works, 
the Bhandol Committee has really paid a debt of 
honour, and acted most gracefully. The stories told by 
Ranajitram, display a very fine imagination, and side by 
side, some of them help to preserve in permanent form, 
that "floating” literature of old Katthiawad, its life, and 
its manners, its romance and its chivalry, which but 
for such commendable efforts threatens to become 
extinct, with the advance of modern civilization. We 
congratulate the Secretary of the Committee on the 
noble bandhuhritya he has accomplished. 

"A FEW SCATTERED FLOWERS’ 7 : By Prof. Jayendrarao 
■Bhbgavanlal Durkal, M. a. (1928). 

The author is the Professor of Gujarati and English 
Literature in the Arts College at Surat, and has natural- 
ly to do a lot of thinking and observation. The result 



318 


Essay-Literary 


of both the processes is this book, which is a collection: 
of his original writings on various literary and social 
subjects. They are all well presented and would repay- 
perusal 

<1931) SWAKAJYA NE ’ SANSKBATI ”- b y Pr0f * B - Durkai. M.A., 

Prof. Durkal’s activities are many-sided but a couple 
of common features always colour them, they are obser- 
vation and thoughtfulness. The rapidly changing 
political problems of our country have inspired him to 
write this book, which consists of a number of short and 
long essays on subjects bearing on the present political 
ferment. He, like most of us, is not only for Swarajya* 
but also for Surajya, good government, i. e., a Rajya(rule), 
under which the different creeds and cultures, Hindu,, 
Muslim, Sikh, Jaina, Parsi, Christian, should take their 
proper place side by side and flourish. 

The panacea that he finds for ending the present 
chaotic conditions in India and her future uplift is educa- 
tion, not education imparted on present (Western) lines*, 
but an entire overhaul of this system. The author believes 
in old Indian culture and there or naturally harks back to 
the ‘'old strong principles, which should be proclaimed 
by beat of drum”. 

He has for the benefit of those who do not know* 
Gujarati, contributed a brief "Review in English of the 
present political problems” which is full of thought. 
People may not agree with all his views but all the- 
same the compilation is a valuable contribution to the 
political literature of the day. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 319 

"S AB ARAM ATI” :~Edited By Nagindas Parekh. Re 1/4 (1934). 

It is a collection of essays by diverse hands, contain- 
ing amongst others the names of Mahatma Gandhi, Kaka 
Kalelkar, Dhruvaji, Acharya Kripalani, Mahadeva Desai, 
and treating of such subjects as the lofty example of 
Buddha, literary criticism, aesthetic notes, comments on 
Puranic characters, philosophical speculations ending with 
four reprints of Santilal's essays. 

That brings us to the origin of the book; the venture 
centres round the name of fWtilal, a young man of un- 
fulfilled promise, dead at 22, whose memorial garland 
consists of flowers reverently brought together by those 
associated with him or cherishing his memory. Most of 
the papers will evoke interest and they show, at least, 
that nationalism and scholarship are not at variance. 

Solitary misprints notwithstanding the general getup 
is quite attractive. 

☆ 

“AMI ” by Prof. J. B. Durkal. M. A. (1936). 

Thirty-four essays in pleasant and understandable 
language. The result of study and cogitation with the 
inclination of a scholar on such varied subjects, as the 
history of words, the contentions of a clock, vegetables 
like the Lady's Finger, salads, cloudlets and many pothers 
are found in this book. 

☆ 

(1) RAJAMARGA N 0 MUSAPHAR: (2) JIYAN KALA by 
Bhogindrarao R Divetia. p. a. (1910). 

The one is an adaptation of Ralph Waldo Trine’s 
"Wayfarer on an open road," and the second is a fine 



320 


Essay-Philosophical 


ornamental, and artistic little brochure, got up as a sub- 
stitute for a New year’s gift. The idea to substitute a use- 
ful book containing golden precepts on the conduct of life, 
taken from the lives of great men, is a happy one, and 
the few pages presented to the reader teem with useful 
but unwearying reading matter. 

“SWARGA NAN RATNO: — By Amratlal Sundarji, Pp. 454 
Price Be. I/-, (1912). 

Vaidya Amratlal Sundarji wields a very facile pen, 
and is not unknown to the Gujarati reader, because he it 
is who has designed a sort of ladder of knowledge, lead- 
ing to Swarga, which he defines not as the blissful 
Heaven, pictured in the Puranas “but the bliss acknow- 
ledged to be such by the Mahatmas, a state :of mind 
where the inner soul feels satisfied, a life of godliness, in 
the end God himself’. 

With the view of raising his reader to that high 
level of thought and bliss he has been writing his books 
in a gradually; rising order : (a) Swarga nun Vimana-the 
airship which will take the reader to the heavenly 
regions, (b) Kunchi, the key which will open them, 
(c) Swarga no Khajano, the treasure that would be un- 
locked by means of it, and (d) Swarga nan Ratno, the 
gems found in the treasure house. The ladder is to consist 
of seven steps, out of which four have been completed. 

The preponderating feature of the work; is Bhakti 
Marga. By means of stories, by means of precepts and last- 
ly by means of a very attractive style, which draws the 
readers to him, he has been successful in impressing his 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 321 

worth on his readers and we with pleasure congratulate 
him on his continually developing and expanding out- 
turn. His aim is to teach us to live well, to think well, 
and to act well. 

“SWARGA NI SAD AKA.’ 5 By Amratlal Sundarji Padhiar, 
Pp. 516, Price As. 10-0 (1914). 

This book shows its readers the Highway to Heaven. 
It is couched; in the writer’s felicitous style, and the 
different moral principles which it inculcates, are set out 
in the shape of;such entertaining stories, that the reader 
does not like to lay down the book till he has finished 
that particular portion. 

☆ 

“ SACHUN SWARGA ” by Yaidya A. S. Pandhiar. (1915) 

We are very glad to see this extremely popular work 
having run into a second edition. Its chief merit is its 
language, which is such as even a villager would under- 
stand. The writer has deliberately kept to this easy 
style, as the contents of the book are meant to be widely 
known. He. has set to himself the task of telling people 
where “real paradise” is to be found, and the several 
home-truths he conveys to his readers, in order to clean 
their lives, domestic, social, mental, are really valuable. 

☆ 

“PRABHUMAYA JIYANA." By Maniial Natkubhai Doshi. 
Pp. 299 Price Re. 0-8-0 (1916). 

This book introduces to the Gujarati reader, the very 
well-known works of~Ralph Waldo Trine : (1) In Tune 
with the Infinite, (2) 'Every Living Creature, and Character 

21 



322 


Essay-Philosophical 


Building and Thought Power. The translations are made 
by one who is in complete sympathy with the principles 
enunciated in the works. 

“PASHU-MATHI DEYA” by M. Y. Gandhi. (1916). 

This translation of James Allen's “From Passion to 
Peace" seems to be meant for a very select few as the 
language is such that those whose culture is above the 
average only can understand it, and for them probably 
it would be useless, as they can rear* the English original 
with greater ease and benefit. The price is also beyond 
its deserts. 

☆ 

“APA1SO DHAEMA." by Prof. Anandasankar B. Dhruva. M. A., 
ll. B. (1916). 

Prof. Anands'ankar is one of our soberest writers and 
thinkers. An unassuming scholar of Sanskrit literature 
and Philosophy, he always loves to call himself a student. 
Inaggresive to the last degree lie says what he has to say 
fearlessly. Generally considered to be on the side of the 
old and the orthodox, his writings show that he is neither 
the one nor the other, but always reasons himself into a 
particular position. 

This book is a collection of his many contributions 
to his beloved Monthly, the Vasant , , and to the S udar- 
shana and they give out his views on “Our Dharma”. 
They are very interesting, and portray the struggle that 
an individual born and bred in an orthodox family, with 
leanings and predilections on that side, undergoes, when 
he impartially, by means of his wide reading and cultured 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 323 

thinking examines, checks, notes, and then finally casts 
his opinions steadfastly into a new groove. 

The book, therefore s it need not be said, is a valu- 
able contribution to modern Gujarati thought, and as 
such to be welcomed. We think the price should, when 
circumstances permit, be made popular. 

☆ 

“BAN Si MAN PRABHUYE SHUN GAY UN?”: — By Amrat- 
la! Sundarji Padhiyar Pp. 44. (1916)« 

We hold in great esteem whatever comes from the 
pen of Mr. Padhiyar, and that for two reasons: his style 
is simple and incisive, while his thoughts are practical; 
he tells you what he has to tell, directly, there is no 
beating about the bush. 

Judged by this standard, we find this book to be one 
of his weakest attempts. The title of the book is “What 
did the Lord (Kris'na) sing on his flute ? ” In trying to 
unravel this tangle, he leaves the terra firma of his own 
experience of the world, a course which he always follows 
and tries to soar into the regions of imagination. 

Sitting by the shores of the sea, near Chorwad, on 
the Kathiawad coast, he has, while meditating on the 
problem, as to what did the divine flute mean by 
attracting all nature, animate and inanimate to its 
melody and making it stand, still, evolved an explana- 
tion which he has set out in a series of rhapsodies, the 
sum-total of which is that the flute sang the creed of love 
or Premadharma. 



324 Essay-Philosophical 

“NAVA JIVANA,” Manila! Mohanlal Padrakar, Pp. 179 Price 
Re. 1 /- (1917). 

This is a collection of papers written at different 
times by Mr. Padrakar, a rising ambitious writer, with 
a foreword by Mrs. Sharda Sumant Mehta, b. a. There 
are seven papers, and they comment on the philosophy of 
love, Sufism, Dante, Kalidas andBhayabhuti, Court of the 
Muses, Firdosi and Bharat Khanda. 

These are useful subjects and the papers furnish 
ordinary information; in some the writer seems to have 
travelled beyound his depth. 

☆ 

“SWARG NI SAMAGRI’ 7 :— By Rana Dolatsingh Sisodia, Pp. 
55 -end 80. Price As. 8 (1917). 

It is a translation of James Allen’s *‘As a man 
Thinketh’\ There is a very well-written biography of 
James Allen. We wonder whether there is room in 
Gujarati for two translations of this book. 

“ MAETERLINK NA N1BANDHO ” By Dhansukhlal 
Krisnalal Mehta. Pp. 86 Price Re. 0-6-0 (1917). 

The forte of this rising young writer is effectivo 
translation and adaptation of short humourous stories, 
and it is a revelation to find him treating equally 
effectively such a serious book as Maeterlink's Easays. 
The work though short is likely to be widely read. 

☆ 

“MANAVA VICHARA ANE TENI SHAKTIO” >-By 
"Vidy&rthi Bhimashanker Bhulabhai SharmS. Pp. 43. Plica 
As.?. (1918). 



Development of Gujarati Literature s 1907-1938 325 

This book contains the translation of James Allen's 
« As a man Thinketh ” and " Out from the Heart The 
translator says that he is a student in the Matriculation 
class and is twenty years old, and his mother-tongue is 
not Gujarati. He was much affected by reading the 
Persian and Hindi versions respectively of the two books, 
and he asks his readers not to consider his age, a dis- 
qualification, because Macauly wrote poetry at his age 
and a still younger student of the Central Hindu College 
wrote verses fit to find a place in the College Magazine. 
The translation is no doubt well done, though the depths 
of ideas of the author are beyond the capacity of 
immature minds. 

☆ 

“EMEESON’S NIBANDHA OE ESSAYS ” By 
S. B. Bhatt. ( 1917 ). 

This is a second attempt to render Emerson into 
Gujarati. Emerson's American English, his terse style, 
epigrammatic language, and sentences which are 
synonymous with aphorisms, render his translation into 
any other language very difficult. Added to this is the 
fact that he attracts very few readers of the ordinary 
type. Considering all this, we think Mr. Bhatt has on 
the whole done his task well; we say so, because on 
reading the essays, one is able fully to enter into the 
spirit of what Emerson meant to say, 

46 SWAEGA Nl JINDAGI ” : — By the late Amratlal 
Sundarji Padhiar. Pp. 382. Price Es. 1-2-0 ( 1922 ). 

“ Life in Paradise " is the very significant title of 
this book, which was written by the late Mr. Padhiar 



326 


Essay-Philosophical 


about fifteen years ago. It narrates the lives and aims 
of those who have dedicated their all to the 
service of their country; they in his opinion enjoy the 
happiness of Paradise though living in this world- In 
his inimitable and attractive style, he has told us by 
what means we can attain this happy condition of life, 
and a perusal of the book only can do full justice to 
its ennobling character. 

❖ 

tl ARAVlNDA VI CHAR AM ALA v : — By Thakkur 

Narayana Vasanji Pp. 227. Price Rs. 3-8-0 { 1922 ). 

It is a noticeable coincidence that two books concern- 
ed with the life and writings of Srijut Arabinda Ghosh 
should be published in Gujarati almost simultaneously; 
turning to him, who is considered in several respects 
the counterpart of Gandhi, in the enforced absence of 
the latter. Arabinda served in Gujarat for twelve 
years, and has left a name behind. His chequered career 
after he took himself away from our midst, is wellknown. 
The accounts given in the two books under notice over- 
lap rather than supplement each other, as their subject- 
matter is identical. 

¥ 

u VIJaYA DHWAJA : - By Ratipatiram Udyamaram 
Pandya b. a Pp. 16. Price 0-8-0 ( 1922 ). 

This is not exactly a translation but a book written 
largely on the lines of James Allen’s ‘Life Triumphant \ 
We wonder whether it would become popular with the 
masses, as both its style and subject seem to be over 
their heads- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 327 

<s YIS’WA BHARATI” ^Translated by Hiralal Harjivan 
Gauatra B. a. Pp. 62. Price Be. 1-0-0 ( 1922 \ 

This is a translation of Rabindra Nath Tagore's 
“The Centre of Indian Culture It is well done. 

☆ 

“ YUAYA KALA ” :-By Sak^rchand Manekchand Ghadiali 
Pp. 227 Price Rs. 2 ( 1923 ). 

This book is a sort of olla podrida of ethical, 
moral, physical and other subjects, directions in regard 
to which, if followed faithfully as given by the writer, 
are bound to lead to success. It is a compilation, in 
which hints have been gathered from many sources and 
boldly set out. Its merit is its occasional outspokenness. 

☆ 

ei SWARGA NU AMRiTA” OR HEAVEN’S NECTAR 
By the late A. S. Pad&iar. Pp. 266. Price 1-8-0 (1924). 

This is a posthumous publication; it was composed 
at odd moments by the late Amritlal Padhiar in the course 
of piregrenations but the different bindas or drops are 
connected by means of one idea, viz., self-introspection. 
The short essays are written in his usually “ catching 
style " and this book adds one more to the number of 
his valuable publications, 

☆ 

“ T ATT V AMBIT A-PAKT 1.” by N. P. SangaBi. P p . 407 
Price 2-8-0 { 1924 ). 

The writer is a great traveller and pilgrim. It is 
not enough to say that this Hindu writer has seen every 
part of India; the more difficult to reach, the greater his 
desire to- see it on foot, but has seen every part of the 



328 


^-Philosophical 


world and that too as a strict Hindu. Consequently all 
these parts of the book where he narrates his own experi- 
ances of travel are entertaining and interesting. It is 
only when he takes to abusing individuals like Gandhiji 
and Aravinda Ghosh that readers lose patience with him 
and begin to doubt his sanity. One is entitled to one's 
own views; but in expressing them one should not use 
vitriol. 

Q 

“ HEAVEN’S LIGHT. ” by the late Amratl&l & Padhiar Pp. 
348 Price 1-2-0 ( 1925 ). 

The different ways iu which Heaven-Happiness can 
be attained are set out here in the late Mr. Padhiar’s 
attractive style. The ways are the ways of thet ruthful, 
trusting devotee of God and with the writer as the Guide 
in those ways, the seeker after happiness is sure to get it. 

☆ 

41 SATYAMAYa JIVANA ” by Kisorilal G. Mashruval£. 
B, A., LL. B. ( 1927 ). 

An essay based on Morley's Compromise and written 
in his best style by Mr. Mashruvala, a serious young 
thinker of Mahatma Gandhi s school. It is sure to guide 
many to the Life steeped in Truth. Many problems of 
this complicated subject have been lucidly solved by him 
in this book. 

☆ 

“ S'UBHA SANGRAHA "-PARTS' 1-9. published by the 
Society for the spread of Cheap literature ( 1928 ) 

A bulky volume containg 260 articles on various sub- 
jects,; from the life of Prof. Jadunath Sarkarto Atma 



829 


Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 

Jnana (self “knowledge). These articles are collected from 
various newspapers and periodicals and show the very 
wide range of reading of the selector. 

☆ 

“ GARDEN OF LITERATURE WITH LABYRINTHS 99 
by K. R. Nanjiani, B. A Vijaya Pravartak Press, Ahmedabad Pp. 
87. Price 0-12-0 ( 1908). 

The author's object has been to give counsels of per- 
fection to girls newly married by painting a picture of the 
social life of the Hindus, as directed by the wise and edu- 
cated and foolish and ignorant parents. Khan saheb 
Nanjiani is a known educationist and author, and we wish 
we could speak of this work of his in the same breath as 
his other works. 

He aims well, no doubt, but he writes in a grand- 
iloquent style; his subjects are disjointed, and at times 
such as with hardly any decency could be read by 
growing boys and girls. He has served up old mythical 
stories again in a new garb; for instance, the story 
in which the word Visha in a letter was changed to 
Vishaya, and the bearer instead of being killed by poison 
was married to Vishaya. The presentment of Hindu so- 
cial lore is not natural and the descriptions of marriage, &c, 
are exaggerated till they become ridiculous. The Khan 
saheb, no doubt, has a facile pen and we are sure that in 
the next edition, his work would not suffer by being 
recast. 

“ NARIO NUN NITYA-VACHAN, by N. K. Vaishnava, 
G910). 

A small booklet, giving in simple language the duties 
of a Hindu woman, in her several capacities as wife, 



330 


Essay-Social 


mother, sister-in-law, mother-in-law & c. Its perusal 
is not surely calculated to be considered a waste of time. 

“A BALA-HIT A DARPANA” by Mrs. G. K. Upadbyaya(1911) 

This book is written in a very pleasant and clear style 
and sets out the present condition of our women-folk 
very well and the remedies it suggests to improve their 
condition are clear cut also. It is written by a lady and 
as such entitled to great weight and consideration. It 
owes its existence to the public spirit of Mr. Chitalia, 
who invited essays on the subject, offtring a prize of Rs. 25 
Mrs. Upadhyaya’s essry was passed by the Committee and 
it has now been published in book-form. 

The publisher has got a schema in hand for the 
practical attainment of the object in view, and he has 
given a few but general details thereof, in the preface. 
Of course it involves like many other such ambitious 
schemes, much-self sacrifice and more of united work. 
There are many workers in the same direction who are 
all working as separate units. To us, it seems that 
greater merit lies in coordinating them all, rather than 
setting up a new individual working factor by itself. 

“IN THE SERVICE OF 1HE MODASA BROTHER- 
HOOD ’Vby M. V. Gandhi. { 1912 ). 

This little pamphlet contains various essays on 
love, brotherhood, etc. in various shapes, dialogue, 
letters, addresses from various pens. The style all 
throughout is very high pitched and therefore artificial. 
The pamphlet is all the same worth notice because of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 331 


the fact that in such a remote comer as Modasa there 
are people who take such a keen interest in literary 
matters. 

U SAMAJA” — By Maharanishankar Ambashankar Sharma 
Pp. 77 Price Re. 0-6-0 (1916). 

Mr. Narsingadas Vibhakar, b. A., ll. b. Barrister-at- 
Law, the publisher of this Vichara-Pushpa Mala Series, 
has no doubt made a good choice in selecting Sir Rabin- 
dranath Tagore’s Samaja for translation. We wish the 
execution were as good as the choice. 

It is a translation from a Hindi version, and the 
language is full of provincialsms. The original is how- 
ever so good and so virile, that no mistranslation or 
incorrect translation can destroy its effect. This thought- 
ful pamphlet deserves a perusal, we may say not 
merely a perusal but a considerate perusal. 

Hz 

“GRIHINI DHARMA” —By Sankalchand Ranehod Shah. 
Pp. 55. 1 rice 0-6-0 (1916). 

The trite sayings about a woman’s duty, every now 
and then paraded, fortified with Sanskrit verses and 
expressions worn threadbare by now, find a place in this 
book; we trust it has pleased its author, if none else. 

“PURVAANE PAS'CHIMA.” Published in the Indian 
Opinion, Johannesberg. 

An Englishman has written under the nom-de -plume of 
John Chinaman certain letters, describing his impressions 
and opinion of the East and West. They have been trans- 
lated for the Indian Opinion, and are maintained in a 



332 


Essay-Social 


collected form in this book. The excellences of the East 
and its defects, and the defects of the West and its excel- 
lences have been so tellingly pointed out here, that this 
work of fifty-seven pages make very interesting read- 
ing. Neither the West nor the East has been spared where 
plain speaking has been considered necessary. 

“NAGARIKA NA DHARMA” —By N. K. Dixit. B. a. 
(1917). 

This book is on civics and is the first of its kind in 
Gujarati, and owes its origin to the commendable desire 
of H. H. the Maharaja Gaekwad to encourage a study of 
such subjects. It is printed in DevaNagari so that it 
might be read in other parts of India. 

It opens with a very beautiful quotation from 
the history of Pedagogy stating the ideal of a Youth 
of Athens in early days. The Family, School, Society 
and State are its main divisions which are supplemented 
by a description of the methods of administration of the 
Gaekwadi and British Governments. The duties of citi- 
zens are very well pointed out and we are sure the little 
book would prove of benefit to those who would care 
to read it. 

4 'STRIYO NI RAN G ABH U MI* 4 5 By M. C. Bhatt (1918) 

The practised pen of Mr. Bhatt has clothed a very 
trite subject with great interest on account of the way in 
which he has approached it. The great necessity of 
educating our women and the real field of their work are 
so vividly impressed by him on the mind of the reader, and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 333 

so pleasantly too, that if the readers happen to be women 
they are sure to take the lesson conveyed to them to 
heart. Bombay life, as passed in its chawls and Malas by 
its hundreds of female inhabitants is capable of being 
diverted into useful channels and the writer shows one of 
the ways in which it can be done. 

☆ 

44 MAHATMA GANDHI NI VICHAR-SRXSHTI by 
Mathuradas Trike mji (1919). 

The ideas and ideals of Mahatma Gandhi have been 
focussed in this book, which is a collection of his speeches 
and writings in English, Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati. So 
far as we know this is the first collection of its kind, and 
the educative and instructive influence that the subject- 
matter of the collection is likely to exert over those who 
are unacquainted with any other language except Gujarati 
is so great, that in itself it is a sufficient reason for 
according a warm welcome to it. The subjects have 
been selected with great care and the translation does 
credit to the translator. We trust the book would be 
read by each and every native of Gujarat. 

(1) “SAMSARA SUKHA” By Dr. Hariprasad Vrajrai Desai* 
Price As. 12/~( 1921 ) 

(2) SUKHA SAMARTHYA ANE SAMRIDDHI TATHA 
VICHARO NA CHAMATKAR ” By Ratanasimha Dipsimha 
Parmar Pp. 276 Price Re 1-10-0. ( 1921 ) 

The first book though based on Lubbock's ‘Pleasures 
of Life/ is so well adapted to conditions of our country 
that it is impossible, unless so told, to make out that it i$ 



334 


Essay-Social 


so. The language used is straight and simple, and the 
whole work bears the stamp of sincerity : the author 
speaks straight from his heart, and even in his matter-of 
fact subject, rises to heights of poetry in his prose. It is 
one of the best books in the series. 

The Second book is a translation of Harden’s “Peace, 
Power and Plenty,’’ and “Miracle of Right Thought.” 
The original books are of course well-known, it was 
possible to translate them better to convey the spirit of 
the text to the Gujarati reader. But in the absence of 
a better work, we would not condemn this translation. 

& 

u GANDHIJI NAN YICHARA RATNO 55 A small book by 
Chandulal Becharlal Patel of Gondal, containing extracts from the 
utterances of Mahatma Gandhi; a valuable collection all times. 

“ KUMARIKA DHARMA ” By M. D. Shah, price 0~4 ~q 
( 1922) 

This book in several sections explains the way in which 
girls should behave till they are married. If the advice 
given there is followed, they will no doubt be able to lead 
ideal lives. 

☆ 

n MAHILA SAMSARA” By Dr. ( Miss ) Rukbmabai M. D* 
Pp. 95 Price 0-0-0. ( 1923 ). 

Several papers read now and then by Dr. Rukhmabai 
and Mrs, Manekbai on the defects of the Hindu family 
system so far as women are concerned and their remedy 
together with advice for the exalted rank that should be 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


335 


given to the fair sex in our society, are now presented in 
book form by the joint authoresses. 

- KNOW THIS MUCH AT LEAST " PP. 144. Price Ra. 
0-6-0. ( 1923 ) 

This is a second edition published within a very short 
time of a book which we have only recently noticed. It 
is a collection of essays on the burning topics of the day, 
written in very simple language. 

☆ 

-'GANDHI GlRAMRlT” By Apabhai Motibhai Patel of Oda, 
in Gujarat. Printed at the Jaina Yijaya Printing Press, Surat. Pp. 
228. Price Rs, 1-4-0. ( 1923 ) 

This is a collection of the opinions of Mahatma Gandhi 
expressed by him at various places and in various circum- 
stances on matters political, religious, social and domes- 
tic. They certainly read like so many suoras, 

V 

f * GRIHA JIVAN NI SUNDARaTA ” By K. C, Desai, B. A. 
LL. B. Pp. 69 Prfce 1-4-0 ( 1923 ) 

Happiness in married life is the theme of this small 
essay. Advice is given as well as practical instances 
quoted to show how a wife can make her home happy and 
bright, contented and exemplary. If the ideal, which the 
writer pleads for, can be had, every household would be 
happy. 

☆ 

“ GANDHI SHIKSHANA ” Parts 1 to 13 by N. Arauiakhrai 
Price for the series Rs. 8-10-0 ( 1924 ) 



336 


Essay- Social 


The teachings of Gandhi ji on Satyagraha, Dharma, 
Sanitation, Education, Liberty of women, and many other 
subjects lhave been brought together in one place in this 
series, so that the reader is enabled to see at a glance as 
to what Gandhiji thinks on a particular subject, instead of 
having to hunt for it in numerous places and scattered 
writings. 

« GRAHINI BHUS’ANA ” Pp. 112 Price Re. 0-10-0 ( 1924 ) 

This is a collection of writings in prose and verse, 
showing.how the status of an ideal woman can be attained. 
It can be read with profit by girls just entering on the 
threshold of their married life. 

« YIDYARTHI * Pp. 256, Price 1-8-0 ( 1 924 ). 

The pupils of the above Bhavan conduct a monthly 
magazine, which they circulate amongst themselves in 
manuscript form. A selection has been made from their 
contributions, and it serves to show the mentality of the 
young boys and their views on untouchables, liberty, 
mercy, service, travels etc. It is a most enjoyable collec- 
tion. 

☆ 

“YOU WILL NOT UNDERSTAND IT” By Mann K. Desai. 
( 1928 ). 

This is a pleasent translation or rather adaptation of 
Count Tolstoy’s ‘ The Vision oi the Children’s” We do 
not doubt that the children would like it. 

4 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


337 


“ THE SCIENCE OF SELF-SACEIFXCE. ” Translated by 
A. M. Patel. ( 1938 ). 

This is a collection of excerpts from writings in vari- 
ous languages on the tenets of social service. The selec- 
tion is very representative and very helpful, Mr. Moti- 
wala being a well-known practical social servant. 

* 

“ JIVANA NO ADAES'A” By Jivabhai Eevabhai Patel, B. A. 
LL B., Pp. 228. Price 0-12-0. ( 1907 ). 

The Gujarat Vernacular Society administers a Fund 
called the &eth Harivallabhdas Balagovinddas Fund. The 
interest of the said fund has till now financed about 
twenty-five useful publications and the book under review 
is also indebted for its publication to the same source. 
It is based mainly or is rather in a large measure a 
translation of Lecky's * Map of Life. ' 

The writer however has very thoughtfully omitted 
such portions as moral compromise in the Church, Statesman 
and other kindred subjects, like early marriage, social 
reform &c., which directly bear on our present day 
conditions are included. The reference, wherever they could 
conveniently be made, are made to our own Shastras and 
literature. The work is anything but a slavish translation. 
It betrays althrough out the intelligent interest taken by 
the writer in his work, and he has been successful in 
bringing out a readble book. 

ik 

“VIS’VA VILASA-PART II, DHARMA KANDAVIBHAGA 
IP’ by A. J. Buch (1909) 

This part is literally crammed with information of a 
varied character. It is in the nature of short informative 
22 



Essay-Didaotic 


ms 

essays, written out after the study of each subject in his 
own language by the author and supplies most useful and 
-interesting reading. The various religions of the world 
and the still more varied religions of India, the Darshanas, 
the Bhagvata and other cognate subjects have been 
treated in a way which gives a complete bird's-eye view 
of the field of religious literature in our country. The 
other essays in the book on patriotism, the true service 
that can be rendered to India, etc., are conceived in a 
thoughtful spirit and we cannot lay down the collection 
without admiring the wide range of the author's studies 
and the way in which he has digested them. 

** SABI RlTABHATA :-B y Govindbhai Hathibhai Desai, 
B. A,, lx. b. B»roda. ( 1910 ). 

The writer needs no introduction, as he has been 
always present before the public eye by means of his 
many manuals, written at intervals, snatched from 
exacting are public State Service, This little book con- 
tains a collection of a set of rules of conduct, which on 
account of their incongruity has already formed the 
subject matter of various skits in the well-known weekly 
paper called "The Gujarati". 

The incongruity lies in the fact of the rules, a majo- 
rity of them, we should say, being primarily and wholly 
applicable to those who lead an English sort of life 
or to those who attend Government offices, e. g., the 
admonition that calls should be made between 9 and 10 
A. M. as that is the time suitable for Indians, wholly 
ignores the fact that many Indians are shop-keepers or 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 339 

non-Government service men, whose day begins with 
7 cr 8 o'clock and not with 11-30 a. m. ( Standard time ). 
Similarly about the way in which conversation should 
be carried on or dress should be worn. The manners in- 
tended to be inculcated in this part of the composition are 
suitable more for observance between as Englishmen and 
Englishmen or between English knowing Indian gentlemen 
and Europeans. And for them the book would be a 
redundancy, as they are sure to have read their lessons in 
manners in English books. 

But the other part which deals with our customs, 
in case of caste-dinners, marriage - invitations &c. is 
more to the point and it is very disirable that what is said 
there should be taken to heart. The publication is a 
mere tentative effort and Mr. Desai has asked for 
suggestions. We would therefore wish that it should 
be revised in its former part dealing with Anglicized 
manners. 

" JlVANA SAFALYA ” :-B y I. M. Shukla ( 1918 ). 

This is the translation of the well-known book of 
Sir John Lubbock ( now Lord Avebury ) on the “Uses of 
Life Several years ago we remember to have read a 
translation of the same being contributed to a monthly 
magazine, by Mr. Jivanlal V. Desai, b. a., Barrister-at 
Law of Ahmedabad, but we see a translation of this 
widely known work in book-form for the first time. 
This translation is, we must say, very intelligently done 
and the foot-notes and the different Sanskrit slokas with 
vyhich it is embellished add to its value, 



mo 


Essay-Didactic 


☆ 

“ HITOPADES'A ” :-By Dhimatram Navalram Pandit. Pp. 
159. Price Ee. 1-0-0. (1912). 

The Hitopadega of Vi&auS'arma in Sanskrit is a 
source of perennial joy and instruction to all who read 
it, and any translation of it would be ‘welcome. It is 
not as if it has remained untranslated till now, but still 
this new edition would not be unwelcome. The translator 
has carried out his object very well. 

6t BAGON NA NIBANDHO ” :-By Ratnasimha Dipasimha 
Parmar. (1915). 

It is a good idea to have a translation of Bacon's 
Essays into Gujarati, but the task requires a very good 
knowledge of English and the translator says, “my 
knowledge is little, my education less, and my intellec- 
tual capacity the least of all." Still he has ventured 
to rush into a field where people with greater capacity 
than his have feared to tread. The translation, however, 
is readable. 

☆ 

“ BALAKO NE' BE BOLA ” :-By Chandravadan J. P 
KhanSaheb. (1916). 

This small book contains precepts and moral maxims 
for children. It is a useful publication. 

☆ 

(1916l lDARSHABHUTA J1YANA ” Pathak. 

This is a prize essay, passed at a Parishad. As its 
name implies it tries to depict what an ideal life is and 
should be. 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 841 

" tfUYAKA RATNA”:-By the late Ambalal Motibhai 
Patel, B. a* s Pp. 488. Price Re. 1-2-0 ( 1918 ). 

Mr. Ambalal Patel, who died young, had interested 
himself in education and social service. While' doing so, 
he found time to translate certain English writings bear- 
ing on self-sacrifice, morality and other kindred subjects. 
And this posthumous work embodies them. 

☆ 

“ SWAMI-SIS'YA SAMVADA” :-By B. F. Karbhari 
(1920). 

Meghji Hirji & Co. is an enterprising firm of Jaina 
booksellers in Bombay. This book is intended as a 
present to be given away at the time of Meghji’s 
marriage. The conversations between Swami Viveka- 
nanda and his friends which are collected in this little 
book are very instructive, entertaining and touching, and 
great benefit is likely to result by its perusal. 

☆ 

“ KARTAVYA KA.I5KANA ” : by Mu ni Devchandraji. 
(1920). 

Short lessons on good conduct and cultivation of 
virtues are the keynote of this small book. 

☆ 

« VIRA ANE VIR APUJA. ” : by M. D. Joshi. (1921) 

It need not be observed that Carlyle’s “ Heroes and 
Heroworship ” has furnished the basis for the writing 
of this book. It is a laudable effort on the part of this 
young writer to produce something for Gujarati on the 
lines of that famous book. Of course India does not lack 
heroes, both ancient and modem, and hero?worship is 



342 


Essay-Didactic? 


ingrained in the life of an Indian. The number of 
heroes is so large that it is difficult for any one to pick 
and choose without danger of leaving out “ worthies so 
that many would find that the list of the author 
comprising the late Mr. G. M. Tripathi ( a wellknown 
author of Gujarat), Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma 
Gandhi, Rana Pratap, Nana Fadanvis, and 3ri KriSna, 
is neither exhaustive nor selective. 

But whatever shortcoming one may find in the omis- 
sions, the justice done to the lives and the characteristics 
of those included in the list is ample. The treatment of 
the subject is original, and based on a serious study of 
the materials. The enthusiasm which the writer has 
thrown into his work certainly deserves appreciation and 
encouragement. 

☆ 

“ BHAGYA NA SRIS’HTAO. ” : by B. D. Parmar. (1921) 

" Arcbit ects of Fate ” by O. S. Marden is a fascina- 
tmg book. The straight talk in it appeals to every reader. 
The translation of this book under the above title though 
it lacks the strength of the original and the grit under- 
lying it, both due to the language in which it has been 
written, yet affords a sufficient glimpse of the truths in- 
tended to be told by Mr. Marden. It is therefore an 
addition to our serious literature. 


As. JJo A W A ' ” 1 ^ JiTanI51 KarSaniiThSkar - P P- * *iee 

Though this is a translation of a Marathi book, one 
hardly feels that it is so. It is really a help to reading * 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 343 


it tells us how to read, and what to read. We like the 
little book, 

☆ 

STEI NITI VACHANA ” : by Somegwar Gangaram 
Pandya. Pp. 80. Price As. 0-9-0 (1921). 

As its name implies, it is a book designed for women, 
and it illustrates the different virtues, such as Truth, 
Mercy, Generosity, Patriotism, by apt historical and 
Puranic stories, with a few words of advice here and 
there from the author. It will do anyone good to read 
the stories. 

* 

“ VIBHXS'ANA NITI ” : by Satyavrat and Narandra. Pp. 
84. Price 0-8-0 (1922). 

The well known dialogue between Vibhigana and 
Ravana has been rendered into Sanskrit and this is its 
translation into Gujarati. It necessarily is concerned 
with moral truths, 

4 

“ NlTIDHARMA ’ : Pp. 96 Price Rs. 0-8-0 (1923). 

When in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi contributed 
articles on the above subject to the Indian Opinion. 
They are very instructive and we are sure the above 
reprints will serve a very useful purpose. 

“GORBBET NO UPADES’A’': by Chaganlal Harilal Pandya 

b . a. (mi) 

☆ 

Corbett's advice to young men is translated by 
Mr. Pandya, and it would be presumptuous on our part to 
find fault with the execution thereof.- But what a role for ' 
the gifted translator of the inimitable Kadambari to play? 



m 


Essay-Didactic 


It is said that if Bana had written his unique work in 
Gujarati, he would have written it as well as Mr. Pandya’s 
translation. 

For that gifted scholar now to descend to translate 
Corbett, or write short stories fit for juveniles, is something 
like misapplication of energy and intelligence. However 
precedents are not wanting. Sir Conan Doyle has also 
taken to Magazine story writing for children. But surely, 
looking to the dearth we have in our literature of sound 
writers and scholars, Mr. Pandya should have been select- 
ed for some more sound and intelligent work than trans- 
lating Corbett, 

* 

“ BODHAKA ” : Chhagatilal Thakordas Modi, B. a. Pp 16 
Unpriced ) (1925). 

Very useful and sound pieces of advice to youngsters 
and advanced people of both sexes are given in this little 
book on such varied subjects, as mother, care of teeth, 
ears, throat and nose, utility of observing certain princi- 
ples, etc. 

“ &UNJA-KOKILA 99 : Pp. 168 Price 0-14-0 (1926). 

The students of the National school under the guid- 
ance of sympathetic teachers have published this collec- 
tion of their contributions to their school-magazine. 
Considering the variety of the subjects and the ability of 
the contributors the work they have done is certainly 
precious in proportion to their age and equipment. The 
articles are very readable and the pictures good. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature 2 1907-1938 345 

t( BHOD AK ” Second Boad : by Chhaganlal T. Modi* b. a. 
Pp. 16. (1926). 

In this small pamphlet Mr. Chhaganlal has garnered 
a number of happy pieces of advice on behaviour of men 
and women in the world. They are very valuable and if 
followed are sure to result in benefit to all and sundry. 

& 

« SIMPLE PIECES OF ADVICE-PART III ” : by M. S, 
Patel. (1929). 

This is a very interesting book useful for light read- 
ing and at the same time useful for inculcation of correct 
principles of conduct. The short stories illustrating the 
principles are taken from all over the world and thus the 
range of selections has been very wide, adding to the 
utility of the book. 

☆ 

AN TAR NA AMI -NECTAR FROM THE HEART *' : 
by V. B. Mehta. (1929). 

Mr. Vallabhaji is known for his verse writings. This 
however, is an excursion into prose, and is made up of 
rhapsodies on moral, ethical and other subjects. 

4 




literary criticism 




LITERARY CRITICISM 

“PERSIAN PROSODY Part III. 59 Pp. 348. Price Re. 
1-0-0 (1907). By D. B. Ranchhodbhai U day ram Dave. 

Till now, we had never come across such a scholarly 
work in Gujarati on Persian prosody. In fact it was 
badly wanted, and many Gujarati scholars were now and 
then inquiring about the Chhandas Shastraof the Persians. 
It is true there are compositions in Gujarati which closely 
follow some of the well-known metres of the Persians, 
such as the gazais of Narmadashankar, Manila!, Bala- 
shankar, Derasari and Govardhanram. 

Excepting for one of them, viz., Balashankar, none 
knew Persian and their verses were modelled on some 
Hindustani or Urdu prototypes. If they had come 
across such a work as this, for the composition of which 
a knowledge of Persian and Gujarati prosodies, is a sine - 
quan non, we are sure they would have essayed some of 
the Persian metres, and enriched the language with their 
poems. 

Mr. Ranchhodbhai is himself a veteran in the field of 
literature. He is now in the autumn of his life, but the 
work which he is now accomplishing in the shape of the 
several parts of his Ranapingala, betrays an energy and a 
determination which put to shame, many a youthful 
worker. The book is a distinct and yaluable addition to 



350 


Literary Criticism 


Gijarati and, having been published in the Devanagari 
character is readable all over India. 

“ KAVI DAYARAM NO AKS'ARA-DEHA Pp. 111. 
Price Rs. 1-4-0 (1908). by the late G. M. Tripathi 

This is a posthumous work of the well-known Guja- 
rati scholar, the late Mr. Govardhanram M. Tripathi, 
published by his son. It was written for being read be- 
before the Gujarati Sahitya Sabha at Ahmedabad on the 
anniversary day of the last;of the classical poets of old 
Gujarat, and is now in book-form presented with a photo- 
graph of the writer, to the subscribers of the Samalo - 
chaka as a memorial. It is printed in the Devanagari 
character, adopting thereby the principle for which the 
**Eka Lipi Vistara Parishad” of Calcutta is organised. 

It is preceded by a short and very readable introduc- 
tion of reminiscences in connection with the essay by Mr. 
Chandrasankar N. Pandya. The work itself bears the 
stamp of originality usual with all Mr. Tripathi's 
writings and the able and scholarly way in which he has 
tried to cut through the veil of eroticism which covers a 
major part of Dayaram’s poems, to the philosophy of 
religion lying behind, has scarcely before been equalled 
by any other writer in the line. Dayaram’s life was as 
open to exception as Byron’s was, but true to his instinct, 
which always separated the tares from the wheat, 
Tripathi has tried, as the very name of the book im- 
plies, to keep in the background, rather ignore altogether, 
the Sthula Deha (physical or bodily or biographical aspect 
of the poet, from his poetry and penetrate to what he 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 351 

calls his Akshara Delia (literary body) and find out from 
his poems the inner meaning lying hidden away. 
Dayaram's poetry has not been inaptly compared to the 
Sufistic poetry of Persian mystics, like Sa’adi and 
Hafiz, and Tripathi has shown by an analysis of the 
various poems, religious and otherwise i. e., those which 
openly run riot in erotics, that they fulfil, not only the 
tests, which our own S'astras lay down of Navadha 
Bhakti , the nine stages of devotion, but also in the 
tenth stage, merge into what the &astras call Pard.hakti 
or Paramabhakti, the poet calls Tanmayatd , and the 
Sufis term Wasl or Union with the beloved or Maashuka 
i. e., God. 

Dayaram was above all a Vaignava of Vaignavas, 
and the io\es of Gopi and Krisna, sung by him and the 
various episodes in the amours of Radha and the Lord of 
Vrindavana when referred to the principles which lie at 
the root of the Vallabhacharya tenet are not only explai- 
nable by the light of such standard work of tne Sampra- 
day a is as S'uddhadwaita Siddhdnta but they could 
bear.no other meaning than that they describe the different 
stages of the devotee's progress towards Him whom 
he worships. 

In spite of the metaphysically amorous language, 
Dayaram's poems breathed and meant to preach the 
purest of religious and devotional philosophy; this, he 
has succeeded in showing. As he says, this is but a frag- 
ment of the work. It is only pioneer work, but we are 
afraid it would rest where it is. The mental equipment 
necessary to follow up this task, is not found in many, 



352 


Literary- Cr it! clsm 


That this little work has made a substantial addition 
to Gujarati literature, no one would doubt; and we cannot 
part with it, without lamenting that the author did not 
survive to give the benefit of his pen to Gujarat for a 
longer time, and recommending to every one interested in 
our language to closely study it before condemning the 
jovial poet as a light and flippant soul. 

“ SAHITYA RATNA” : — By Ishawarlal P. Khansaheb, 
a., Pp. 288. Rs. 1-8-0 ( 1908 ). 

The gems of Gujarati literature which are embodied 
in this collection, comprise both the ancient and the 
modem, the dead and the living and are thus instru- 
mental in showing at a glance the state of that literature. 
The selection is admirable, and though it has not been 
found possible to include all the best pieces, a majority 
of them do find a place here. The book is intended as a 
help to students learning in the High Schools, for whom 
such a compilation was a desideratum, but to the general 
reader too, the work is none the less interesting and 
instructive. 

In poetry, such a task was essayed by Mr. Anj&ria in 
his ‘Kavya Madhurya’ but a mixed collection like this 
was wanting. Besides for its bringing together in one 
place, the most classical and familiar writing of Gujarati 
writers, we commend the book to the students of lite- 
rature for the two valuable introductions it contains. An 
outline-history of Gujarati Literature and an article on 
the development of Gujarati prose have helped to give 
the work a characteristic of its own. The history is 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


353 


well-written; and the writer has managed admirably 
to concentrate in a small compass history, biogra- 
phy, and a critical resume of the writings of each of 
the authors. 

No doubt the space devoted to each of them is 
very unequal, but that was inevitable in the nature of 
things. The portion devoted to the comparison of the 
abilities of the various poets is the result of considerable 
thought and study though the conclusions may not be 
agreeable to all. The other part of the introduction on 
the development of the Gujarati prose also starts brave- 
ly and the author has tried to ransack all available 
sources, but we think in the expression of his own opi- 
nion on the styles of the various writers, he has been 
attracted more by the sound of the words than their 
substance. 

The questions given at the end to sum up the net 
results of criticism on the style of the different periods 
savour of the slavish imitation of Narmadashankar rather 
than of sound remarks. We think the language is also be- 
yond the scope of the student-reader and the general 
impression left on our mind by the perusal of the whole 
is that in spite of its diligent research and labour the 
performance still smacks of crudeness and lacks the ripe- 
ness of opinion that comes with age and experience. As 
an essay in the line of criticism-writing, we have how- 
ever nothing but praise for it, and we gladly welcome 
the book as a distinct addition to the store of Gujarati 
Literature, 



354 


Literary-Criticism 


t: YIDEHA GUJARATI SAKSHARO By Suinarias 
Harilal Dhruva ( 1909 ). 

Mr. Sumanas seems to be possessed with a great 
literary ambition, which is surprising in a young gentle- 
man of such immature age, and comparatively slender 
education as he is still engaged in his College studies. 
The idea which led him to compile this little album of 
nineteen Gujarati writers - Parsis, Hindus and Mahome- 
dans-all of recent fame excepting one deserves a 
warm welcome. It places within reach of Gujarati 
readers, a nicely illustrated small volume containing 
short biographical notes and just a few observations on 
their work : of Dayaram, Narmadashankar, Jamshedji 
N. Petit, Navalram, Bholanath, and his son Bhimarao, 
Mahipatram, Harilal Dhruva, Dalpatram Kavi, 
Balashankar, Manilal Nabhubhai, Kalapi the Prince- 
poet, Narayana Hema chandra, Kaikhusru N. Kabraji, 
Nandashankar, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mansukharam 
Tripathi, Narsimhalal Harilal, and Sachedina Nanjiani. 

The list is neither exhaustive nor representative, 
but that is no shortcoming; the book is meant to act 
as a pioneer. We find in the book itself, however, several 
strange modes of spelling Gujarati words. Perhaps the 
young author has his own original ideas on the point, 
which it would take long to make familiar to his less 
advanced readers. 

& 

“ SAHITYA VILASA ” :-By R. N. Bhr.tt, b a., (1910). 

This is a compilation of selected writings-prose and 
poetry-from the works of famous Gujarati authors, ancient 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


355 


and modem. There is nothing very new or original 
about the work, excepting that it embraces some of the 
most recent writings : e. g., we see an admirable 
selection from the life of Govardhanram Tripathi, written 
by Kantilal and reviewed by us in January last. 
It is prefaced by a short introduction which takes a 
bird’s eye view of the history of Gujarati literature and 
we confess, it is a bird’s eye view in its literal sense as 
the writer merely skims over the surface of his subject 
and indulges in a few epigrammatic statements. At the 
end of the book we find an equally scant statement 
on the methods of essay writing, where he emphasises 
the use of simple language and a style unburdened with 
Sanskrit words. We wish he had held to that standard 
in the introduction written by him. 

As for the selections we were surprised to find 
amongst them, a couple of extracts from the writings 
of the late Narayana Hemachandra. He is known as an 
extensive and wholesale translator of Bengali works 
into Gujarati, and we believe there his merits end. They 
possess no other merit save and besides this that they 
give us some information about the literature of Bengal. 
They are more like the reproductions of Bengali works 
in Bengali idiom and grammar in Gujarati type rather 
than bonafide translations. His style is ungrammatical 
and unidiomatic. It is mutilated Gujarati and nothing 
else. 

& 

“ GUJARATI NAVALAKATHA NU SAHITYA w By 
MaWbbai Nara^ji Tantri. b. a, (1911). 



356 


Literary- Criticism 


Novel-writing is an art newly introduced in to Gujarati 
literature, and its rise, development and present position 
have been very successfully treated in the book under 
review. From start to finish we have not come across 
a dull page, although the commencement is taken up 
with an examination of the canons of novel* writing 
admittedly not an easy subject to deal in a popular vein. 
The most interesting portion of the book however, 
are those where in right earnest Mr. Manibhai enters 
into the criticism of several individual works. He deals 
his blows and distributes his favors right and left and 
most impartially. The overtowering work of the author 
of Sarasvati Chandra does not make him blind to his 
faults, nor does the insignificant work of a self-styled 
novelist like G. K. Delavadakar entirely take him away 
from seeing at least some good points in that Sahara of 
incongruous situations, incorrect language, and plethora 
of irrelevant quotations. Nor does he forget the fictional 
work of Parsi authors to whom he gives their meed of 
praise and the reverse. 

In short, the book at a glance shows us where we 
are, so far as this branch of literature is concerned. As 
a review it is the first of its kind. The idea is original, 
and though all may not agree with his conclusions we 
are indeed very glad to say that his book has furnished 
a really useful treatise on this subject. 

☆ 

“REPORT OF THE THIRD GUJARATI SAHITYA 
PARfSHAD, HELD AT RAJHOT IN OCTOBER 1909 ” (1911) 

With commendable promptness the Managing 
Committee of the S^hitya Parishad have published this 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 357 


report of their work and the collection of papers either 
read at or sent to the conference. This third Literary 
Conference was a landmark in the History of Kathiawad 
and the zeal with which the secretaries did their work 
in running up a literary and historical Exhibition, as an 
adjunct of the Conference at very short notice, combined 
with the praiseworthy discharge of all their duties speaks 
volumes for the singleness of purpose with which they 
worked. 

The first two hundred pages perpetuate the struggles, 
the pains and the success of those who worked on the 
spot, and while they furnish an object-lesson of the 
thoroughness of method with which such organisations 
can be worked up to those who will succeed them in 
future, they at the same time demonstrate the difficulties- 
slight and of ephemeral interest in themselves-which such 
organisers have to encounter and surmount in order to 
secure uniformity and general approval for all they do. 

The gathering was a most brilliant one and was 
blessed by British Officers and Native States alike. For 
the first time in the History of the Gujarati Literature 
a lady-the Rani Saheb of Gondal-came forth to act as 
the Head of the Reception Committee and for the first 
time too did a Political Agent, of the wide sympathies 
of Mr. Claude Hill, I. C. S., C. I. E. favor it with his 
presence, speech and good wishes. 

Of the value of the contents of the volume, it is 
impossible to give a true estimate. The papers focus 
in themselves the intelligence and the brain of present- 
day Gujarati Literature. It is a very treasure-house of 



L iferary-Criticism 


literary gems, of course, not all of the same water .or 
lustre. There is not a distinguished man of letters 
whom one would find to be absent here. The carefulness 
and foresight with which the Committee had framed the 
list of subjects on which papers might be invited, was 
meant to go a great way towards drawing out certain 
latent powers of the Gujaratis for such subjects as 
history, antiquities, archeology, &c, and the result has 
not been disappointing, though very small. 

To all those however, who are desirous of gauging 
the present powers of estimating the present condition 
of our Literature, we would confidently recommend this 
volume. If they will consult it they will do so with the 
greatest benefit to themselves. Europeans, Parsis, 
Jainas, Hindus, Ladies and Gentlemen have vied with 
one another to render what aid they can to the cause of 
letters. The Parishad has been able to make new depar- 
tures also : — (1) The nucleus of a permanent Library has 
been formed, and (2) by the generosity ot the Political 
Agency and others, prize medals founded, and for all this 
the Committee deserves praise. 

The only features which mar the work, otherwise 
admirable in every way, are that the get-up of the volume 
could have been made more attractive and that a little 
more labour would have furnished it with at least a table 
of contents, if not an index. As it is, when one takes up 
the book and turns to it for looking up a paper or reference 
and finds no ready guide for the same, one's feelings are 
not of any very great admiration for the labours of the 
publishing Committee though it must be said that the 



■tieveiopment of Gujarati Literature : i907-1988 359 

resentment is sure to wear out when one calmly contem- 
plates the other parts thereof. 

ir 

* 'GUJARATI KAHEVAT SANGRAHA” byASaram Dali- 
chand Shah. ( 1911 ) 

° Proverbs ” in the words of Bacon “ are the genius, 
wit and spirit of a nation, ” and a collection of proverbs 
is therefore sure to be interesting and instructive. There 
have been two or three such small collections published 
ere now, but they were meant to assist school-boys and 
did not cover a wide range. 

So far as we know, the work was taken systemati- 
cally in hand by a late Parsi millionaire Mr. Jamshedji 
N. Petit, the result of whose labors w.<s a magnificient 
collection of 12,285 proverbs and sayings published in two 
large volumes, called '• Kahevat Mala ” in i898. The 
books are up-to-date in every respect printing, indexing 
&c„ and prefaced with a highly practical and readable 
introduction by Mr. Jijibhai Pestanji Mistry, M. A. setting 
out and applying in detail the different canons of proverb 
literature to the subject in hand. The proverb-wisdom 
of the world was also put side by side, in the shape of 
proverbs and sayings from many other languages, Indian 
and Foreign, for a comparison with their Gujarati paral- 
lels to show that the wisdom of the Gujaratis was in no 
way inferior to that of other nations. 

The collection under review proceeds on other lines 
altogether. The great practicalism in life, the highly 
developed powers of observation, the intelligent grasp of 
all worldly subjects and the retentive powers of th$ 



Li terary y-Ori ticism 


36(5 

writer’s brain coupled with a wide outlook on all affairs, 
which are known to his friends and acquaintances, are 
here reflected very faithfully. They know that his talk 
on any subject is always illustrated with proverbs and 
stories picked up during a chequered career in Gujarat 
and Kathiawad, and the marshalling of these proverbs 
to illustrate the different topics of life and the illustrative 
stories appended to them make Kinteresting reading. 
There are several verses also printed towards the close 
of the book-cognate in every way to the subject of pro- 
verbs, they also bear on the folklore of Kathiawad and 
are reminiscdent of the days passed in that province by 
Mr. Asharam. 

In short even though the collection might fall short 
of the ma gnificent work of Petit, and hence of lesser 
value as a collection than that work, still its chatty, light 
nature and the arrangement of the sayings according to 
the subjects which they illustrate, along with the typical 
stories interspersed here and there makes the book ex- 
cellent reading and we felicitate the author on the way in 
which he is spending the leisure earned in the evening of 
his life, a way which is neither frivolous nor useless but 
of benefit to others. 

“Hi' OWN IMAGES OR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE 
ANCIENT LITERATURE OF GUJARAT”:— By S’ambhuprasad 
3’ivaprasSd Mehta B. A., Pp. 58 and 82 Price Re. 1- ( 1912 ) 

This book is divided into two parts, English and 
Gujarati, Fortunately it is not our business to notice the 
English portion, for it would be difficult to find a more 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 361 

tangled skein of confused thought, incorrect idiom, gramma 
tical mistakes, printer’s devils and crude expression any- 
where, else than in those fifty-eight pages. In a future 
edition, we think it should either be dropped entirely or 
edited by some scholar. In a slip attached;to this book, 
Jthe author says ” it is specially designed for the use of M. 
A. degree examination and of other learned persons 
only/’ We do not know what: to say about it. 

It no doubt presupposes in the reader an intimate 
knowledge of the work of the poets in respect of whom 
observations are offered by Mr. Mehta. The idea of a 
historical study of their works is well conceived, and is 
inviting enough and in places well carried out. But what 
repels one is the forest of words which hides some good 
observation of flash of apt criticism. Unfortunately, the 
writer is wedded to his style, which is harsh and jarring. 
M. A. students will no doubt do well to peruse it, will 
do them no harm. 

“JUST GUJARATI BHASHA AND JAtNA SAHlTyA” : 
— By Manila! Bakorbhai Vyas. Pp. 60 Price 0-4-0 (1914). 

This is a very entertaining essay on Old Gujarati. 
Its aim is to show that all who wrote Gujarati, both 
prose and poetry, in olden times, whether they were 
Jainas or non-Jainas, wrote in the same way and that 
Jaina writers, because they were Jainas, are not entitled 
to any special credit for having written in that way. 

But apart from that, the special value of the little 
work lies in the fact that it contains many instances of 
the language written in the very early period of Gujarati, 



3f>2 


Literary- Criticisrii 


both prose and verse, which throw a flood of light on 
the evolution and development of the language. We 
recommend a perusal of the essay to every one interested 
in the history of the Gujarati language and literature. 

& 

“MILESTONES IN GUJARATI LITERATURE*’ by K. 
M. Jhaveri m. a , ll b., (1915). 

Gujarati is spoken by ten millions of people and 
comes in rank after Hindi, Panjabi, Bengali and Marathi. 
It is spoken by Banias, Jainas, Bhatias, Rajputs, Memons, 
Boras, Khojas, Bhils, Musalmans and Parsis and they 
have helped to carry the use of the language far beyond 
the borders of India. Gujarati characters are almost the 
same as Sanskrit, with the top-line of each letter omitted. 
Rasas or religious and moral stories, are the earliest form 
of Gujarati literature, and they were written by Jaina 
Sadhus. 

But Gujarati literature proper arose in the fifteenth 
century, and till the middle of the nineteenth century, it 
was confined to poetry, as in the case of other Indian 
languages. The writers were almost all Brahmans, 
Akha being the only prominent exception. There is no 
drama in the language. Though Gujarati is the language 
spoken by a large number of Mahomedans and Parsis, 
there is no Mahomedan poet, and only one Parsi poet, 
who wrote in Gujarati. 

One of the most remarkable features about Gujarati 
is the large number of poetesses, who chiefly wrote 
devotional and religious poems. The subjects handled 
by most of the poets are Pauranic episodes and scenes 



Itevelopment; of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 3$3 

from the two great epics of India, and occasionally, philo- 
sophic problems. The Bhagavatgita was one of the 
favourite themes, and the Vaishnavite literature dealing 
with the amours of Radha and Krisna was largely drawn 
upon. 

Moral and didactic verses dwelling on the vanity of 
the world and advocating renunciation; were common, 
and the duties and responsibilities of women was a popu- 
lary and frequently handled theme. Purely secular 
subjects dealing with the loves and hates, the passions 
and the sufferings of contemporary humanity, were less 
common; but the moral iniquities of hypocritical sadhus 
seemed to have exercised the imagination of several 
writers. 

The great wave of Vaishnava emotionalism inspired 
the highest form of Gujarati literature and gave it its 
first distinctive stamp, early in the 15th century and 
curiously enough the first poet was a lady, the celebrated 
Princess Mirabai (1403-1470), Vallabhacharya (born 1479) 
in West India, and Chaitanya (born 1485) in Bengal, were 
the great exponents of this cult and the ignoring of caste 
-distinctions was its chief characteristic. Mirabai's 
songs are still sung by Gujarati ladies in their garbas 
(musical parties). 

Narasi Mehta (1415-1481) another great Vaishnavite 
poet wrote both love-poems and devotional poems. 
Some of his Prabhatia or matutinals like the Abhanga of 
Tukaram, and the Bhairo songs of the Vaishnavas of 
Bengal, are extremely popular. 



364 


Literary-Criticism 


The sixteenth century produced no great poet but 
the seventeenth century was the great flowering time of 
Gujarati poetry. Akho (1615-1675), a goldsmith by 
caste, wrote abstruse Vedantic poetry, and his merciless 
denunciations of all sorts of sham passed into household 
proverbs. 

The leading poet of the century was however Prema- 
nand (1636-1734:), who took a most laudable vow not to 
put on a turban till he had purged Gujarati of the charge 
of having no literature worthy to be compared with 
Sanskrit. He kept his vow, and brought into existence 
a literary club of sympathetic spirits composed of both 
sexes, numbering about a hundred, of whom six have 
left a name including Premanand's own son Vallabha. 

Preman? nd was a Kathakar or the reciter of Puranas, 
by profession, a class which carried the torch of learning 
into the humble dwelling of the poor and the ignorant 
and did much to popularise the classical literature in the 
country, but which is now very much on the wane, both in 
Gujarat and in Bengal. Premanand's poems on domestic 
andPauranic subjects are known to all Gujaratis and have 
made a deep impression, specially those in which he 
depicts the sorrows and yearnings of Jashoda for the boy 
-Krishna, reminding one of the Vatsala poem of the 
Vaishnavas and the ballads of Uma, which are, or rather 
used to be, so popular in Bengal, instinct as they are with 
4 material and filial love- the only emotion which strikes, 
even in the religious sphere, as in the songs of Ramaprasad 
so full of a touching filial devotion, the tenderest chords 
in the Indian mind. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 305 

Samal Bhatt ( 1640-1730 ), the later contempo- 
rary of Premamanda, wrote narrative and didactic poems 
and he gives us interesting glimpses of contemporary 
society. His women are daring, educated, refined, and 
resourceful, and can sing, play, dance and ride. 

The 18th century was comparatively barren, the 
only exception being the Qarbds of Vallahha Bhatt, all 
addressed to the Goddess Amba, representing the mother 
in nature, and corresponding to the Bengali Kali. “ It 
is a pretty sight to see the women moving in a circle 
beating time with the rhythmic clap of their hands, and 
bending half down, singing these garbds late into the 
night at Surat, Baroda, Ahmedabad, and Bombay/’ 

In the first half of the 19th century the disciples of 
a Puritanic sect, led by Swami Sahjananda wrote 
learnedly on philosophical themes and helped in popu- 
larising them. The satirical pieces or Chdbhds ( whips ) 
of Bhoja Bhagat are also worthy of mention. But un- 
doubtedly the greatest name of this period is that of 
Dayaram ( 1757-1852 ), a finished fop and scholar, a de- 
vout Vaishnava and Gay Lothario, who enjoys an un- 
precedented popularity by reason of his love-lyrics, 
though he was a voluminous writer and his poems were 
by no means confined to one theme. His admirers have 
given these lyrics an allegorical, mysterious and religious 
interpretation, and say that he could only express his 
intense devotion and ecstatic bliss in terms of human and 
sensual love, just as the Persian poets, and the Vaishnava 
poets of Bengal did, but the explanation will not bear 
too close a scrutiny. Dayaram's strength is in his 
language which is chaste, classical and expressive, 



366 


Literary-Criticism 


There is another kind of indigenous ballad-literature 
peculiar to Kathiawad, called Duhd or couplets rich in 
colour, full of material prowess, and quivering with emo- 
tion. This floating literature has not been caught by the 
printer’s art. Another form of literature which is very 
popular among the peasantry consists of the aphorisms of 
Bhcidali corresponding to the Bdramdsa and Khandr 
vachan in Bengali, containing descriptions of and prognosti- 
cations as to the seasons and the weather, which are the 
result of long observation and experience and found to 
be almost invariably correct. 

The Gujarati literature of the second half of the 
12th century is dominated by western influence which 
revolutionised the indigenous literatures of India, and 
has not been touched upon in this volume. The book is 
nicely printed aad very handsomely bound, and covers 
295 pages. There is an excellent index. It is written in 
easy and graceful style, and should prove valuable hand- 
book for the student of the Gujarati literature. We hope 
the learned and able author will bring the history up to 
date in a second volume and the other vernacular litera- 
tures will be similarly treated by scholars in differert 
parts of India. 

— Ramdnand Chatterjee. 

11 KUSUMA AND KUMUDA f * Published by Nrisimhaprasad 
B, VibhSkar, Bar-at-law Pp. 39 0-6-0( 1916 ). ' 

This is the seventh publication of the Vichar Pushpa 
Mila started by Mr. Vibhakar. Kusuma and Kumuda are 
the two heroines of the late Mr. Tripathi’s wellknown 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 


367 


novel, Saraswatichandra. and two papers referring to 
several incidents in the delineation of their character and 
their fate are reprinted in this little book so that they 
might assume a more permanent form than that of jour- 
nalistic contributions, which they originally were. 

☆ 

*• N1VRATTI VINODA NUM AVLOKANA *’ By Khan 
Bahadur Jamshedji Ardeshir Dalai, M, a. : ll. b. Pp. 33 ( 1917). 

The book of which this is a review has already been 
noticed by us. The present review is, however, remarka- 
ble for the chaste language in which it is written, the 
more remarkable as it is written by a Parsi, who as a race 
have considerably declined in the art of writing correct 
Gujarati. This veteran educationalist, has taken up 
cudgels on behalf of writing easy, simple, unadulterated 
Gujarati. His views deserve; great consideration, and 
we trust his appeal will not fall on deaf ears. 

** JNANA GAMMAT nan GAVHARO Jl By Manekshah 
Dinshah Misfcri. Pp. 329. Price Rs. 1-12-0 ( 1918 ). 

This collection, called the 'Casket of Gems/ instruc- 
tive and amusing, was first printed as a magazine article. 
The literature of the world has been ransacked by Mr. 
Mistri for gathering these literary gems, and he has fur- 
ther tried to embellish them by his own notes; the book 
altogether makes instructive reading and would certainly 
help one in whiling away any spare quarter of an hour of 
a busy life, usefully. 



368 


Li terary-Criticism 


u TULANATMAKA NONDHA” By Bapubhai Jftdavarai 
Yaisnava, b. a. ( 1920 ). 

The book is nearly three years old. We generally, 
as a rule, notice current literature. Jt is a note compar- 
ing the literary value of Marathi, Gujarati and Hindi 
and as such is interesting. 

is 

“JNANAGAMMAT NAN GOWHARO.” Part II. by Manek 
shah D. Mistri. ( 1921 ) 

The first part of these “Gems of Knowledge and 
Amusement*' was noticed in these columns. The second 
part also keeps up the same standard of utility and 
pleasure in the selection of excerpts from the different 
literatures of the world. The book would be found 
most useful for the purpose of whiling away an idle 
quarter of an hour. 

☆ 

“GUJARATI SHAILITATHA LEKHANA-PADDEATX ”s 
B y Shapurji Kavasji Hodivala, B. A. Pp. 204. ( 1922 ). 

The Parsi Lekhaka Mandal has got the good of 
Gujarati Literature sincerely at heart and the effort made 
in this valuable brochure affords a proof positive of it. 
The style and mode of writing Gujarati presents various 
features. 

☆ 

**NAVA YALLARI” : By Nagardas I. Patel Pp. 272. Price Rs. 
2-&-G ( 1923 }. 

In a covering letter the author calls his book "a 
publication regarding Gujarati poetical ornaments”. He 
means, it is a book dealing with “figures of speech” in 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


369 


The book is the reprint of the contributions made by 
Mr. Kantawala to it, and it contains a critical preface 
from the pen of Mr, Chhotalal Narbheram Bhatt, a veteran 
of the old School. The ordinary reader will rest content 
with the idea that much has to be said on both the sides, 

☆ 

“SAHITYA SEYA OF KAVI NARMADASHANKAR”— 
by C. K. Patel. (1925) 

This is a ;prize~essay passed by the late Sahitya 
Parishad held at Surat. The writer is a school-master 
and he has according to his ability reviewed the services 
of the late well-known Kavi Narmadashankar to the 
literature of Gujarat. We have read this little essay^with 
great pleasure and have found in it efforts made ;by the 
writer to deal fairly with and view both sides of the 
Kavi’s work. 

“ JAINA GURJAR POETS— PART I ” by Mohanlal Dali- 
chand Des&i, b. A. y ll, b. Pp. 820-656. Price Rs. 5-0-0 (1926). 

This is a treasure-house of old poems written by 
Jaina poets in Gujarati between the 13th and 17th cen- 
turies of the Vikrama Era. The collection is the result 
of Mr. Desai’s persistance and assiduity as he has left 
hardly a single Jaina Bhandar unexplored, wherever and 
whenever he could help it. His opinion is that prior to 
the IHth century the literature of Gujarat was written 
in Apabramsha ( very old Gujarati ) and hence he has 
taken that century as the starting point for his collection. 

A preface of staggering volume consisting of 320 
pages, containing a short history of Old Gujarati, forms an 
24 



370 


Literary-Criticism 


important part of this book. If the author calls this a 
short history we wonder what the size of his preface 
would have been, had it been a full one. He passes in 
rapid review the different stages of the development of 
the language from Sanskrit to Prakrit, thence to Shaurseni 
and Paishachi, Apabramsha, Old Gujarati to its present 
state. 

He asserts the principle that the prior or older forms 
of the language were not dying or becoming dead, but 
that they were developing and presenting an altered ex- 
terior. The preface is replete with quotations from very 
old writers, in support of the facts stated by the writer 
who is at pains to show that so far as the language or 
vehicle for expression was concerned there was no diffe- 
rence or distinction between the writings of Jaina and 
non- Jaina (Brahmin) writers in those far off days, just as 
there is none now. We congratulate Mr. Desai on his 
Magnum Opus and await the second part with great 
interest. 

☆ 

“GADYA NAVANITA”-by Visvanath Maganlal Bhatt, b. a. 
Pp. 628 Price Rs. 2-8-0 (1927), 

As its name, The Cream of Prose, implies, the book is 
a collection of extracts from the prose writings of several 
representative Gujarati authors. The selection of the 
passages is made with discrimination and care and is 
sufficient to give an idea as to the present state of its 
subject-matter. The Appendices at the end containing 
commentaries on the passages selected and information 
about their authors, exhibit signs of wide reading, assidu- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


371 


ity and anxiety to place all available information at the 
disposal of the student. 

☆ 

“ PBABHATA NA RANGA ’'-by Yijayarai Kalyanrai 
Vaidya, B. a. (1928). 

Before his advent in the field of the literature of 
criticism, as the editor of the Kaumudi , Mr. Vijayarai 
had done a lot of spade work, The twenty collections 
from his pen printed in this handsome volume, cover a 
period of eight years' work and consist of dialogues, 
stories and humorous sketches. They are all readable 
articles* some of them thought-provoking. We are so 
glad that his writings have now been thus brought toge- 
ther in one place. 

☆ 

“ A REVIEW OF NALAKHYANA ” by S’antilal Sarabhai 
Oza M. A. (1928). 

Premanand's Nalakhyana is a gem in the verse liter- 
ature of Gujarat. This detailed review of the poem 
brings out its good parts in very great relief. 

“1 KAVITA AND SAHXT YA Vol. III” by SirRamanbhai M. 

Nilk&nth. 

2 AROGYA S’ASTRA by Dr. ;Hariprasad V. Desai. 

3 THE FOLK LORE OF GUJARAT : by F. B. 

4 “SHRI HARI LILA SHODASHA KALA ” by AmbSlSl 

Bulakhiram Jani. B. A. 

5 “HARISHCHANDRAKHYAN” by Diwan Bahadur 

Keshavlal H, Dhruva, 



372 


Literary-Criticism 


6 “HISTORY OF BENGALI LITERATURE” by Maba- 

Shankar Indraji Dave. 

7 “CONSERVATISM” by Champaklal Lalbhai Mehta. 
B. A., LL. B. 

8 “PAURANIK KATHA KOSHA” by Dahjabhai 

Pitambardas Derasari. Bar-at-law. 

These eight books on different subject are published 
by the Gujarat Vernacular Society of Ahmedabad, out of 
the interest of the .various funds entrusted to its care. 
Nos. 1 and 3 are reprints of useful books. 

Nos. 4 and 5 are reprints of poems written by old 
Gujarati poets, with appropriate notes and corrected text. 
The editing is the result of efforts of writers who have 
made the study of old Gujarati poets their own. 

No. 2 is an independent work from the pen of one 
who knows by practical experience what the cleansing of 
a dirty and filthy town as well of a deceased body 
means. 

No. 6 is a very well-written history of the Bengali 
literature. How well the author has done his work can 
be seen from the account he has given of Michael Madhu- 
sudan Dutt; how in a small compass he has brought 
out all the salient features of that brilliant but unhappy 
star of modern Bengali literature. 

No. 7 is a translation of Lord Hugh Cecil's book 
of the same name. No. 8 furnishes a longfelt want of 
our literature and is written in the usual lucid style of 
the author. They are all moderately priced. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


878 


“GUJARATI SAHITYA PARICHAYA” :-By Manjulal R. 
Majmudar, M. A., LL. B, Pp. 319. As. 0-14-0 ( 1933 ) 

The publisher has planned “An Introduction to 
Gujarati Literature Series” and this is the second volume. 
Mr. Majmudar who is entrusted with the work is well- 
fitted for the task because of his wide reading and study 
of Gujarati literature, old and new. 

The present volume contains selections from the 
prose and poetical writings of almost every known 
writer ; it also gives short biographical notices of the 
writers with appropriate observations and explanatory 
notes : so that all that a reader or student wants is 
here. The work should prove popular. 

☆ 

“JAG-AT KADAMBARIO MAN SAKASWATI CHANDRA 
NUN STHANA” :-By Nanalfil Dalpatrfim Kavi ? M, A. Pp. 61. 
Price Re. 1-4-0. ( 1933 ) 

‘‘Saraswatichandra” is a socio-political novel, spread 
out into four volumes, ponderous and heavy. It has in 
spite of it, maintained its premier place in Gujarati 
literature ever since it was written nearly half a century 
ago. It is a mosaic of ideas, ideals, precepts, principles, 
facts and dreams. The well-known poet Nanalal Kavi, 
conceived about twenty-five years ago the idea of 
writing a critique of it, and the book under notice is 
that critique or review. 

It is an attempt to assign the particular production 
of the late Mr. G. M. Tripathi, the author of this novel, 
its proper place in the literature of the world, and with 
that view Mr. Nanalal has passed under his able review 



374 


Literary-Criticism 


the best works of fiction in the languages of the world, 
English, French, German, Spanish, American, Sanskrit, 
Arabic and others. As a bird's eye view of all these 
literatures, it presents a picture till now not procurable 
in our literature and as such is a unique production. 

<< Saraswatichandra ,> is as yet untranslated into any 
other language excepting a couple of Indian vernaculars. 
Therefore, students of the literatures of foreign countries 
are not expected to know its merits and demerits, or its 
existance even ; consequently they cannot assign it its 
proper place in any world-wide literature. The only 
alternative left in consequence to people like us, at the 
other end was to study world literature ourselves and 
try to assign it a niche; whether the niche assigned is the 
proper one or is acceptable to the savants of the 
world, we have no means of knowing or ascertaining. 
That being so, we must follow our own view-point and 
till dislodged, hold on to it. The book betrays a deep 
and wide study of the subject and a very welcome 
presentation thereof. 

☆ 

“ALANJKARA PRAVESHIKA* :-By Prof. Bolarrai Rangii- 
das Mankad* M. A. ( 1935 ) 

This is a hand-book for beginners in University 
courses, and the difficult subject of Alankara is treated in 
such a way as to be really helpful to them. 

☆ 

"SANKSHIPTA SAMIKSHA” :-By H. M* Desai. ( 193G ). 

A brief literary appreciation of Gandhiji, Kalapi, 
Shelley and Wordswoth both in Gujarati and English; 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 375 


This is how the writer describes his book. There is a 
background both of study and thought to the work. 

☆ 

“SAHITYA PATHAYAH”:By Jhinabhi R. Desai. 

( Sneharashmi ) ( 1936 ) 

This is the first part of a series planned by two 
practical educationists to give learners in schools an 
idea of the present state of Gujarati literature. It 
contains forty lessons culled from the writings of mostly 
young writers, male and female, both in prose and verse. 
Each lesson has a head-note explanatory and informative 
and thus the path of the teacher and the taught is made 
easy. The get-up is nice and the price low enough for 
a work of this category. It will for these reasons find 
its way. 

☆ 

“MUSALMANO ANE GURJAR SAHITYA” by “Nashsd.” 

The present generation of the Musalmans of Gujarat 
feel that they are backward in education and in con- 
sequence unable to do what they should dof or their 
mothertongue-the Gujarati language. A band of young 
men therefore have girded up their loins to do the right 
thing and the present compilation sets out the services 
rendered by about eighty-four Muslim writers; a list of 
their books is given also. This should be considered 
encouraging '. enough. 

“ B ADHEK ASHAHt BANAVATO ” by Sahitya Priya,” 

Banavato ( inventions ) of Badheka; this is what the 
title of this small pamphlet means. Mr. Badheka is a 



376 


Li terary-Critieism 


well-known student of Mathematics. Literature was 
never his forte. He has all the same for the last four or 
five years poured out a stream of verses belonging 
according to him to works of poets of old Gujarat of the 
15th century. He claims to have handled the original 
Mss. containing the verses published by him or to have 
collected them from the mouths ot itinerant singers who 
have kept them alive orally. Mitho, Depal, Mehraman, 
Genial, are some of such poets. 

The writer of this pamphlet makes out with facts, 
figures and authorities that the verses published by 
Mr. Badheka are not the genuine productions of those 
poets but his own inventions. For instance, the Gita 
Vartak of Mitha is known to be a translation of the 
Hindi version of the Gita of Chidghananand Giri called 
the Gita-Gudharthadipika. 

Depal, for instance again divides the Gujarati of 
that period into two branches ‘‘Sanskrit Gurjari” ( like 
the one found in Narasimh Mehta’s poems, and Prakrit 
Gurjari that written by Jainas. This view is not correct 
and is against the accepted opinion of scholars that no 
such division existed. Thus it would be seen that it is a 
very thought-provoking pamphlet and calls for an effec- 
tive and convincing reply from Mr. Badheka, 

☆ 

" SHAKOTTALA KASA-DARSHANA ” by Batubhai Lai- 
bhai Umarwadia, B. A,, LL. B, ( 1926 ). 

This is a play in three acts and modernises the 
incidents connected with Shakuntala's life, as given in 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


377 


the Mahabharat and in Kalidas’s immortal play. Human 
nature and emotions, however, remain the same lor all 
time, and it is the author’s claim that maidens with 
Shakuntala’s sentiments and feelings can be found even 
to day in Indian society. He had accordingly set about 
to accomplish that object by adopting the conditions of 
modem life to those depicted by Kalidas. He has 
analysed the two Shakuntalas; the one described in the 
Mahabharata and the other by Kalidas and has come to 
the conclusion that the Mahabharata maiden was more 
self-respecting and independent in nature than the limp 
and collapsible one depicted by Kalidas. 

Besides this, he has translated some of the verses 
of Kalidas in his own original way, and the meaning he 
reads in them is indeed significant ; e. g., the andglircitam 
pushpam sloka is very well translated and explained. 
Altogether it is a work which provokes thought and 
coming as it does after a long interval of the author’s 
powerful pen, it deserves a sincere welcome. 

☆ 

“GUJARATI SAHITYA : ITS MANANA AND YJVE- 
CHANA” By Ramachaudra Damodara Shukla, M. A., LL. B (1938). 

The title of this collection of articles published in 
different publications between 1924 and 1936 fully justi- 
fies itself, as the contents disclose both cogitation and 
criticism of the present Gujarati Literature. The strong 
point of the writer is distinctly an intense and deep study 
of the literature, made from several view-points and as 
such commendable. 



378 


Literary- Criticism 


The views however formed in 1924 or 1926 should 
not be regarded as unchangeable but open to 
revision. For instance. Milestones and Further Mile- 
stones in Gujarati Literature were never meant to be 
works of criticism ; they were to show to the non- 
Gujarati knowing readers certain outstanding features of 
old and new Gujarati literature and therefore called 
.'Milestones/ They were written at the desire of an 
Englishman who wanted to know what sort of literature 
Gujarati had got. Those humble efforts were not meant 
to be pretentious works of criticism. 

All the fourteen articles furnish a very intelligent 
guide to the works of those authors who are discussed 
there. 

“ NAVALA GB ANTE A V ALL ” edited by Narahari D. 
Parikh, b. a., LL. B, (1937). 

Navalram was a great writer and the pioneer review- 
er of Gujarati Literature. His writings were published 
in four volumes, which are now unobtainable in the 
market. Not all his writings were of abiding interest, 
though a great many are. Mr, Narahari, has with able 
judgment and exercise of great discrimination selected 
those which are likely to be of use in future and which at 
least till now are considered landmarks in the several 
branches of Gujarati Literature handled by that distin- 
guished writer. The collection therefore, is valuable as 
it provides in a handy volume the best of Navalram’s 
work. 



WIT & HUMOUR. 
4 




Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


381 


« SUKAVI SAMITI. ” by C, D. Degai. (1914). 

This book purports to be a satirical representation of 
those poetasters who think that poets are made and not 
bom. The humour is too latent for an ordinary reader to 
find out, follow or understand. 

“ THE GUJARATI PENNY SERIES. Suman VI. by H. 
D. Dave. (1915). 

A short story, full of laughter, is contained in this 
book. On pressing it, the result is nothing, it is like 
pressing foam, 

☆ 

-HASYA MAnDIR. ”by the Hon. R. B, Ramanbhai M. 
Nilkantha. b. a. ll. b. (1915) 

From early times Gujarati literature is lacking in 
wit and humour, and amongst recent writers no one has 
even nearly approached the Hon’ble Mr. Ramanbhai in 
this branch of letters. His several works and contribu- 
tions to the Magazines on numerous subjects have made 
him one of the acknowledged leaders in this kind of writ- 
ing, and one is agreeably surprised to find that he has 
been able to draw out her latent talent and pursuade Mrs. 
Ramanbhai also to enter the field with him and share its 
honours. 

Mr. Ramanbhai is by instinct fitted for this sort of 
work. His genius and sense of humour resemble most of 
Dickens. One can very well imagine that he could have 
produced a set of Pickwick Papers even without haying 
read them. Parsis have essayed to be humourous too, 



382 


Wit and Humour 


but Mr. Ramanbhai's work is not at ail coarse or heavy 
and more gentle, subtle, original, and valuable than 
theirs. 

The volume under notice consists of two parts, one 
being a very detailed exposition of Hasya Rasa, for 
which he has drawn upon various sources, English and 
Gujarati; the other being a collection of several 
papers contributed by Mr. and Mrs. Ramanbhai to several 
periodicals. 

The latter part is naturally brimming over with 
genuine fun, and the several scenes depicted in certain 
contributions lend themselves admirably to acting, and 
when acted make the audience burst out into side 
splitting laughter. From start to finish the reader of this 
part never comes across a dull passage, and we congra- 
tulate the talented couple on their having enriched this 
part of literature-admittedly poor-with a really valuable 
and our enjoyable work. 

* 

« HASYA KATHA MANJARI" ; Part I : Edited by 
Jivanlal Amargi Mehta. Pp. 217 Price Rs. 2-0-0 (1922) # 

Gujarati Language does not boast of a large volume 
of humorous literature. Whatever little it possesses, is 
due in a large measure to Parsi writers, and even in that 
community, the number of such writers, can be counted 
on one's fingers. Amongst Hindus, there is no towering 
personality excepting R. B. Ramanbhai, and in this 
collection therefore, would be found humorous and witty 
pieces of various shades as his work is excluded. Whatr 
ever the quality, the publisher has certainly done well in 



Development o£ Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


383 


collecting such scattered writings and bringing them out 
in book-form so that they may be found handy for those 
who feel inclined to extract delight even from an ema- 
tiated kind of humour. 

☆ 

“ HASYA TABANGA by V. S. Kavi. Pp. 200 Price 
Bs. 2-0-0 (1924). 

The price of this book is out of all proportion to its 
size and the collection of humorous stories containd in it. 
It is a collection of ordinary stories which excite laughter 
but there is very little of keen or subtle humour in them, 
such as is found in those of Rao Bahadur Ramanbhai or 
Dhansukhalal Mehta. Otherwise it is useful as a light 
story-book to while away idle moments, 

☆ 

“ HASYA HATHA MANJABI, Part II ” : by Dhansukhlal 
K. Mehta Pp. 246. Price Bs. z-0-0. (1924). 

This compilation in book-form of the different numer- 
ous Sketches and Skits, published by Mr. Mehta in 
magazines and periodicals keeps up his reputation as a 
humourous contributor to Gujarati literature, and we 
welcome their appearance in a collected form. 

“ ATTLTA JOSHI NO AKHADO 11 : By Jagjivandas 
Trikamji Kothari B. a., ll. b. Pp 279. Price Bs. 2-8-0. (1926). 

This is a collection of Mr. Kothari's humorous articles 
and skits contributed by him to various periodicals under 

the assumed name of ‘ Aulia Joshi ' ( the simple-minded 
astrologer ). 

He has an established place amongst the very 
thin ranks of humorous writers in Gujarat and his 



384 


Wit and Humour 


contributions are gobbled up with avidity by the middle- 
class reader, with whom he has become very popular, as 
his skits touch their everyday life in their various phases- 
literary, religious, social and domestic. He hits out 
boldly and his close study of our various institutions 
gives a spiciness to his statements, which in spite of 
their concealed sarcasm are uniformly relished. 

ft 

ff NINE NEW STORIES 99 : By J. D. Khandhadia. Pp. 171 
Price Re, 1-8-0 (1928). 

A storehouse of humour, depicting the present life of 
half-baked youthful couples. It is bound to afford amuse- 
ment to the reader. 

☆ 

1. “ BUDDHI NON BAZAR ”, 2. *• LOHANA VIRO Nl 
VATO ” : By Jadurai D, Khandhada. Pp # 142 : 92. Price Re. 1-0-0 : 
1-4-0. (1928). 

The title of the first book : ‘the Market of Intelligence 1 
is an ironical one. The book contains fourteen stories, 
the subjects of which are treated in a light humourous way. 

The second book contains a few stories of the strength 
and venturesomeness shown by Lohanas-the fellow caste- 
men of the author - and it throws fresh light on the sub- 
ject of their claim to be descended from Raghuvamsi 
K^atriyas. A supplement gives the history of the Indian 
Army and the pay and prospects of those who join its 
ranks. We think it is the first attempt of its kind in 
Gujarati. 

4 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


385 


(1) *AKBAR BIEBALNOYINODI V ART A SAN G-RAH A. n 

(2) “RAJYARATNA BIEBAL NO HASYA BHANDAR ” 
by Pestanji Jamsheclji Satha. (1929). 

Birbars sallies of wit and tales of humour furnish a 
literature of their own in Northern India. From there 
they have travelled down to our Province, and this collec- 
tion of such sallies and humorous stories of that well-known 
Pandit of Akbar’s Court besides testifying to the immense 
trouble taken over it by Mr. Satha furnishes one more 
illustration of the facile way in which he writes Gujarati, 
though a Parsi by birth. 

The prefaces to the two books furnish all available 
information about Akbar and the Nine Gems of his Court. 
The second volume is an illustrated one. We congratu- 
late the writer on the good work he has done at this age. 

☆ 

** PoYANA ; By Jayendrarao B. Durkal, M. A. Pp. 240 
Price Rs. 2-0-0. (1929). 

The title of the book means * water-lilies. ' In the 
author's own words it is “ a collection of essays on Life and 
Letters The essays range over a wide area and embrace 
such widely unconnected subjects as the sun, the Matra 
in literature, factories for husking rice and mosquito-nets- 
all subjects are placed, however, in their appropriate sur- 
roundings aided by philosophical reflections or humorous 
touches, serious thought, or close and intimate observation 
as required by the situation. 

Prof. Durkal has written two or three other books 
before this; but we think, that this is his best effort at 

a 5 



386 


Wit and Humour 


popularising his way of thinking and looking at things 
in general. 

☆ 

“ BATR1S LAKKHANA” :~by JadurSi B. Khandhadia 
Pp. 214. Price Rs. 2. (1985). 

Mr. Khandhadia is known from the very beginning as 
an enjoyable writer of light and humorous stories in 
Gujarati Literature. He has been awarded a prize for 
that purpose also. The present collection, humorously 
called Batris Lakkhana (qualifications) comprises sixteen 
witty writings which though said to be ‘useful* are full of 
humour and inspire laughter. One would surely like to 
read them to while away one’s leisure moments. 

☆ 

“AME BADHAN” — by Jyotindra H. Dave M. A. and Dhan- 
khlftl K*. Mehta (1935). 

The inhabitants of Surat are said to be the jolliest in 
the whole of Gujarat, and they are very pleasure-loving 
also. Two such young men of Surat have combined 
their inborn genius for depicting humour, which is always 
found by those who have the proper “bump” lying con- 
cealed in the everyday incidents in the life of a Surati, 
It is rare to find a humorous work jointly written because 
co-operation is difficult in this direction. So far as is 
known, only one such book has been written before; the 
“Hasya Mandir ,f by the late Sir Ramanbhai Nilkantha. 

In the present substantial volume of four hundred 
pages the authors have treated from first-hand knowledge 
every outstanding event in the life of a “ Surat-born and 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1933 38T 

bred 1 * child from birth to marriage, with the brush of a 
humorous caricaturist, who has not failed to notice even* 
the most trifling item in the domestic life of Surat Hindu 
Society. 

The Surati’s love for kite-flying, the barber’s daily 
visit, the tailor’s adventures in cutting and sewing, the 
washerman's duties and a hundred other daily rounds oi 
visits of artisans and others are set down with a faithful- 
ness which only one living in Surat can appreciate. 
These phases of life are however disappearing slowly but 
steadily under the pressure of our new life and indeed it 
was a very happy idea of the authors to try to preserve 
them for the generation to come, in book-form. 

We welcome these "Cameos” from every point of 
view; the reader would not fail to be amused even if he 
takes up any chapter out of the twenty-seven at random 
and reads it. The mode of teaching by the orthodox 
school-master or the confusion at the time of a Surati's 
wedding, the search for a proper bride, these are some of 
the chapters which can be sampled with advantage, 

☆ 

* NAKO NAGARIO ”by “ Auliya Josbi. Pp. ” 392. Price Rs. 
2-8-0 (1936). 

Nako Nagario is an old man belonging to the old 
generation of the Banias of Kathiawad. He is made to 
live in the present generation when girls ride cycles and 
people travel in motor cars and aeroplanes. The strange- 
ness of this new life, which he somehow or other finds 
puzzling and inexplicable, is the background against 



388 


Wit and Humour 


which the writer, who is at home in drawing humorous 
pictures, has drawn this present picture. 

All the twenty-two chapters which depict the 
different situations in which Nako finds himself, raise 
genuine laughter. The ordinary reader who looks for 
humour on the surface and is not very much concerned 
with its subtlety or depth, is sure to appreciate the 
work and the picture provided in the work. 



religion-hindu. 




Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 391 

“ (1) SADGUNI BALAKO (2) YOGA YASISPHA RAMA- 
YANA (1909). 

The publication of both these books is due to the 
unceasing endeavours of Bhikshu Akhandananda who is 
the life and soul of the Society for the Promotion of Cheap 
Reading. We have in a former issue already noticed the 
good and useful work done by the Society, .which began 
to publish standard Gujarati works at almost nominal 
prices. It has not yet been able to do much as, we think 
want of funds and absence of volunteer workers, hampers 
its efforts. But it has already succeeded in creating in 
the masses a taste for reading.- The exceedingly cheap 
price, e. g., 2 annas at which it has been able to bring 
out the Bhagvadgita, could not but make its influence felt 
in poor homes with a taste for reading. The above two 
are further successful efforts in the same field. 

PUSHTI MABGIYA SIDDHANTA '• Part I by :~Raa- 
chhocldas Yrindavandas Patwfiri. B. A., LL. B ( 1910. ) 

The work under review evinces a deep study of this, 
subject by Mr. Patwari, who is actuated by a sincere 
desire to put right the public with respect to its prevailing 
ideas about Valsnavism concentrated in Krishna- 
worship, i. e„ the worship of Kriina as the Creator, 
Destroyer and the Maintainer of the world. From his 
early days, the bent of the author's mind has lain this 
way, and it has now culminated in this compilation, in 
the preparation of which he has ransacked every possible 
work bearing on the subject: the Vedas, the Upanishads, 
the Puranas, the Bhagavat, ths Gita and the books written 



392 


Religion-Hindu 


even by Daygnanda Sarasvati, have furnished materials 
to support the author's arguments, which all are advanced 
with a view to show that Krishna and Parabrahma are 
one and the same. 

It would require more space than available here to 
examine the soundness of the points tried to be made from 
the Upanishadas: for instance it would have to be seen 
whether the works themselves belong to an undisputed 
age, when were they written, whether the passages 
quoted, torn from the context, are capable of bearing the 
interpretation put on them or not, whether the passages 
are genuine or interpolated and many other things. 
Opportunity is taken by Mr. Patwari to refute the point 
of view with which Babu Bankim Chandra Chatteiji 
( mis-called Pal ) has written his * Krishna Charitra*, who 

has tried to paint Krishna as an ideal human being* 
shorn of his Divine origin. 

From start to finish the book reads like a piece of 
special pleading: that being the avowed purpose with 
which it is written. Being absorbed in the one thousand 
and one pursuits of the Minister of a progressive State 
like Palanpur, it is no small credit to Mr. Patwari to have 

triumphed over all such calls on his time, and produced 
such a studious work. 

☆ 

1. “NAVA YUGA NI VATO :-By A. S. Padhiar”. 

2. “LAGHU LEKHA SAMGRAHA Part I by M. N. Deoshi. 

3. “SAMSABA MAN SUKHA KYAN CHHE ? ” by 
V. M. Shah, Published by the Society for the Promotion of 
Cheap Literature. (1911 ) 

We have received a bundle of these three handsomely 
cloth-bound . volumes with great pleasure. The 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 393 


binding is so done as to give them all an appearance 
of holy or sacred books, like the Gita or Bhagavata. The 
following three are useful; (1) gives short readable stories, 
in Mr. Padhiar's usual and attractive style; (2) is 
prepared from certain writings of Mrs. Annie Beasant, on 
matters ethical, and (3) is a sort of a general essay on 
how to get happiness in the world* 

These books are no doubt useful in their own way 
but the Secretary will have to keep his weather-eye open 
to see that as time passes, no worthless publications 
are attracted to the scheme but that it concerns itself 
with really sound and good books written by well-known 
writers and not by men of yesterday merely. 

☆ 

1. “ JAGAVIKHYATA PURUSHO :-Part II Pp. 298. 
Price As. 0-10-0. 

2. “ THE SHANTI PABVA ’VPp. 836. Price Rs. 2-8~& 
( 1914 ) 

The first work contains the lives of Carlyle, Dr* John- 
son and Charles Bradlaugh. They are translations from 
Marathi. 

The second is part of an enterprising scheme, to 
supply the whole of the Mahabharata in Gujarati at 
Rs. 10-0-0, a price at which it has never been offered 
before. Looking to the success which has till now met 
the efforts of the Society to cheapen literature, we think 
this effort is bound to result favourably. 

☆ 

44 SWAMI V17EKAJSTANDA-PART II ” translated by 
B.H.Parekfa, (1915). . 



394 


Religioa-Hindu 


This book contains the second part of the Sadupa- 
desa of the late Swamiji. Written originally in Bengali 
by one who was a follower of Vivekananda, it has been 
found possible by the translator to keep up the interest of 
the narrative in Gujarati. The object of the writer has 
been to present a collection of the several “ good pieces 
of advice ” given by the Swami during the course of 
numerous conversations and interviews with him and 
others, and he has been eminently successful in doing so. 

The side-lights thrown on the life of the Swami 
through the medium of this collection are very interesting 
and inspiring, and one should not miss when an opportu- 
nity offeres itself, to profit by them. 

* 

** SRI KABiR KRIS'NA GITA” by Muster Harikisandas 
Bbuichand. ( 1915 ) 

Following his predecessors in the foundation of reli- 
gious creeds, Kabir too has written a Gita, called the 
Kabir Krishna Gita . This book contains that instructive 
work, in addition to many of his bhajans which have 
attained an All-India recognition. They are all in Hindi 
of course, and in this book they are printed in Devanagari 
characters. The most readable part of the book is at the 
end where in a vigorous note, the writer has refuted the 
accusations brought by Christians, Arya Sumajists and 
others against Kabir. 

“SRI GITA SINDH O TARAGAVALI” Swami S'hri Atma~ 

uand Saraswati of Nandod. Pp* 160. Price As. 8l-( 1918 ). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


395 


In this little book the Swamijisets to himself the ques- 
tion as to why Arjuna fought after once declining to do so* 
on the held of Kurukse'tra. He tries to answer it by re- 
ference to the various verses of the Gita, and thinks he 
has solved it correctly, by saying that he did so because 
it was his duty to do so. 

☆ 

«• HINDUSTANA NA DEVO ”-by Bao Bahadur 
Kamalashanker P. Trivcai B. A. { 1918 ), 

Plow ridiculous does it look tor one to say that this 
book treating of the ‘ Gods of India ' is a translation of a 
book written by a foreigner, Osborne Martin and that too, 
at the hands of a Brahmin scholar, who could, from his 
intimate knowledge of the subject have given us the same 
information in original, possibly for the same remunera- 
tion. A cognate subject has been treated in the original 
by an equally well-known Brahmin scholar, Prof. Dhruva, 
for H. H/s State. 

Look at that book and look at this translation and 
see whether there could be any comparison between the 
two. Between the first hand information given by a 
Brahmin scholar of the Hindu gods, and second or third 
hand information furnished from the translation of a 
foreigner's book, there is a world of difference; and we do 
hope that in making selection of subjects and writers in 
future, the State Department would keep in view the fact 
what the Literature of Gujarat at present wants, is not 
inane, lifeless translations, which fall fiat on the reader 
or pass info oblivion soon after publication, but living 
original work and the amount placed at its disposal is 



396 


Keligion-Hindu 


princely. This translation, it is needless to say, is well 
done, 

“HINDU DHARMA NI BALAPOTHI *\-by Prof. 
Anandasankar B. Dhruva. M. A., LL. B. ( 1918 ) 

The Government of H. H. the Gaekwad is to be doubly 
congratulated for the selection of the subject and for the 
selection of its expounder. The book is a ‘Primer of 
Hindu Religion', intended for juveniles, a subject of vital 
necessity and interest at all times; and the expounder is 
Prof. Dhruva, than whom no other Gujarati could have 
done better justice to the subject. 

By a skilful arrangement he takes the young student 
from the very primary and simple elements of our religion 
to its highly developed form Vedanta, by such easy stages 
and in such an interesting way that one hardly feels that 
one is slowly gliding into one stage from another. Hindu 
religion in this book is presented by him in its 
conservative or orthodox aspect; as in daily life he 
has refrained from assuming the necktie and the collar, 
so in his exposition to; be diverted in any way by the 
influence of modem times and has avoided the fashion 
he has refused of the West. 

Being fully saturated with his subject, and being in 
addition a scholar with a highly developed genius for 
assimilation he has been successful in writing a book, 
which though avoiding all the pitfalls of a crude writer,, 
while preserving intact the corpus of his subject, explains 
the alleged and obvious impossibilities of several Hindu 
beliefs in a very convincing manner. 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-t938 


397 


The book requires* to be read and studied to fully ap- 
preciate the worth of the writer and his ability to harmo- 
nise things. In our opinion, Prof. Dhruva has greatly 
added to his reputation for sobriety of thought, originality 
of thinking, and ability to say what he has got to say in 
a very attractive way, by this book. 

*' THE BULBS OF ARYASAMAJ ’’-Published by Mayaram 
> Bandar ji [1907] 

With the aid of Sanskrit passages taken from the 
Vedas, the ten rules of the Samaj are set out for general 
information in this little book. The style is both florid 
and unattractive. 

☆ 

“ SHRI bhagavad GITA-RAHASYA or karmayoga 
SHASTRA Translated by Uttamlai K. Trivedi B. A., LL. B. 
Pp. 865 Price Rs.3~[1915]. 

This book is a translation into Gujarati of Mr. 
Tilak's wellknown Marathi Commentary on the Gita* 
The merits of the original have been discussed already 
in this journal, The translation is in every way worthy 
of the original. No one who is not thoroughly imbued 
with the spirit of the original and in addition possesses a 
sound knowledge of the different systems of philosophy, 
Indian and non-Indian, their phraseology, terminology, 
and ideas can do justice to a masterly work like Tilak’s 
in translating it into another language. 

Mr. Uttamlai has succeeded in surmounting all diffi- 
culties in giving to the Gujarati reading public a sound 
and true version of Tilak’s Magnum Opus, It is already 



398 


Eeligion-Hindu 


being read with interest and sought after with avidity. 
The book will be an abiding landmark in the history of 
philosophy as found in Gujarati literature. 

☆ 

4 PUSHTi MAEGA NO ITIHASA * -By the late Thakkar 
Xiladhar Hari. Pp. 164. Price As, 12|-<1919,« 

The first edition of this little book was published 
about thirty years ago, It contains precious little history 
of the creed of the Vallabhacharyas and that too from 
a popular point ot view. 

But its chief utility, when it was first published lay 
in the fact of its having boldly and mercilessly exposed 
the evil paths into which these Vallabhach&rya 
Maharajas had been leading their lady-worshippers under 
the guise of religion. 

It required some courage to do so then, as those who 
were handled in this way, wielded great social 
powers. The book can still be regarded as an eye-opener 
for those who are even now blindly giving their all to 
their so-called religious preceptors. 

“ PUSHTI MAEGIYA 81DDHANTA 15 Part II : by Ran- 
ehhoddas Yrindavandas Patwari; B. a., ll. b. (1920) 

This book is supposed to be a reply to Bankim Babu’s 
Kri^na Charitra, by one who is steeped wholly in the un- 
reasoning and blind faith of a Pusti Marglya, It consists 
of a string of quotations from several religious books, 
and dialogues, all of a partisan nature, which may carry 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 399* 

conviction to those pre-disposed to it, but not to those 
who would care to examine both sides of a question, 

,f S’RI KAMAGITA ” Translated by A. K. Bhatt (1921) 

Just as the Gita forms a part of the Mahabharata and 
is cast in the form of a dialogue between 6ri Krisna and 
Aijuna, Rama Gita is a part of the Ramayana and is a 
dialogue between $ri Krisna and Hanuman. It has got 
eighteen chapters also, and is taken up with Vedanta and 
other metaphysical subjects. 

It is not so well-known as the Krisna Gita, and hence 
very few translations of it exist in Gujarati, The present 
book consists both of the Sanskrit text, and its Gujarati 
version, which is rendered with intelligence and ability. 

* 

“ S’AIVA DHABMA NO SANKSTPTA ITIHASA " : by 
Durgasliankar Kevalram S’astri. Pp. 154 Price 1-0-0. (1921) 

This book gives in a short compass the history of one 
of the most widely observed cults in India from the 
earliest times. It also gives its present condition in 
different parts of the country. It is a very readable^ 
and instructive little volume. 

☆ 

" HINDU DHARMA Nl PATHMALA ” ; By Ckunil&l 
Muljibhai Tripathi. Pp. 414. Price Rs. 3-&-0 (1921) 

It requires great enterprise and financial risk to get 
turned into Gujarati, the substantial and solid Hindi work 
of Lala Baijanath, the late Judge of Agra, and a very well- 
known Hindi write ; and expounder of Hindu religion, as 



400 


Religion-Hmuii 


it is very costly. Even when his book was published in 
Hindi, it became known all throughout India, for its in- 
trinsic merit and valuable and voluminous information. 

It has now been made available to Gujarati readers 
and is a storehouse of instruction, guidance and religious 
knowledge. We are afraid, its high price would deter it 
from being as popular as it should be. 

Hz 

“BHAKTI NO BHOMIYO” ; By Nichhabhai Fakirbhai 
Pp. 183. Price Re. 1-4-0. (1922) 

The title of this book means a guide to Bhakti ” 
( devotion ) and the contents bear out the description. 
Prayers in prose and verse, with dissertations on the sub- 
ject-matter of the book make it a useful “guide”. 

$ 

“ S’RI RAMAYANA " Vola. I and XI : By the late S'astri 
JMaganlai S'arma. Pp. 13*52. Price Rs. 6 (1921). 

A readable translation, good printing, nice get up, 
with interesting introductions on various topics connected 
with the Ramayana are some of the good points of this 
addition to the religious literature of Gujarati. It was 
looked forward to with some expectation and we are so 
glad that it is published to keep company with the 
Mahabharata brought out by the same Society. 

☆ 

‘ S’ REE DATTA-BODHA-KALPA-DRUMA ,J : By Klr- 
tanaeharya Maharaj S'ri Datfcatraya Buva. Pp. 218. Price Rs. 4-0-0 
(1922). 

Though it is stated to be a translation, the book 
reads like an original work. The author is a Klrtankar 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 401 

himself and commands large audiences wherever he 
preaches. 

The subject-matter of such holy preachings has been 
thrown into book form, and the contents are certainly such 
as would please and guide the masses. He has drawn 
upon all our wellknown religious works and embellished 
the text with apposite illustrations in the shape of stories. 
These comprise two parts and two more are promised. 

☆ 

“ s’RI DASA BODHA ’’translated by Ratansinh Dipasinh 
Parmar. Pp. 544. Price Rs. 2-8-0. (1922)* 

The Ddsa Bodha of Swami Ramdas is the Gita of the 
Deccan, told in the vernacular of the province, and said 
to be mainly intended for 6hivaji Maharaj, the royal pupil 
of the saint of Maharas'tra, Its high place in the religio* 
philosophical literature of India needs no mention. This 
is not the first translation of it into Gujarati. A Parsi 
gentlemen, Mr. F. P. Kama, was the pioneer in the line. 
Even with this Society, it is the second edition - enough 
proof of its popularity. 

☆ 

“HARIHARA BHAKTI RAHASYA” by Kirtanacharya 
Maharaj Shri Dattatraya Buva. Pp. 194. Price Re. 1 (1922). 

Only a few months ago we noticed another work of 
the Buva, also on a religious topic. This book is the 
translation with appropriate annotations of the S’iva 
Mahimna Stotra, of Puspadanta Gandharva. The sense 
and significance of the original text have been very well 
brought out and the reader will be repaid his trouble. 
25 



402 


Religion-Hindu 


The annotations are so made as to be useful to the follow-, 
ers of both S'iva or Visnu- 

☆ 

“ARYO NA TEHEWARO N0ITIHASA > ’— by ‘Rigvedi’. 
Published by the Gujarat Puratattwa Mandir, Ahmedabad. Pp. 588 
Price Rs. 3-8-0 (1923). 

This u History of Holidays” ( holy days ) of the 
Aryas was certainly wanted and this want has been very 
well met, though the title of the book is rather ambitious, 
as only the holy days observed in Gujarat and the Deccan 
are mostly treated here. The ritual observed on each 
holiday is given less importance than its origin. 

This is as it should be. Many of us know the shell 
of the ritual, few know the core, hence the importance 
attached to the way in which the history of that particu- 
lar day is traced and connected with the ritual. A vast 
amount of scholarship and knowledge of our mythology is 
necessary for this purpose; and in this book it has been 
adequately forthcoming. 

** J APJI”— by Mrs. Bhanumati D. Trivedi Pp. 102 Price 
Re. 0-8-0 (1924). 

The Japji, composed by Guru Nanak, which every 
S*ikh recites as a part of his daily ritual, was not yet in- 
troduced to the Gujarati reader, and hence Mrs. Bhanu- 
mati is to be felicitated on what she has accomplished. 
She has given the text of every stanza in the original 
Punjabi, and then given the meaning of every word in 
Gujarati, and then is the Bhavanuvada based on the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 403 


Bengali translation of Babu Avinash Chandra Majumdar* 
The work thus leaves nothing to be desired, A short 
biography of Guru Nanak is given also. 

☆ 

M S’RI SARALA BHAGVADGITA »• :-by Kanji Halidas 
Joshi Pp. 288 Price Re. 0-8-0 (1924) Second edition. 

This is a samas'loki translation into Gujarati of the* 
Bhagvadgita. Whatever effort is made to popularise the 
study of the Gita deserves encouragement. To those who 
cannot master the Sanskrit text, a Gujarati rendering of 
it into verse would give some facility, and independent!}/' 

of its other merits or demerits, this phase of the work- 
should be welcomed. 

“S’ODASHA GRANTHA '-by S'astri Kesava S'arma. of 
Mangrol. 

Gives Sanskrit slokas with their Gujarati verse eqiva* 

lents of several prayers written by S’rimad Vallabha- 
charya. 

li SRIMAD BHAGVAD GITA " :~by S’rikrisna Mohanji 
S'arma Pp. 724. (1925). 

The text of the Gita, its anvaya , and translation in- 
to Gujarati with appropriate annotations make it useful 
for those who are ignorant of Sanskrit. The writer has 
taken great pains in elucidating the subject. 

“ THEOSOPHY ”-by Framji B. Patel Pp. 496. Price not 
mentioned (1924). 

It is difficult at the first blush to believe that this 
compilation comes from the pen of a Parsi, so chaste and 



404 


Religion-Hindu 


accurate is the language in spite of the subject being a 
highly technical one, because the exposition of Theosophy 
based on Theosophical manuals — Notes on the Bhagavad 
Gitci y Growth of the Soul , Path of Discipleship, require close, 
acquaintance with the vocabulary of metaphysics, religi- 
ous philosophy, physics and some other scientific subjects. 
To those who are interested in the creed, the book is sure 
to prove a guide and a friend. 

“BHAKTI-DAKPANA OR ATMAPRASADA”:-By Chatur- 
fohai S’ankarbhai Patel. Pp. 189 Price Re. 0-6-0 [ 1925 ] 

Based on a Hindi work, the book gives the 
essentials of the creed of the Arya Samaj and certain 
other useful information about it. 


& 

“sal dattaprabodha kalpadroma-skanbha 

III ’* by Dafctatraya Ravil Pp, 232 Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1925 ). 

We have already noticed the two prior volumes of 
the series. The predominant feature thereof is the im? 
parting of Bhakti and Jnana, and it is done here by 
means of dissertations and illustrative stories, from our 
mythological works. 

☆ 

“ THE RATNA GITA AND SARVA PuJANAYIDHF’- by 
Mrs. Lalita Gauri S'amrao Pp. 2fc8 Price 1-8-0 (1925). 

The Bhagavad Gita, the Visnu Sahasra Nama and the 
Anusmriti are the three gems collected by the writer from 
the Mahabh&rata and offered to her readers. The Gayatri 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907- 19B8 


405 


Stotra and other prayers form a supplement to the 
three gems. 

“SANSKRIT MAHABHARATA”:-by RatipatirSm Udysme- 
ram Pandya, b. a , Pp, 344 Piice Rs. 4-8-0 (1925) 

“LAGHU MAHABHARAT” :-Same author. Pp. 158 Price 
Re. 0-12-0 (1926) 

These are two translations of the well-known epic of 
India in Gujarati, but those who did not care to go through 
these elaborate works were in want of a connected histo- 
rical narrative, shorn of the passages, intended more for 
advice than narration, and this want has very well been 
supplied by Mr. Pandya who has written out the whole 
story from the Sanskrit original in a simple but dignified 
style, adapted to the incidents described. The book is 
appreciated uniformly by those who read it and that is no 
small recompense to the writer. 

The first book is in comparison with the second and 
smaller one, a sort of edition de luxe and the publisher has 
done well in entrusting the abbreviation to the same 
writer, as he being full of the subject, was the most 
proper person to render it into still simpler language for 
school-children for whom it is intended. It contains 
many aids in the shape of explanations for students, and 
altogether we think it is bound to prove useful to them. 

“BHAKTA CHARITRA PART I”:- by M, H. Mehta Pp, 388 
Price Re. 1-8-0 [ 1925 ] 



406 


Beligion-Hindu 


Twenty-nine lives of some of the best saints of 
India translated from the 8 Bhakter Jaya * of Atul Kri- 
shna Goswami furnish a sample of what the remaining 
would contain. Tulsidas, Ramdas and the tailor saint 
of Delhi, Permesthi, are some of the saints whose bio- 
graphies are given here. The reading is enlightening 
and instructive. 

☆ 

-SRI GITASINDHU TARANGAYALI 'VBy Swami Shri 
Atman and Saraswati of Niiudod. Pp, 160. Price As. 0-8-0 ( 1918 ) 

In this little book the Swamiji sets to himself the 
question as to why Arjuna fought after once declin- 
ing to do so, on the field of Kuruksetra. He tries to 
answer it by reference to the various verses of the Gita, 
and thinks he has solved it correctly, by saying that he 
did so because it was his duty to do so. 

☆ 

- S’RI MITRADEYA ” by G. K. Parikh. Pp. 44 Price 
Re. 0-8-0 (1926). 

Theosophists believe in the near appearance of the 
Teacher of the world. This little book says that S’ri 
Mitradeva Bhagavana has already appeared in the world 
and is six years old and living somewhere in Kashmir. 

The book contains a number of religious truths and 
precepts, 

u RAM A YANA By S’astri Chhotalal Chandra^ankar. 
Pp. 1424, Second Edition. Price Rs. 6-0-0 -with 40 coloured 
illustrations, (1926). 

This is a translation of Tulsidas’s Ramayana in 
Hindi. Looking to its get up and contents it is marvel- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


407 


lously cheap for six Rupees. Its introductions are many 
and comprise a wealth of interesting details on the life of 
Tulsidas and on various other matters connected with the 
Great Epic. Every Gujarati Hindu, and other Gujaratis, 
too, should read this work. 

& 

“ ANU BHAS’YA PART I ” by Jethalal GovardhandSs 
Shah, m . Am (1928). 

S'rimad Vallabhacharya is one of the Bhaiyakaras of 
the Brahmasutras, and his Bhasya is known as the c Anu 
Bhasya’, which is a treatise on the ‘^uddhadvaita’ cult. It 
is a very important treatise bearing on Vallabha’s Sam- 
pradaya, and its translation into Gujarati was overdue. 

This book however is more than a translation. It is 
full of notes and dissertations and comparisons with other 
similar compositions. The translator has exhausted all 
available materials in writing his introduction and produ- 
ced a very informative contribution on the subject. It is 
a valuable addition to our religious literature. 

* 

“ A GUIDE TO HOLIDAYS by P. Y. Dbruva (1928), 

The lore and the ritual in respect of each Hindu 
holiday are fully given here. They furnish truly a guide 
to their observance as the name of the book implies. 

☆ 

“ BRAHMA BODHA ”—by M. 0. Parekh, b. A. (1928) 

Mr. Manila! Parekh is well-known as a writer of re- 
ligious works and this translation by him of Maharsi De- 



408 


Religion-Hindu 


vendranath Tagore’s book on the subject maintains his 
reputation as an expounder of serious thought. 

☆ 

" PREMA SWARuPA S’RI KRIS’ NA-P ART I " by M. 
V. Gandhi, b. a., ll. b. (1928). 

" 6ri Krisna the Lord of Love, ” written by Baba 
Fremananda Bharati has attained great fame as a book 
explaining why S’ri Krisna is held in such veneration by 
us and the deeper truths underlying his worship. This- 
book is a translation of the first part of that treatise and 
the notes given at the end add to its usefulness. It is 

sure to interest all those who have a religious turn of 
mind. 

☆ 

“ AD AES’ A DRIS’TANTA MALA-PART II ” (1928) 

There are 405 instances given in this compilation 
culled from various literatures and various books of good 
conduct, hrmility and other imitable virtues. They are 
clothed in simple language and pleasing to read. 

☆ 

“THE WHITE SIDE OF DARK KRIS’NA AND TEE- 
TWO PARTS OF GUJARAT NO TENU-NADA”. (1927) 

These are books written by Vakil Balwantray Raghu- 
nathji Desai of Baroda. They are substantial volumes 
showing the deep study of the subject on the part of the 
author. The poems and Bhajans in the two parts of ;the 
Ve&u Ndda betray great labour and perseverance. 

☆ 

“ SRIMAD BHAGVAD GITA ” By « Vihari ’ Pp. 597. 
Price Re, 1-0-0, ( 1928 ). 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


409 


This substantial volume of nearly 600 pages is given 
away for less than its cost-price by the author, who is 
keen on making the study of the Gita as popular as 
as possible amongst our masses. He has left no stone 
unturned to make it as easy as possible also. 

He has given the text, its anvaya , its Gujarati trans- 
lation, its Hindi translation and its translation into 
Gujarati verse, £loka by &loka. The footnotes explain 
difficult passages and there is a vocabulary at the end 
giving the meaning of technical philosophical words and 
phrases. It is the result of a lifelong study on the part of 
the author and will repay perusal. 

☆ 

" SHRIMAD BHAGVAD GITA JYOTI ” By Msganbhai 
Cha‘urbhai Patel. B. a. ll.b; Pp. 285 Price Rs. 3-0-0 (1929) 

This “ Light ” on the Gita is the result of indepen- 
dent thought on the part of the author, and his views 
are embodied in a lengthy preface wherein he discusses 
the personality of 6ri Kris'na and the purpose of the “Song 
Celestial 99 with great ability. The Sanskrif text is ac- 
companied with a translation into Gujarati and with ex- 
planatory foot-notes. Its best part, however, is its 
preface. 

“ ATMA RAMAYANA. ” By the late Vaidya Karuna- 
shankar Mtflji. Pp. 86 Price Re. 1-0-0. ( 1932 ) 

A disquisition of the Jnana Marga, the book is based 
on the Ramayana and is in an allegorical form. It tries 
to deal with abtruse subjects like the relation of the Atma 



410 


Religion-Hindu 


to the Paramatma and other Vedantic topics in a simple 
style* and that is all that can be said as the abstruseness 
remains all the same. 

☆ 

“ GITA JNANAKOS'A” By C. B. Patel. ( 1986 ) 

This is a novel way of spreading the knowledge 
imparted by Gita, in so far as certain preeminent words 
from each verse of the Gita are picked out, and their im- 
plications set out in the words of different well-known 
commentators-whose number is legion: selection here 
being exercised too. We thus get focussed in one place 
the ideas and observations, on a particular word 
or phrase, of various writers and can thus appreciate the 
wide range over which they roam and the pregnant signi- 
ficance they carry. 

A very wide study of the subject by the compiler is 
disclosed and we are of opinion that students of the Gita 
will find their study greatly facilitated by these booklets 
which at present relate to the first three sections. 

☆ 

3. “ GITA MAN THAN A By Kisorilal G, Masruwalii b. a. 

LLB ( 1936) 

2. “ BHAGYAD GITA KA SAMALOCHANA By Lowji 
J. Master. (1936) 

The close study of the Gita has always attracted the 
best minds of Gujarat from very old times. The first 
book the ‘Churning of the Gita' is a very thoughtful essay 
and the writer has tried to extract from the holy dis- 
course, the great secret it carries and the sound advice 
it gives to the world, good for all time to come. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1S07-1938 


411 


The second work is remarkable for the fact that it is 
from the pen of a Khoja gentleman,. It is the translation 
of a Bengali book by Mahatma Soham Swami and a very 
good translation. Mr. Master had the advantage of hav- 
ing resided for a very long time at Benares and thus 
imbibing the spirit of Hinduism, and implementing it by 
residing later at his native place, Gaclhada in K'athiawad 
the seat of Saint Swaminarayana. He has very fully 
caught the trend of the observations of the Mahatma and 
reproduced them faithfully. 

2 ? 

SHIM AD BHAGAYaTA ” 

This work is another marvel of cheapness. It is a 
reprint of the translation of the Bhagavata made by the 
Veda Dharma Sabha, and has run into the 5th Edition. 
It deserves a welcome, if for nothing else, at least, for 
its cheapness. 

☆ 

“SB.IMAD BHAGVAD GITA” — Kajavaidya Jivram Kalidas 
S’aatri of Gondal (1936). 

Vaidyaraja Jivaram is a well-known medical man 
and is conducting a drug factory and a hospital at Gondal, 
He is at the same time a Sanskrit scholar. In his collection 
of 5,000 Sanskrit Mss. he has got sixteen different versions 
of the Gita handwritten at different times. One of them is 
a manuscript written in Vikram Samvat year 1235; it is a 
novel work. It coutains 21 more 61okas than the text of 
the ordinary work, and variants at 250 places. Those 
variants in the Shastri's opinion are more apposite than 



412 


BcilgioE-Hindu 


the ordinary received text, as ttey make the relative 
situations dear and lucid. The order of the slokas is 
different also, though in the present publication it is 
made to conform to the usual sequence. 

A very good translation into Gujarati appears 
along with the Sanskrit text and a timpani ( commentary) 
called Siddhi Ddtri also rendered into Gujarati- 
One finds that it is a labour of love of Gita on the part 
of the writer, and betrays his deep study of the subject. 

☆ 

14 YYAPAKA DHARMA BHAVANA ” by Mahatma Gandhi 

( 1937 ) 

A collection of Mahatma Gandhiji’s writings on reli- 
gious subjects has already been published under the title 
of “ Dharma Manthana.” The present one consists of 
articles and writings on other subjects, such as Ethics, 
Morals, Labour, Social Service, Swadesi etc. Gandhiji’s 
views on these matters are well-known. They are couch- 
ed in very simple Gujarati and therefore are accessible to 
masses. 

The publishers have divided them into nine sections 
according to subjects and have thus facilitated the 
task of the student of Gandhi literature., who thereby 
gets a connected treatment of a particular subject handy, 
instead of having to wander over a scattered field. The 
Index at the end is very valuable from this point of view- 
as it contributes greatly to the above facility. 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 413 

“ ADHYATMA KALPADRUMA ” with a translation and 
commentaries by Motichand Girdharlal Kapadia. (1906). 

We have alluded above to the useful work of the 
Bhavanagar Jaina Prasarak Sabha, and this book justifies 
the remark. The work is in Sanskrit, written by Muni 
Sundar Suri, and is a treatise on the philosophy of what 
we call Adhyatmic subjects. We congratulate Mr. 
Kapadia, who taking advantage of his enforced idleness 
due to the first outbreak of plague while staying out of 
Bombay, read up his philosophy with Munis learned in it, 
and as a result of the study, produced the commentaries 
under review. 

The introduction itself is a model of what such parts 
of a work should be. In spite of his modesty which dis- 
claims an intimate study of the intricate problems of 
Philosophy, it bubbles over with aphorisms and sutras, 
which could not but come from one who has a strong 
grasp of his subject. It is not possible for us to set out 
all the good points made by Mr. Kapadia in the two fine 
introductions he has indited; we can only recommend the 
interested reader to read them for himself, and judge 
whether we are justified in setting this high -value on 
them or not. 

Coming to the other part of the work, we find that 
the commentaries maintain a high and equal level throu- 
ghout, and they illustrate the various points in a felicitous 
way. In short the commentaries are calculated to give 
food for thought and enlightenment, not only to the sect 
of the Jainas, but to all who are concerned with philoso- 
phy. Mr. Kapadia is now in active practice of his pro- 



414 


Keligioa-Jaina 


fession, and we hope the lures of that particularly seduc- 
tive branch of the profession of law will not wean him 
away from these pleasant pursuits. 

☆ 

“ JAG AT KARTRTJTVA HIM ANSA ” 1909). 

A very controversial subject, viz., the creation of the 
world, has been treated in this work, which is written in 
Hindi, by Shriman Jatindrya, Shri Bulchandraji Maharaj; 
of Khamgam, in a spirit of complete sectarianism. The* 
principles of Veda, Vedanta and other Hindu Philosophi- 
es are made to look small and absurd, by contrast with 
the Jaina &astras, and it affords us a picture of that 
dialectic skill which religious enthusiasts wielded in tho 
past in favour of their own Sampradayas. We doubt the 
utility of such skill at present when we want more of 
harmony and less of discord for our progress all round. 

☆ 

4! PR AD YU AINA CHARITRA ” translated by Muni M&ha- 
raj Shri Charitra Vijayaji. (1909) 

The original of this work was composed by a Jaina 
Acharya Shri Ratna Chandra Gani, in Sanskrit, in 
Samvat year 1674. The life of this son of Krisna has been 
written by two or three other Jaina Munis also. It is a 
very interesting work and its epilogue mentions how the 
Jaina Acharyas were honoured in Akbar’s court. The 
work itself differs in no way from the many Puranas 
written by Brahmin authors. There is!to be found that 
mythological spirit, with its exaggerations and absurdi- 
ties, which distinguishes the medieval religious literature 
of India. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1933 


415 


The outstanding feature of all such Jaina works is 
an imitation of Brahmanic literature, in which Jaina 
Gods and Tirthankaras are substituted for their Brahmin 
prototypes; e. g., in this work an attempt is made to 
raise Neminath higher than Kri^na. Many things are 
mentioned in it which are historically as incorrect as the 
several episodes in the Mahabharata. The translation, 
however, is interesting, though it is full of Jaina techni- 
cal words and Kathiawadi provincialisms. 

That a Jaina Acharya should undertake such a task 
is very creditable to him; and the press which has 
brought it out also deserves credit. In this connection a 
small book of about 30 pages sent to us by Mr. Popatlal 
Kevalchand Shah who has translated into Gujarati the 
twenty-second Adhyaya of the Uttaradhayana Sutra. It 
treats of the episode of Rehnemi, the brother of Nemi- 
nath, who fell in love with Rajul, the beautiful fiancee of 
Neminath seeing her once undressed in a cave. Nemi- 
nath was then flying from her as Gautama Buddha flew 
from the temptations of the world. The way in which 
the chaste Rajul returned his ( Rehmi's ) advances and 
ultimately led him to the right path, is worth perusal. 

* 

(1) “ SERI JINA DE VA DARS'ANA. (2). NAYA KAR- 
NIKA ,9 (1910). 

The first work, which throughout shows the hand of 
Muni Shri Charitra Vijaya, one of the most learned Jaina 
Munis and Scholars on this side of India, is taken up with 
the rituals to be observed when a Jaina visits his temple. 
It is a compilation of minute directions given for obser- 



416 


Religion- Jaina 


vation at the different parts of that daily round of perfor- 
mance in the life a devout Jaina which is called Darshana. 

The second is a small philosophical treatise in 
Sanskrit consisting of 22 s'lokas, written by a Jainamuni 
called Shri Vinaya Vijaya who flourished about two 
centuries ago. The translation is prefixed with several 
introductions which dilate upon the subject-matter of the 
treatise which is called Naya or as we would say Nyaya. 
It is being translated into English too. The elucidatory 
notes and the biographical sketch given by the joint 
authors are well worth reading* 

☆ 

“ SHRI SAMAYIKA SuTRA ” : by Mohanlal Dalichand 
Desai; b. a. l. l. b, (1911). 

The practical part of the Jaina Religion is as full of 
rituals as any other religion, and the Samayika ritual is 
tho most general amongst the community. Mr. Desai has 
tried with the aid of the original Sanskrit sutras which 
have to be repeated in this ritual, to explain in simple 
Gujarati, the purpose and the rationale of each step in the 
performance of the ritual, 

A perusal of the book is sure to explain the signifi- 
cance of many parts of the ritual which on account of the 
ignorance of those who practise them has come to be 
regarded as ridiculous absurdities. He has attempted to 
tear off this cover of absurdity and present them in their 
true light, and shown to what good purpose those who 
instituted them, meant them to be applied. It is a useful 
and readable book. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


417 


• ! SHEA VIKA SUBODHA. ” : by M. K. Kapadia- (1915) 

This small book is translated into Gujarati from 
Hindi, and is taken up with the enumeration of practical 
hints to Jaina ladies, as to how to work and perform 
their household duties in accordance with the tenets of 
their creed. 

☆ 

“ KARTVYA KAUMUDI. ” : by Muniraja Shri 

Ratnachandraji. (1916) 

Pandit Muniraja Shri Ratnachandraji is an ornament 
to the ascetic section of the Jaina community on this side 
of India; his study of Sanskrit is deep and extensive. 
He has written this book in Sanskrit, while the text is 
explained in Gujarati, It is taken up with the different 
duties of men and women, and is full of popular illustra- 
tions which carry the meaning of the writer home. Though 
there is nothing new in it, still we think that a perusal or 
even a study of the book would repay the trouble 
taken in doing so. 

☆ 

“INDRIYA PARAJAYA DI&DARS’HANA ” AND 
u AIT1HASIKA SAZZAYAMALA, ” : by Premchand Ratanji, 
(1917) 

These two books are published as part of the Yasho- 
vijaya Jaina Granthmala Series. The first book is a series 
of sermons, exhorting the reader to practise temperance, 
continance and other virtues. It is composed by Shri Vijaya 
Dharma Suri, a well known Jaina Acharya. 

The second is a collection of eulogisms of great men. 
The biographies of the writers of the poems in the begin* 

2 7 



418 


Religion-Jaina 


ning are, though meagre, of some use to those who are 
interested in Jaina verse-literature. 

4 

“ AHIMSA by Muniraja Shri Yedavijayaji. (1918). 

The Muniraja has tried to prove by means of several 
extracts taken from our religious works that the killing of 
animals, both in the name of religion and for food, is pro- 
hibited by our S’astras. It is very problematical to say as 
to what influence one such feeble voice would carry in 
the stoppage of the daily holocaust being offered up in 
India and elsewhere. 

V 

“CRETAN KARMA CHARITRA” by J. K. Kapadia. (1918). 

The publisher has headed this book as the first volume 
of the series which he wants to bring out and sell cheaply; 
it is specially intended for Jainas. Kavi Bhagavandasji 
has written in Hindi verse, a book called the * Brahma- 
vilasa * and the subject treated in this volume is a part of 
it. It narrates figuratively the fight between vice and 
virtue, and though written with a very good intention, 
suffers from those drawbacks which are incidental to that 
sort of work, where instruction is. sought to be forced on 
people in the garb of a story which is absorbed by 
philosophy. 

☆ 

“DHARMADES’ANA” by Shri Yijaya Dharma Suri. (1918). 

Shri Vijaya Pharm Suri is known as a prolific and 
facile Jaina writer. This is the Second Edition of a book 
which he wrote several years ago on the precepts of relir 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


419 


gion. He has embellished the work with apt and popu- 
lar illustrations so that the reader can fully appreciate 
the force of his advice. It is not a sectarian work, that 
must be said to its credit. 

“ JAIN’A DARS’ANA ” by Maharaj S’ri Nyayavijayaji. Pp. 
107. (1918). 

As its name implies, this book gives in a succinct 
form, a description of the tenets and philosophy of the 
Jaina religion. There is nothing original about it; it 
furnishes the same information as other hand-books 
on the subject. It ; however, tries to reconcile several 
dictates of the Jaina religion like pre-sunset meals, 
with those of the Hindu religion by a reference to the 
Manu Smriti and such other text-books. There are mis- 
takes in giving English equivalents of Gujarati words; 
e. g., at p. 63 ** Telescope ” should be “ Microscope.” 

tl UPAMITI BHAVAPRAPANOHA KATHA Part II s * by 
M. G. Kapadia. Pp. 36-693. Price Rs. 3-0-0. (1919). 

This is an allegory written by a very well-known 
Jaina Saint, Shri Siddharsi, in Sanskrit. We had notic- 
ed the first part when it was published about three years 
ago, and referred to the excellences of the original, and 
the ability with which the translator had translated and 
annotated the work. The present volume, of a very sub- 
stantial size, deals with Sections 4 and 5, which relate 
to the stages of falsehood and theft in the 1 Pilgrim’s 
Progress, ’ in this world, The whole subject has beei* 



420 


Beligion-Jaxna 


allegorised ably and the translator has entered fully into 
the spirit of the original and done it ample justice. 

❖ 

“ S APTABH AN GI PRADIPA " by Nyayatirtha Nyayaviga- 
rada Pravartak Shri Mangalvijayaji. Pp. 126. (1921). 

This is x an extremely technical original work in 
which the learned author has tried to explain the * Sapta- 
bhangi which is one of the three elements of the Jaina 
Darshanas. In its seven sections the Muni Maharaj has 
attempted to give the reader an idea of what this doc- 
trine means to a Jaina and how those who do not under- 
stand it, have attempted to gloss it over with false no- 
tions, and where they have committed mistakes. It is a 
praiseworthy attempt on the part of a Jaina ascetic. 

☆ 

“ ADHYaTMA TATTVALOKA ” : by Nyayatirtha Nyaya- 
visharad Muni shri Nyayavijayaji. Pp. 821. (1920). 

This substantial volume of nearly nine-hundred pages, 
is the work of a young Jaina Muni, who hardly looks 
thirty. It is a trilingual work, in Sanskirit, English and 
Gujarati; the original being Sanskrit, with translation and 
general notes in English and Gujarati, the result of the 
help of others interested in Jaina Philosophy. In these 
days one rarely comes across a scholar, who would care 
to write out a treatise in Sanskrit, and that too on such an 
abstruse subject as Adhyatma Vidya. It is therefore, 
greatly to the credit of this Jaina ascetic, that he has 
attempted and succeeded in the attempt, to compose 
such a treatise in good, faultless Sanskrit. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 421 

In its eight chapters, the book covers the whole pro- 
vince of Jaina Philosophy, spiritual and practical. Any 
single 6loka or any page of its exposition and notes, taken 
up at random and perused would convince the reader of 
the soundness and the high intellectual level of the youth- 
ful philosopher’s scholarship. 

☆ 

“UPAMITI BHAVAPRAPANCHA KATHA ” : by 
Motichand Girdharlal Kapa&ia. b. a., ll. b, Pp. 691. Price 
Rs. 3-0-0. (1921). 

In the face of heavy professional engagements Mr. 
Kapadia has preserved his love for the philosophic litera- 
ture of his religion undiminished. The substantial volume 
under review is the result of leisure moments snatched 
from such work. It is a translation of a Sanskrit book, 
written by a Jaina Acharya, Siddharshi Gani, and sets out 
in allegorical language the different temptations of the 
world and the ways of avoiding them and ultimately 
attain the highest bliss by rising above them. 

The translation and the footnotes betray close study 
and intimate knowledge of the Sanskrit language and 
philosophical terms. In spite of his best endeavours to 
keep his style as “ low ” as possible, we are afraid the 
translator would find that the book would not be read by 
many and when read that also by those to whom the 
subject appeals. 

☆ 

JAINA SHIKS’HANA MALA ” First and second Books. : 
By Chtmilal Nagji Vora. Price As. 0-4-0. Pp. 46, 80 (1921). 

The books are meant to teach Jaina children the 
principles of their religion. Portions of the contents are 



422 


Religion-Jaina 


too difficult for their comprehension while some portions 
are easy. There is nothing in them special, which would 
take them out of the rut of common books on the subject. 

“JAINETARA DRISHTIE’ JAINA *’ : by Muni Shri 
Amarvijayaji Maharaj. Pp. 125. Price not mentioned. (1923). 

The title of the book, “Jainas as seen by non-Jainas” 
is sufficiently descriptive. It has collected in it opinions 
of different people as to the good that is revealed to them 
in the tenets of the Jaina religion, as if the religion by 
itself had not been found sufficiently excellent ! 

☆ 

(1) ADHYATMA-TATTVALOKA ” by Muni Shri Nyaya 
Yijayaji. (2) « STRI JIYANA Nl VIKAS A DA S’ A (3) 

41 JAIN A DABS ’AN A.’ 1 (4) “JaINATATTWA”. : by R. V. Shah. 
(1923) 

The above four books are connected with Jaina 
philosophy and social life. The first is not a recent pro- 
duction. The second gives advice to women as to how to 
live a clean life. The third and fourth are on Jaina philo- 
sophy and elements of Jaina religion. There is nothing 
special or new about them. 

“ HRIDAYA PRADIPA OB THE LIGHT OP THE 
SOUL ” : by M. M. Shah. (1923) 

This book is written in Sanskrit, and advocates views 
which are founded on Jaina philosophy and metaphysics. 
The publication of the Sanskrit Text with its translation 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


423 


Into Gujarati and English, together with short notes and 
explanations in English is calculated to make it useful to 
those who want to become acquainted wifh this branch of 
Jaina Literature. 

%r 

“ SATYA NUN SAMARTHANA by Muni Ramavijaya, 
Printed at the Union Printing Press, Ahmedabad* Thick Card- 
board. Pp. 344. Price Rs. 3-0-0 (1923) 

“ The Confirmation of Truth ” as this book purports 
to be, is an answer to a book which was reviewed the 
other day by Pandit Bechar Das. The Muniji is concerned 
with showing that what the Panditji professes is untrue 
and the charges made by him on Jaina Literature and 
society unsustainable. 

44 JAINA DARSHANA ” : by Bechardas Jivaraj Pandit. 
Pp. 189. Price Rs. 2-0-0 (1928) 

This is a technical religious work and its translation 
sure to appeal to Gujarati Jainas as it is made by a well- 
known Jaina scholar and as it concerns its principles 
as expounded in the ^ad-Darshan-Samuchchaya of 
Hari Bhadra Suri with annotations by Sri Guna Ratna 
Suri. It shows that Jaina Darsankars possessed all the 
scholastic equipment needed for this purpose. 

“JNANA PAN CH AMI” : By Mavji Damp Shab. Pp. 30 
Price Re. 0-4-0 ( 1924 ). 

The Jainas observe the 5th day of Kartik as a 
great day and call it the 'Jnana Panchami', The writer 



424 


Religion-Jaina 


has tried to explain the why and the wherefore of 
the observance. The same writer’s ‘Jaina NUi Praves’a’ 
contains very good stories from the Jaina Scriptures. 

☆ 

“THE POEMS OF YIRA BHAKTAMARA AND NEM1 
BHAKTAMARA’’ : By Upadhyaya Sri Dharma-Yaxdhan Ganj 
and Sri Bhavaprabha Sari, Pp. 197 Price Bs. 3-0-0 ( 1926 ). 

These poems are written by way of Padapurti to 
some verses of the Bhaktamara Stotra of Shri Manatunga 
Suri. Prof. Kapadia has collated, translated and annota- 
ted them, and produced a scholarly work. These are 
but two out of six such Padapurti poems, 

☆ 

“S'RI YIS ESa AYAS'YAKA BHASAnTARt-PART H” : 
By 0. H. Shah ( 1928 ). 

This is a most important book of Jaina religious 
literature, and is a vivaram of the ‘Samayika sutra.’ 
Those who cannot follow the original text will be 
gratified at getting its Gujarati version which is well done. 

4 

•'THE AGAMODAYA SAMITI OF RATLAM” has pub- 
liehed ( 1928 ). : a substantial volume of Gathas 1 to 1584 of the 
VhSisavaiyaka Bhasya of Jaina BhandSr Gani Ksama S'ramana a 
well-known book cf J aina ritura!. It is an entirely religious book 
and would be appreciated by the Jainas, 



.Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 425 

l4 JINA YANI 51 :-TransIated by Susil. Pp. 235 Price Re. 1-0-0 
( 1935 > 

The different Darsanas have been comparatively 
studied by a Bengali scholar, &riyuta Harisut Bhatta- 
charyaji, and the results published in the Bengali monthly 
called \Jina Vanih The papers thus published have 
been translated into Gujarati and they furnish very 
serious reading to those who are thinkers and interested 
in research work. 

The writer of the original papers is neither a Jaina 
nor very familiar with Jaina &astras. But still what- 
ever little he has studied, he has studied very well. The 
section, e. g., dealing with the existence of God according 
to the ideas of Jaina metaphysics, is a very well-written 
dissertation, and would repay perusal. The last section 
dealing with the inscriptions about Maharaja Kharvel 
is replete with all the information obtainable up-to-date 
on the subject. 

* 

1. “ADARS’A GRAHASTHAS’RAMAS” :-By Muni Sri 
Sowbh&gyachandrajL 

2. “DAS’ A YAlKALlKA SUTRA” :-By the same author. 
( 1986 ). 

Both these books are written mainly for the followers 
of Mahavlra and necessarily look at things from their 
point of view. The first one however contains many 
aspects which would benefit non-Jainas also. The 
second is the translation of a well-known Sutra with 
notes and comments. 

☆ 



426 


Religion-Buddhistic 


“ACHARANGA SUTRA” :-By SantabaL { 1937 ) 

This is a fresh translation of a very important sutra 
in Jaina philosophy with valuable notes and observations 
by Pandit Sowbhagya Chandraji Maharaj. Every 
thing connected with the original text and the apprecia- 
tion of the subject-matter of the work at the hands of 
European and Indian scholars is brought together in 
this useful volume. The Appendix is a separate section 
by itself and points out the very great number of 
similarities that exist between the doctrines preached 
in the Bhagavad Gita and this Jaina Sutra, It shows 
that in higher Philosophy the Hindu and the Jaina meet 
on common ground. 

☆ 

“SHIGAL VADA SUTTA” :-By M. N. Dwivedi. ( 1910 ) 

This little book sets out the rules of conduct to be 
observed by the Grihasthas, as preached by Lord 
Buddha. With a very sweet story, the writer leads us 
up to the point where the Lord taking pity on an erring 
party, showed him the direction of the true path. It 
contains precepts of universal moral application. 

.A. 

1. ‘‘SRI BUDDHA CHARITRA.” 2. “S'RI BUDDH- 
OPADESA.” ( 1922 ) 

Both these compilations, as their names imply, 
relate to Buddha. At all times his life and teachings are 
instructive, and the more widely they become known the 
greater the good they would do to us all. As an effort 
in this direction, we welcome these publications which 



Development of Gujaiati Liturature : 1907-1938 427 

on account of the easy treatment of the subject will go 
a great way to make it popular. 

DHaMMAPADA *'■ — By Dharmanand Kosambi and Rama 
Narayana V. Pathak. Pp. 156 Price Re. 1- 0-0 ( 1924 ), 

This is another production of the Puratattva Mandir. 
As a scholarly translation of this ancient religious book of 
the Buddhistic creed into Gujarati, it stands by itself, 
and the way in which it is edited with explanations and 
an erudite preface, does great credit to the culture of 
their writers. 

☆ 

“INFORMATION ABOUT THE BUDDHA SANuHA ” 
By Dharmanand Kosambi. Pp. 322. Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1925 ) 

No better book exists in Gujarati on the ceremonial 
side of the practice of the Buddhistic religion than this; 
its value is enhanced by the short lives given of the early 
Bhikhkhus, male and female; you find the outstanding 
events in the lives of Rahul and Kisa Gotami and Sujata 
set out in a style which never fails to attract. We would 
recommend everyone interested in our early history to 
read this book. 

☆ 

“ SAMADH1 MARGA By Dharmanand Kosambi Pp. 119, 
Price Rq. 0-8-0. ( 1925 ) 

The means to attain “Eternal Bliss” differ with dif- 
ferent creeds. Though Samadhi or Yoga is peculiar to 
the Brahmanical .philosophy, it has its place with the 
Buddhas too, and Prof. Kosambi has attempted in this 
book to popularise this somewhat technical and forbid- 



428 Religion-Xslamic 

ding-to-the masses subject, with his usual cleverness 
and ability. 

SILSILAYE-URAIYA ZUJA or the FIRST ISLAMI 
BOOK ’’-By Syed Burhan-ud-dln Abdulla Miyan Uraizi, Jayanti 
Printing Press, Ahmedabrd, Pjiper bound Pp. 28 Price 0-2-0 (1907) 

The Mohammedans of Gujarat and Kathiawad, 
although they learn Arabic and Urdu for religious 
purposes are mostly conversant with Gujarati, the langu- 
age of the province, and taking advantage of the circum- 
stance Mr. Uraizi has thought of publishing a series of 
books in Gujarati, treating of the practice and the prin- 
ciples of Islam. He has transcribed the prayer or reci- 
tation portion of the Arabic text in Gujarati characters, 
and side by side explained the ritual to be followed. This 
is but the beginning of the series and it comprises as yet 
the initial part of the practice only. 

We have our doubts whether it would prove of use to 
those for whom it is intended. Firstly because, much of 
what is set out here-as to the ways of ablution (Wazu), 
as to the genuflexions ( Rukaat ) at the time of the 
Namaz-generally forms part of the home or religious 
education of every Mohammaden child, and secondly 
because, with the foundation and prospering of the many 
Urdu Government Schools, which at present dot the pro- 
vince, any necessity which might be said to have existed 
some years back for such a manual, has vanished now. 

But the reason why we have thought it proper to allude 
to it here, is that it adds one more book to the list-a 
very slender one-of Gujarati books written by Moham- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


429 


madens, and that because, it gives an insight to the 
purely Gujarati Hindu reader, into the ritualistic practices 
of Islam. .This itself is an interesting study, and even at 
the threshold of it, we find in this little Book certain pra- 
ctices to be observed laid down with a fervour of faith, 
which would carry comfort to the heart of any Hindu, 
viz., that he alone is not a stickler for forms, but that 
Islam too seems to lay some stress on the external side of 
religious observances. 

☆ 

“ THE GREATNESS OF THE KORAN rs : by Jafar Ali 
•* Asir * Pp, 122. Piice Rs. 2-0-0 (1928) 

By means of suitable extracts from the Koran and 
the discussions on them so far as they bear on the great- 
ness of Islam, the writer has sought to support his thesis. 
The language used, is, however, so high pitched that we 
think it would not command popularity. 

☆ 

“ KNOWLEDGG OR INFORMATION ABOUT ISLAM/' 
; by Karim Mahammad Master m. a., ll. b. (1928) 

Mr. Karim Master is an experienced writer and has 
already shown his intimate knowledge of Gujarati Litera- 
ture as one of the editors of the Kavitd Praves'a. 

This book is written with a very laudable object, 
namely, to represent to the public what Islam really is 
and thus to remove the misunderstandings which have of 
late clouded its real tenets. The mischief is due to the 
teachings of fanatic Maulvis. Being a Mohammedan him- 
self by religion and a great friend of the Hindus by associ- 
ation, Mr. Master is entirely fitted for the task. In addition 



480 


Religion-Islamie 


he says what he has to say in chaste Gujarati which is a 
special feature of the book. 

He has taken parts of the chapters of the Koran and 
expatiated on them so as to bring out their true meaning. 
We recommend every one to read the book. The work is 
done so intelligently and sympathetically that we are 
emboldened to make the above recommendation. 

☆ 

“ NUR-E-ROSHAN ” :by Ratansha Koyaji. B. A., ll. b. Pp, 
524 (1924) 

Tavhid or the Oneness of God as a Sufi doctrine has 
attracted many Indians. This translation of the book on 
the subject, written in Urdu in A. H. 1171 by Kayam-ud- 
din Baya Saheb Chishti, is the proof of the interest that 
even our Parsi friends take in the highly philosophical 
subject of Brahma Jnana. 

The author Chishti Saheb was the head of a sect, 
which is found in Gujarat, and which counts amongst its 
followers non-Mohmmedans also, in as much as the 
preachers have preached their doctrines passing them on 
as Brahma Jnana. This translation is a welcome contribu- 
tion to our scant knowledge of the tenets of the creed. 

☆ 

M AHK AM-E-IL AHI ” :by Ismail Ahmad. (1925) 

This is a small book written for the guidance of the 
Mohammedans, with quotations from the Koran, telling 
them how to fulfil the injunctions given in the Sacred 
Book for leading a religious life. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 431 

41 ISLAM NA AXJLIYA ” :by Sushil Pp. 104 Price Ee. 0-8-0 

(1925) 

The object with which this book is written deserves 
twofold commendation. It is written by a Hindu, although 
it treats of a Mohammedan subject, and further it tends 
to dissipate the wrong popular notion that amongst the 
followers of Islam only fanatics are to be found. “ Saints 
of Islam ”-this is what the title means-gives in simple 
language incidents in the lives of saints in our sister com- 
munity, and their sayings, which go to prove that the 
higher laws of all religions are identical and that truth 
and piety are honoured everywhere. 

“PIRANA SATPANTHA NI POLA” :-By Patel Narayanji 
RSmjibhai. Pp. 552 Price Rs. 4-0-0 ( 1926 ). 

In various parts of Gujarat, Kutch and Kathiawad 
there are followers (mostly Kunbis) of a creed called a 
Tirana Panth/ which in its tenets is an amalgam of Hindu 
and Mohammedan religions; it stands so to speak midway 
between them. As to how Hindus came to be converted 
to this creed and as to how strong is its hold over its 
followers is very interesting history. 

Its present tendency is to make its followers lean 
towards non-Hindu tendencies. This is asserted by those 
who have deserted it and want to save others from its 
influence, and for a long time a controversy has been 
going on between its followers and opponents. 

The present substantial volume is from the pen of one 
who has seceded. He caUs it the Pola or c Hollowness 9 of 



432 


Rcligion-Christian 


the creed, and has marshalled in it, all facts which go to 
show that it is a concealed form of a non-Hindu creed. 
The book is written with great vigour and feeling, 

“ISTJ nun ANUKARANA” :~By T. H. Desai. ( 1917 ) 

This is a translation of Thomas A Kempis’s well-known 
book, “ Imitation of Christ, ” which for its moral pre- 
cepts is known as the Second Bible. Passages here and 
there from it were utilised for purposes of sermons by Rao 
Bahadur Ramanabhai M. NUkantha in his Prarthana 
Samaj addresses. The translation of the whole work 
therefore is likely to prove of much use to all serious- 
minded men. 

☆ 

“ UTTAR EUROPE NI PURANA KATHA ” By 
C. N. Kaji. B. a . ( 1921 ) 

This book belongs to the religious section of the 
Sahitya series, and is a translation of Kauffman's 
f Northern Mythology. * It treats entirely of those be- 
liefs and superstitions and of Scandinavian beliefs. The 
translation is readable but we wonder what Gujarati 
readers have got to do with Teutonic mythology. 

☆ 

« SAINT JOHN BHAGAYAT. by the late M. R, 
Bhatfc. Pp.120. ( 1924 ). 

The Gospel of Saint John appeals to all mystics. 
The late Mr. Bhatt had a mystic turn of mind and hence 
has translated this part of the New Testament. A preface 
by Mr. Manilal Chhotalal Parekh who has converted 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 433 


himself to Christianity, explains all that is necessary to 
appreciate the Gospel, which otherwise, in its bald 
translated form is not quite easy to follow. 

☆ 

“ HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. ” by M. C. 
Parekh. B. A. ( 1929 ). 

Mr. Manilal has found wonderful spiritual treasures 
in Jesus Christ and his teachings. He wants an affiliation 
of the spiritual consciousness of the Hindu race to the 
spirit of Christ. With this view he has studied both the 
systems of religion and in the course of those studies read 
the works of Fisher and Walker on the History of the 
Christian Church. 

His present book is based on these histories and 
presents a picture of the movement, complete in every 
aspect. Till now one or two such works had appeared in 
our language. But they were written by Christian Mis- 
sionaries, none by an Indian and a Gujarati. This book 
therefore, written as it is by a native of Gujarat whose 
mother-tongue is Gujarati and who himself is a cultured 
gentleman, with great sympathy for the teaching of 
Christ, should be welcomed by all students of the diffe- 
rent religions of the world. 

& 

“ RELO TATHA GlTO”-Bythe Rev. W. Graham Mulligan 
( 1937 ) 

Rev. Mulligan has to minister to a congregation of 
Indian Christians, who know only Gujarati. He therefore 
had to study the Gujarati language and he has done it so 

28 



Keligioa-Giiristian 


434 

well that at the first blush it is difficult to find out whether 
the subject matter of the book is the production of the 
pen of a Gujarati or a foreigner, so well has he grasped 
the spirit and the idiom and the genius of the language. 
The title of the book means ‘ Floods and Songs * and the 
book is a collection of 52 sermons based on various texts 
of the Bible and preached at various times. 

Keeping aside the necessarily propagandist nature of 
the performance and judging it only on its literary side, 
one may very well recall the performance of one of the 
Rev. Mr. Mulligan’s predecessors, the Rev. Dr. Taylor, who 
has left an abiding name in the literature of Gujarat by 
his Grammar and other works. We are sure that as titne 
passes the Reverend gentleman’s work would surely throw 
off those trifling but noticeable shortcomings which 
naturally figure in the writings of one not bom and bred 
in the province, 

☆ 



PHILOSOPHY AND ETHICS. 
☆ 




PHILOSOPHY and ETHICS. 

☆ 

“ THE NITI VACHANA OF MANU OR THE MORAL 
PRECEPTS OF MAN!! PART I ” : by Chliaganlal Vidyaram 
Raval : printed by the United Printing Press Co., Ahmedabad. 
Paper bound. Pp. 48 ; Price 0-1-0 (1906). 

This is a translation from the Marathi. It embodies 
some of the finest precepts of Manu on the various walks 
of Hindu life-both Samsara and Samaja. It is an ex- 
tremely slender brochure, but for the truth it contains, it 
should be considered worth its weight in gold. We think 
all little boys and girls in schools should be made to 
learn and understand such precepts. 

☆ 

“ SULABHA SAMADHX ” by P. K. Shah. (1908). 

Several &lokas in original Sanskrit with their trans- 
lation and long disserations on their subject matter, all 
treating of philosophy, are collected in this small book. 
For the ordinary reader they are too difficult to follow, 
and hence it is idle to expect any appreciation of it at 
their hands, though to them even it would be apparent 
that Mr. Shah has read much and that to advantage. 

& 

" KAYA IS’VARE’A VIS’VA RACHYUN ? ” : —By 
Narasimhabhai I. Patel. (1910). 

This is an essay written in easy style on the different 



438 


Philosophy and Ethics 


problems of Monism, Atheism, and the theories of the 
Creation of the Universe, soul etc. Modem European 
authorities and the views of scientists have been embodi- 
ed in it, and it fulfils the object with which it is written 
viz. to set the reader thinking and cogitating on these 
questions. 

☆ 

“ BHAGVAD DHARMA MARGrA DABS* ANA.” by B. N. 
Bhatt (1911). 

This is a treatise on a religious subject and shows by 
what stages Salvation ( Aksarabrahma ) could be reached. 
It treats of Goloka and other Lokas, the different pas- 
sions, the different modes of Yoga etc. The price is out 
of all proportion to the size or contents of the book. 

“ARVACHINA S'ASTRO ANE S' ASTRA VICHARO” : 
By M. R. Vidyarthi, B. A., B. Sc. ( 1911 ). 

Samuel Laing’s ' Modem Science and Modern Thought * 
is a most fascinating work. The above is a translation 
of that book with necessary changes. The chapters on 
miracles in the original are related to Christian Miracles; 
while here the translator has tried to adapt the 
explanations to those mentioned in the Hindu Sastras, 
The idea of introducing this well-known work to Gujarati 
readers is excellent and the very low price at which the 
translation is to be sold, ought to go a great way in 
encouraging the young author. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


439 


"ADWAITA MUKTAVALP : By N. P. Dave, M. A. (1912), 

As a translator of Shakespeare’s plays Prof. Dave 
is well known. He has now essayed other branches of 
literature and this book embodies a logical treatment of 
the Vedanta System of Philosophy, based on the Siddhanta 
Muktavali of Prakasananda. It is interspersed with the 
author’s own ideas and comparison with certain phases 
of Western Philosophy. 

“Srikris'Na ni rasakrida nun adhyatmika 

SWARUPA” : By Maganlal Maneklal Jhaveri Pp. 45 Price 
As. 0-4-0 (1914). 

This is another translation from Marathi from the 
extremely restless and prolific pen of the translator. 
It tries to make out that the Rasakrida of Krisna with 
the Gopies is to be taken in an allegorical sense. We 
don’t think that this version of the famous event in the 
life of Krisna is offered for the first time. It has become 
old enough and still fails to carry conviction with it. 

An explanation of the event, based on the methods 
of testing the truth of history and chronicles, is what is 
required to free the good name of Krisna from this blot 
in the eye of the public. This book does not furnish such 
an explanation and is therefore not of much use. 

Q 

“DiVODAS NUN DEVALAYA* 1 : By Maherjibhai Manekji 
HaturS. Pp. 243 Price Rs. 2-4-0 (1917), 

This Parsi author has already won his spurs in the 
religious and philosophic ( Vedantic ) literary field of his 



440 


Philosophy and Ethics 


Hindu brethren. The depth of knowledge and the 
intimacy displayed by him in respect of religious love, 
in his prior works, such as the Bhagavato Bhavana and 
the Vanaprastha are astounding and very creditable in 
one of an alien faith. 

☆ 

“ MANAVAS’ASTBA SERIES NO. I. ” by G. G. Mehta. 

( 1918 ). 

By intense study and practice Mr. G. G. Mehta has 
specially qualified himself to write on the subject of 
Phrenology. This small pamphlet is but introductory of 
his larger work on Phrenology, which is yet unsurpassed 
in Gujarati. To those who are interested in the subject 
no better guide can be had, in our language. 

“NITIS’ASXRA” bj Prof. A, K. Trivedi. m.a., ll.b. (1918). 

Prof. Rashdall’s Ethics is translated into Gujarati in 
order to show the ideas of Western thinkers on this 
branch of philosophy. The translator himself being a 
Professor of the subject has been able to do justice to the 
original, but we very much doubt whether it would ever 
be found anywhere else beyond shelves of a few libraries.; 
the subject is so exclusive. 

☆ 

£t ADAWAITA SIDDHI NCJN GBR JAR BEAS’A MAN 
VlVARANA,” Section I Chapters I and II. by H. C. Desai, (1918). 

Pandit Madhusudana Sarasvati has written in 
Sanskrit this great work on Vedanta, and till now it is 
considered, in spite of various subsequent works, unsur- 



Development of Gujarati Literature i 1907-1938 


441 


passed in the way in which it has treated of this difficult 
branch of Indian metaphysics. The very laudable effort 
of the present writer is to take the Gujarati reader over 
the whole ground cohered by the Sanskrit work in several 

instalments, the first of which he has published for pri- 
vate circulation. 

The whole subject is taboo to the mass in. the street. 
Unless a good deal of spade-work has been done or as 
the writer puts it, one has placed oneself under a Guru, it 
is not possible to understand or follow such recondite 
subjects, so that it is only those who have made some 
progress in the path of Vedantic studies who can appreci- 
ate the vivarana; to others it would appear to be Sanskrit 
words transposed into Gujarati. 

Added to that drawback, we find that in some places 
the specification could have been made more clear. 
However as we said, those who belong to the inner circle 
of Vedantis would find that they have got a work which 
they can profitably read. 

“ JIVANA PAE PRAKAS'A ” by : M, Y. Gandhi. (1918) 

Baba Bharati’s religious work in America is well 
known. This is a readable translation of the fine lectures 
he delivered while in that country on the esoteric side 
of India’s philosophy. They throw an amount of light 
on the religious philosophy of the East and West. 

*• NAITIKA JIYAN TATHA NAIT1KA BTKAES'A '’-By 
K. K. Nanavati. B. A. ( 1921 ) 

The selection of this book for translation has been 
made from the Cambridge Manuals of Science and Lite- 



442 


Philosophy and Ethics 


rature Series, and its English title is “ The Moral Life and 
Moral Worth. ” It is written by Dr. Sorley. It belongs 
to the Morals group of the series. The translation 
betrays every sign of carefulness and understanding on 
the part of the writer. 

PLATO’S PHOEDRUS : 55 By Manisankar Ratanji Bhatt. 
b. a. Pp, 176. Price Re. 1-4, (1921). 

The original work requires no introduction. This 
translation is made from the later work of J. Wright, in 
English and not from that of Prof. Jowett, which has be- 
come as classical as the Greek text itself. There are 
many unknown names, and obscure spots, which render it 
difficult for a reader, who knows no European language, 
to follow the exact significance of the passages where 
they occur, a.nd the reader misses the associaton of ideas 
connected with them. Explanatory notes could easily 
have cured this short-corning, 

“ BRAMA-NAS’AKA PARMARTHA DARS’ANA: ” By 
Swami S’ri Atmanandaji. Pp t 460 Price Re. 1-8-0. (1921). 

The popularity of the work can be guaged from the 
fact that this is its fifth edition called for within a period 
of twenty years. The auhor is well-known as a clear ex- 
pounder of Indian philosophical principles. In this book 
he has clearly set out the aims of certain actions of our 
life, such as prayers, meditation etc. and altogether treat- 
ed the several questions bearing on our religious life, very 
intelligently and instructively. 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 1907-1938 443 

“PBAMANA SASTBA PBAYESTKA ” - By Eamanarayana 
Yi&vanath Pathak. b. a., ll. b. Pp. 852 Price Bs. 2-0-0 (1923). 

As its name implies, it is a manual of Logic, meant 
for those who want to get acquainted with the principles 
of the subject. It is the first fruit of the National 
School established as the result of the present political 
propaganda. The subject is being taught in that seminary 
by the author in Gujarati and in order to be accurate in 
his exposition of a subject, where accuracy is the very 
soul thereof, he was led to write out his lectures. It is 
these lectures which are now cast into book-form. Euro- 
pean and Indian sources have been ransacked and 
utilized in producing a book which shows every sign of 
assiduity and erudition. 

* 

14 ABAYINDA VICHARAMALA : FLOWEE II 59 
translated by N. Y. Thakkur. Pp. 282 Price 4-0-0 (1924 ). 

This translation in its get up and matter is fully in 
keeping with its predecessor. The thoughts of Aravind 
Chose as * Vi^hva Vichara * have been correctly conveyed 
to the Gujarati reader and it has been done at a great 
sacrifice of time and labour, as appears from the 
foot-notes. 

☆ 

“MASTAVlLASA” : By Bavaji Tulsidasji and Y. M. Shah. 
Pp. 415 Price Bs. 3-0-* (1925). 

“To thine own self be true”; the whole of the 
contents of this large volume rings changes on this text. 
It is a mixture of Tattvagnana and practical advice, 
illustrated with stories-, told in the vigorous and effective 



444 


Philosophy and Ethics 


style which Mr. Vadilal adopts both in writing and speak- 
ing. He is able to communicate his enthusiasm to his 

readers and the book will repay perusal and inspire 
thought. 

☆ 

“YOGATATTVA” : By N. B* Pandya. Pp. 384 Price 
Re. 1-0-0 (1925). 

An American Scientist, William Walker Atkinson 
has under the nom-de-plume of Yogi Ramacharaka pub- 
lished several works on Yoga. Mr. Pandya though he 
has based his book on those works has been at great 
pains to expose the many incorrect ideas and statements 
of the foreign writer, who though very intimate with the 
system as prevailing in India, still lacks the intimacy 
which a native of the country possesses. Those interested 
in the science would find much to engage them here. 

ft 

“ SHE! JNANA SuRYODAYA” : by M. J. Malbari. (1925) 

We have received four volumes of this work. Two 
of these volumes were published in 1922 and two in 1923, 
They make up a continuous work. As we do not as a 
rule notice old books, we are unable to take a special 
notice of this one, although we find that what the author 
has got to state on the highly technical subject of Hindu 
Philosophy and Metaphysics, he has stated with clarity 
and illustrated with apt illustrations from Puranic lore. 

☆ 

“ATMODGARA” : By K. B. Patel. Pp. 67 Price As. 0-4-0 
(1926). 

This small book is a collection of rhapsodies or 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1933 


445 


spontaneous utterances on such subjects as, “Why am I 
attracted ?” “Where is disappointment V 9 “Am I living V 9 
ete. It is an attempt, an amateurish one, to imitate 
philosophers. 

* 

“ ATMA JNANA /s by D. M. Hathikhanwala. (1928). 

A small book of Vedantic studies, remarkable be- 
cause of being written by a Parsi, who is saturated with 
Hindu Philosophy. 

“ TATTVA JNANA NA NIBANDHO.” by M. V. Pandya. 
(1929). 

It is creditable to Mr. Pandya that although he is a 
busy professional man, he has managed to dive into the 
philosophy of his ancestors and produce readable essays 
on the Upanishads and the Vedanta. He has also handl- 
ed the subject of caste system, Varnairama and other 
social topics and tried to reconcile the old with the pro- 
gressive views of the present times. The work shows 
both thought and labour. 

☆ 

“ BAD AS' AH MARCUS AURELIUS, ANTONINUS NA 
VICHARO ” : By the late Maharaja Shri Kesari Sinhaji C. I. E., 
K. C. S.I. of Idar. Published by the Forbes Gujarati Sabha, Bombay 
Pp. 328, Price Ra. 2-0-0 (1929). 

This is a translation of the Thoughts of Emperor 
Marcus A. Antoninus, from the English version of George 
Long. Having been made by a ruling Prince and also 
preserving the philosophical spirit of the original it 



446 


Philosophy and Ethics 


certainly deserves more than passing attention. It will 
be found of great value to earnest thinkers. 

V 

“ PKEMASWARuPA SHRIKRIS’NA. PART IP’.-by M. V. 
Gandhi. ( 1930 ) 

This book is the translation of Swami Baba Prema- 
nanda Bharati’s “ Shri Krisna, the Lord of Love : ” Part 
II. The translation keeps up all the characteristics of 
Part I and is very well rendered and would doubtlessly 
interest all devotes of Shrikrishna who are found in large 
numbers in Gujarat. 

☆ 

“ SWA YAM PRERANA: 1 ’ — By Ravis’ankar AmbSs’ankar 
ChhSya. B. A., LL. B. ( 1931 ). 

* Auto-suggestion or Coueism ’ has become a fashion 
in Europe; it is at least in vogue there. There was nothing 
in Gujarati which could explain this method of recover- 
ing from illness, and getting better health by merely 
thinking of it. “ Think that you would get well : Repeat 
that you would get well, and you are sure to get well”, 
Emily Coue; so she claims. The book under review 
states the methods and the details of the experiment. 
It reveals an interesting phase of human thought. 

☆ 

“MAYA NI CHHAYAMAN : Under the spelltof cosmic 
Will”. By the late M. M. Shah ( 1935 ). 

A caustic essay by the late writer on the delusions 
©f the world. It is an incomplete writing. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907~1938 


m 


‘SAD ASAD YICHARA YlNODA'* : By J. Y. MeHta. 

In sixty-two chapters thoughts on worldly and 
spiritual matters are set out in easy language which will 
make the attempt popular. 

☆ 

“PRASTHANA BHEDA”: By P. C. Diwanji, M. A„ LL. M. 
( 1935 ). 

This book is a translation of a Sanskrit work of the 
same name by Madhusudana Saraswati into Gujarati 
with explanatory notes. In his introduction the translator 
discusses the question whether the Sanskrit book is an 
independent work or part of another larger work. His 
other works, incidents in his life, comments on his style 
and allied subjects also find place in the introduction 
which discloses a close study of the subject of the book 
and Madhusudana’s works. Students of Hindu metaphysics 
should feel obliged to Mr. Diwanji for the publication, 

S» 

“ ASTIKAYADA. "—By K. G. Kothari, ( 1936 ) 

Pandit Gangs Prasad Upadhyaya has written a book 
in Hindi on the above subject, * Belief in God It is 
translated into Gujarati by Mr. Kothari, who has taken 
great pains as it seems from the Preface, all throughout 
. his life to combat Atheism. At least it is a controversial 
subject and each side pulls its own way. 

Attempts have been made in this book to support the 
doctrine of Astika Vada by the authority of science, Hie 
Vedant, Upanishads and other religious works to prove 



448 


Philosophy and Ethics 


the existence of God. The arguments have been mar- 
shalled very well. 

☆ 

“ NAYA YUGA NO JAINA. By M. G. Kapadia. ( 1986 ) 

As its title shows the book relates to the tendencies 
in various fields, of the new Jaina youth, i. e., the young 
man of the present times. It is a store-house of infor- 
mation on the present state of Jaina polity, Jaina society 
and Jaina religion, with thoughtful observations inter- 
spersed here and there. It ought therefore, to prove vepy 
useful. 

☆ 

« SATYA NI S'ODHA MAN ATHA YARS'A NO MHAKO 
VAXRAGYA. By F. J. Mithnji. ( 1936 ) 

The title means " My Retirement from the world for 
eight years in search of Truth. 99 Mr. Mithuji is a Parsi- 
Zoroastrian by birth but by inclination a deep student of 
Hindu Philosophy, Vedanta etc. In order to find out the 
real secrets underlying these subjects and the truths 
taught by them, in a practial way he became a Hindu 
ascetic and mixed with numberless sadhus, saints, sana- 
yasins, to get at a genuine Guru. 

The experiences he relates are marvellous, as in 
almost every case he found these saints to be frauds and 
hypocrites. That a Parsi gentleman should take so intima? 
tely to Hindu philosophy and express himself in very good 
Gujarati, and correctly use technical, philosophical and 
Vedantic terms is very creditable to him because it is so 
unusual. W& are so glad to notice this book. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 44$ 

«‘HRIDAYA PARlKS'ANAGR NlTl TATTVA VTCHARA* 
By Kandanath K. Dikshit, B. A., M. G. P, ( 1910 ). ' ' 

An original work ( we mean not a translation ) on 
the abstruse science of ethics, Mr. Dikshit has made the 
subject as easy and interesting as possible. It is a lucid 
composition interspersed with principles and instances, 
culled from the every day literature and habits of our 
people ; and hence while reading it we hardly feel as if we 
were being introduced to or told about a science, which 
has been developed in recent times to a large extent by 
foreigners. 

The great beauty of the book is that the subject is 
presented in such an attractive shape and style, that one 
forgets that one is being treated to a subject, dry and 
abstruse and one in which the ordinarily educated class 
take hardly any interest. Mr. Dikshit should, therefore, 
have the satisfaction of finding that he has written a 
book, useful, admirable, and instructive. 

☆ 

“ARYADBARMA NITI AND CHANAKYA NlTI SARA" 
1910). Published by iha Society for Encouragement of Cheap 
Gujarati Lliterature, Bombay. 

The useful vrork done by this Society has already 
been noticed by us previously, and we are glad to find 
that it is persevering in that commendable path, in spite 
of many difficulties, shewing that the helmsman is a 
determined man and will not be cowed down by difficul- 
ties. The object is very praiseworthy as it aims at 
cheapening the best works in Gujarati literature till they 
attain the place of the famous works of Dickens and 

29 



450 


PhilosopLy $nd Efchics 


Thackery in the English publishing market i. e., are 
■offered to the public at phenomenally low prices. 

The society has outlined a scheme and advertised 
it in this book as an introduction for bringing out several 
standard works at very low prices. Into the details of 
this scheme we have no space to enter, but we may say 
this much that if it is carried out even partially it will 
inaugurate a new era in the publishing line of our 
literature. One of these two works has been thoroughly 
revised and purged of the inaccuracies committed by its 
translator Ngrayana Hemachandra, from Bengali and the 
other ■ is well rendered too. The Society deserves 
encouragement. 

V 

“AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY Op 
HERBERT SPENCER” : By Maganlal Ratanji Vidyarthi, B. A., 
B. Sc., Pp. 141 Price As. 0-8-0 ( 1912 ). 

This is a translation into Gujarati of Prof. Hudson’s 
book, published by the Rational Press Association. It is 
preceded by a short sketch of the life of Herbert Spencer. 
In places, the translator has tried to show the resemblance 
that exists between the Brahma of the Upanishads and 
the Unknowable of Herbert Spencer. 

It cannot be said that in Gujarati there is a plethora 
of such works. We do need genuine introductions to the 
thoughts and philosophy of the West, and when they 
come from the pen of cultured men, who themselves take 
a warm interest in the subject, they are sure to prove 
i^ful and instructive. We already have expressed our 
opinion in favour of the good work undertaken by the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


451 


writer and the publisher, and we have great pleasure in 
repeating it. The cheap price and the commendable 
quality of the work bid fair to make it popular. 

☆ 

“THE JNANES'WARX BHAGVADGITA” : Translated by 
Ratansimh Dipasimh Parmar, Pp. 459 Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1912 ). 

Jnaneswar, the saint of Alandi, in the Deccan, wrote 
this epoch-making work ( in verse ) when he was only 
fifteen years old. It is considered to be a miracle-one 
amongst many others of his. 

There was one other translation of this commentary 
on the Bhagwad Gita but a cheaper one was wanted and 
the Society has met the want. It is a very useful book 
for those who want to study Vedanta; and the introduction 
to this translation is instructive. 

‘ SATYA DHARMA PPAKAS’A” By Mulasaukar ManekaBI 
Yajnik B. A. ( 1912 ). 

The author explains the work to be “a collection of 
important verses from &ruti and Smriti with simpte 

Gujarati translation and scientific explanation / 7 The 
collection is most interesting as it gives in a connected 

form the mode of life at its various stages of a Hindu* 
enjoined by the Sastras. 

The translation is indeed simple. There might be 
two views about the practical utility of such a book ; but 
of its being entertaining and informing there can be no 
doubt. The introduction betrays a serious study of the 
subject in hand on the part of the compiler. 

☆ 



Hindu Polity 


452 


:i MANUS’ Y A KARTAVYA AND DHARMA JI JNASA- 
"PARTI” : -by D. V. Shankara. (1913). 

This book professes to be full of the €t elements of 
religion, and tales illustrating the greatness of 
Vallabha’s Pus'timarga.” In Gujarat, there has been 
lately a commendable awakening of the Vallabhi Marga 
Conscience, which has taken the shape of publications 
trying to explain the diferent tenets of this cult. In the 
form of a story, made up of dialogues, the writer 
has explained from his own point of view, certain inci- 
dents in the life of Kri.4na, which this cult has assimilat- 
ed within itself, as part and parcel of its being. He con- 
siders Love as the key which unlocks all secrets of the 
Vallabha Sampradaya ( Chapter X ). In spite of his best 
intentions we doubt, whether the book would become 
popular with the masses, as it is full of technical and 
other difficult matters. 

☆ 

MANU SMRITI : — 7 ' By Manisankar Prana, sankar S’ arm a, 
Pp. 400 Price Re. 1-8-0, (1914). 

ihe Manu Smriti is said to have been translated in- 
to simple Gujarati ( Saralartha ) in this book. We find 
not only that it is simply translated but also intelle- 
gently translated. It is well-known that the text of the 
original Smriti has been improved upon by later writers, 
to suit their own purposes. 

In several places the additions are absurd, and 
too palpable to pass as original text. All these have 
been carefully noted and it is in this feature that we 
think the present volume scores over others. With a 



Development cf Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 453 


lower price it should undoubtedly be recommended 
to be kept in the library of every educated Gujarati, 

“MANAS A. S' ASTRA” translated by Harsiddhabhai Vafu- 
bhai Divatia, M. A., LL. B. Vakil, High Court, Bombay and 
published by the Gujarat Vernacular Society of Abmedabad. 
Pp. 343, Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 1918 ). 

At all times it is difficult to treat of abstruse subjects 
like psychology and metaphysics in a way as would 
attract the general public ; it is more difficult when it has 
to be done through the medium of the translation of a 
foreign book. William James, Professor of Psychology fn 
the Harvard University, has been considered one of tibfe 
best writers on the subject, and this book is a translation 
of his work. 

It is not as if the translator, who himself has studied 
the subject, independently of this book, has blindly 
trusted or accepted all the opinions of the writer. Re 
has freely acknowledged that certain of his opinions are 
open to doubt. However to those inclined to know 
how the subject has been treated by other nations, the 
translation furnishes a very useful guide; one feels in 
reading it, that it is not the work turned out by a novice 
or by a mere mercenary hack, it is written by one who 
is thoroughly interested in it and quite at home in the 
subject. 




history. 



HISTORY. 

☆ 

“ TARIKHE ZUHUR-O-Z AVAL- E-DA VLAT-E-PARSI-- 
YAN : Or the history of the Rise and Fall of ihe Parsi Empire 59 : 
By Jammed ji Paianji Kapadia.Vol. L Pp, 824, VoL ILPp 900. (1906)*. 

This is another production in Gujarati from the pen 
of a Parsi. The name of the author, an old veteran of 
seventy years, is a name to conjure with on all matters 
respecting ancient Persian history. A fine Zend and 
Persian scholar, he has been following very keenly the 
researches and writings of Burnouf, Lassen, and Rawlin- 
son. Cuneiform inscriptions, and the flood of light 
thrown by researches in Archaeology, Philology and 
other sciences, have all helped Mr. Kapadia to produce a 
work in Gujarati, unique of its kind, stupendous in pro™ 
portion, interesting and instructive to scholars, and even 
ordinary readers, and in all matters on a par with works 
of European savants. 

The volumes under review are but a fragment, they 
take us from the dim ages of the past into the light of 
history upto the death of D rius the Great, son of 
Hystaspes, B. C. 496. The history is intended to be 
carried up to the time of the subversion of the Persian 
Empire by the Arabs in the Seventh Century. We wish: 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


457 


the author long life and energy enough to complete this 
self-imposed labour of love. 

☆ 

“ 1. MARATHI SATTA KO UDAYA. ” by Karamali Rahim 
Na*'jiani. 

“ 2. DAKSHIN NO PuKVA samaya no itihasa, ” 
by N. N. Mehta, (1908), 

The Gujarat Vernacular Society is obviously founded 
and endowed by its many endowers with the total 
aggregate of several lacks of rupees frr the purpose of 
encouraging the literary advancement of Gujarat* Of 
late several remarks, not flattering to its administration 
have been passed by those who think that it can do 
much better than what it does at present, in the way of 
encouragement. They say it squanders its funds in get- 
ting out a worthless output of books many in number, but 
verging on the 'side of paucity in quality and worth* The 
criticism is partly true, no doubt, but the hands of the 
Society are tied by the conditions proposed by those who 
have made the endowments. 

However, it can, with impunity, we think direct its 
efforts more towards the production of original writings,, 
than have more translations, though translations by 
themselves of good books are by no means to be despised 
of by us at the present moment. For instance, two of the 
books now under review, viz., Mr. Justice Ranade's * Rise 
of the Maratha Power * and Dr. Bhandarkar’s * History of 
the Deccan ’ before its conquest by the Mahomedans* are 
such excellent works, that it passes one's comprehension 
to find out why they were left untranslated so long* 



458 


History 


Both the translators have done their work well and re- 
produced the spirit of the original. They are such enter- 
taining and instructive books, that those who have not 
the ability to read them in the original should not miss 
the opportunity to peruse these translations. 

4 

TRANSLATION OF TODD’S RAJASTHANA VOLS I 
and II ” by B. F. Karbharl (1911). 

These two substantial volumes represent the labors 
of Mr. Bhagubhfti extending over several years and the 
result is reproduction in Gujarati of one of the most valu- 
ed works on Rajput ana, by one who loved the romance 
and the chivalry of the province, as well as he loved His 
own country. 

There is another translation of the same work, also 
placed on the market. We have our own doubts as to 
there being want of two such translations. The 
language of this translation is simple, and in many 
places has preserved the inimitable spirit of the original. 

☆ 

'* RAMAYANA NUN RAHASYA ” :-Tranelated by MaganUl 
M&aeklal Jhaveri. Pp. 110 ( 1912 ). 

Professor Ramadeva B, A. of the Haridwar Gurukula 
has written this work in Hindi. It only partially proceeds 
on the lines followed by Babu Bankim Chandra in his 
Krishna Charitra, who has by means of certain canons 
well-known in testing the historical value of mythologi- 
cal events done so much to show Krishna really as he 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


459 


If the learned Professor had followed out the method 
in its entirety he would have done very valuable service 
indeed; but even as it is, he has been able to establish by 
internal evidence that the popular belief about Jatayu be- 
ing a huge bird, Hanumana being a monkey and Ravana 
the possessor of ten heads and twenty hands is a myth 
and that they all were human beings. 

He has also drawn prominent attention to another 
fact viz., that the most suffering individual in the whole 
of the Ramayana is Bharata and not Rama or Sita, who 
at times even in the forest, had moments of pleasure and 
enjoyment, but not so Bharata who for fourteen years on 
-end, in spite of the boon of kingship, won for him by his 
mother, lived a Spartan life of simplicity and as- 
ceticism. The style of the translation is simple. 

* 

“ PRACH1NA BHABATA" ^Translated by Maganl&i Mitoaki&i 
Jhaveii. Price Ee 0-8-0 ( 1914 

Mr- P. V\ Kane has written in Marathi a book trying 
to shew the state of India in the times of the R&mayana 
and the Mahabharata. It is based on original Sanskrit 
texts, picked up from various sources, to illustrate the 
particular branch of life in hand. The result to our mind, 
however, is not so successful, as for instance that parti- 
cular part of R, C. Butt's ‘Civilization of Ancient India' is. 

We know the late Mr. Govardhanram Tripathi's ideal, 
while in retirement, prevailing in those remote ages, and 
with that view he had begun the study of several Sanskrit 
works. But as modem researches show, the knowledge 
of Sanskrit alone is not sufficient for the purpose, Dials- 



460 


History 


cts of Central Asia, in addition to Pali, Magadhi, Prakrit 
and other languages require to be known. The present 
picture may, however, be taken to be a pioneer work in 
that line, 

" JANGAMAN ZUKELUN JAGAT »* :-By B. L. Kaji b. a., 
s. T. c. d. and C. D. Nanavati B. A., S. T. C. D. Pp. 150 Price Bs L 
0-8-0 ( 1916 ) 

Principal J. N. Fraser's book, u The World at War ” 
has been translated by these two gentlemen, in order to 
acquaint the masses and also those who do not read 
English with the causes of the origin of the present War 
and its moral responsibility. 

This they have done in order to dissipate incorrect 
ideas about it. It is full of information which is conveyed 
in simple and lucid Gujarati and hence calculated to serve 
the purpose for which it is written fully. 

* 

“ JEHANGIR NAMA n : — By Mashrek Alias Sohrab Sheheri- 
ySr Irani Pp. 285. Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1917 ) 

An Irani or Persian by birth, Persian is the mother 
tongue of" Mashrek ** still he has been able to cultivate 
Tns study of Gujarati to such a great extent as to have 
turned out, in the words of his friends, an “ all round 
author, tragic, comic and what not. 

The present work is a translation of a Persian poem*, 
by Abdul Kasim Hayrati. It relates to the career of 
Jehangir, whose career has not been adequately chroni- 
cled by Firdosi. in his Shah Nameh, The translation 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


481 


preserves that peculiar flavour which is to be found in old 
Persian Namehs or chronicles, and thus rings a welcome 
change on the jejune novel literature which at present 
dominates the pen of Parsi writers, 

* 

“ APANA LAGHU BaNDHL ANGKEJ v :~By J. P. Joshi- 
pura M. a. ( 4918 ) 

This book is a translation of course. The original 
is written as part of an American Juvenile Education 
series, and is called "Our Little English Cousins The 
title very well suits the great nation, which may call 
the children of the mother country, « our little cousins” 
but to literary translate it, and with reference to Indian 
children to call them our little cousins, is unmeaning and 
ridiculous. 

In fact the title of the book puzzled us a little and we 
thought it a piece of temerity on the part of a Gujarati to 
call an Englishman, a little cousin. It was when we 
read the preface that we could get some explanation of 
this extraordinary and infelicitous heading. The book 
describes the Life of English children at home, their 
places of amuesement etc. 

"JAGATA NO VARTARuPA ITIHASA’' — by G. M. Shah 
■b. A., LC. B. (1918). 

This substantial volume comprising but only nine 
parts of a larger whole, still to come, is a translation of 
Singe's ‘Story of the World' for the children of the British 
Empire. The story telling in the original is really such as 



462 


History 


would please children and instruct them. Even in this 
translation, there are portions which cannot but interest 
them; but once for all, we may say here, in connection 
with this, with the prior books noticed above and with 
the subsequent one to be noticed below that, if instead of 
engaging the services of these writers in the work of mere 
translation, they had been asked to rewrite the story or 
the subject in their own words, taking the original as 
their basis or model, a far better result could have been 
achieved. 

With the munificent sum at the disposal of H. H.’s 
Educational Department surely better work than a mere 
handful of translations could have been added to the 
Gujarati Literature. Are educationists of the type of R. 
B. Kamalas'ankar to be expected to work on the mech- 
anical process of translation and earn their hire by tread- 
ing the mill or are they to be called upon to produce 
something original and make their work worthy of their 
wages ? We would have infinitely more preferred to see 
Mr. Shah telling this * Story of the World > in his own 
words after saturating himself with the subject from 
Singe's original. There was the instance of Narmada- 
gankar's ‘ Rajyaranga ’ before him. How well has he 
narrated the story of the world there ? 

☆ 

-GUJARAT NO ITIHASA By AtmarSm Motiram 
Divanji, b. a. Pp. 215 Price Re. 1-0-0 (1918). 

The object of the Committee in selecting this subject 
for the purpose of translation is no doubt commendable. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


It wanted to furnish to Gujarati readers with an authentic 
historical account of the State of Gujarat during the 
Musalman period. For that purpose it selected that 
portion of Ferishta’s Persian Chronicle which is concerned 
with Gujarat. 

At his best Ferishta in Persian neither furnishes ele- 
gant reading nor graceful style. He is inelegant, ungrace- 
ful, rough and at times ungrammatical and this transla- 
tion is a faithful one in all those respects; in addition it 
is full of pranks of printer’s devils; several Persian words 
and phrases are reproduced bodily, without any explana- 
tion, and those which were found difficult to translate, 
skipped over. 

The genius of the style remains Persian, and a 
Gujarati reader unacquainted with it, would fail to follow 
the literal translation of such pure Persian phrases as 
that “the carpet of friendship was rolled up”. Further 
the translation could at least have been made more use- 
ful and also interesting by adding notes, such as are 
found in Vincent Smith’s works. We regret we do not 
find much in the book on which to congratulate the 
Committee. It was possible to make it readable. 

Q 

^GUJABAT NA 1TIHASA Nl VATO by C. T. Modi, 
(1919)* 

There are some pictures given in this little book to 
illustrate the subjects treated. As its name implies, the 
writer I has successfully tried to narrate in the in- 
teresting form of a story the history of Gujarat. Apart 



from its value to teachers in schools, it is sure to prove of 
great use to those who care to know about the general 
outstanding features of our history, without being bored 
by a larger but technical work. 

☆ 

“THE HISTORY OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CON- 
GRESS 5/ — • by J. N. Varma b. a., ll. b., m. sc. Bar-at law, and 
4 Bhanu Chandra. 5 Pp, 346 Price Rs. 5-0-0 (1920), 

This substiantial volume gives, as its name implies, a 
connected history of the workings of the National Con- 
gress. It is more or less a translation of “ How India 
Wrought for Freedom", but is so well done that one 
would not suspect it to be a translation. 

☆ 

“SURIS’WAR ANE SAMRAT by Muniraja Vidyavijaya 
Pp. 417. Price Rs. 2-8-0 ; 1920). 

Akbar’s tolerance of all religions and his keen desire 
to make himself acquainted with the tenets of every one 
of them is a historical fact. This book sets ont in Guja- 
rati, the whole history of his relations with one of the 
best Jaina ascetics of his time, Muni Shri Harivijaya 
Suri. It commences with the expression of Akbar’s 
desire to see him and its origin, and ends with the end of 
the Acharya. Incidentally it treats of the life of Akbar 
and its religious side, and gives biographical details of 
theSuriji too. 

The scholarly Sadhu has unlike his other confreres, 
who either move in the narrow rut of mere Upade^a 
(sermons) or if they take to writing, write expositions on 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 465 

philosophy and other subjects, tackled an unusual 
subject for an aseddc, vtz., history and tackled it on the 
mo,st modem or up-to-date lines. All available sources, 
English, Persian, Old Gujarati, bearing on the subject 
have been tapped and a very presentable book is the 
■result. 

Of course, it is not free from faults as there are seve- 
ral incidents mentioned in the life of the Suriji, which 
would not be accepted as correct or statements of truth by 
those who are not swayed by feelings of partiality for the 
Jaina faith; naturally a Sadbu of that faith would lean 
towards exploiting his own religion. 

But the welcome sign that the present day Sadhus, 
specially those who are disciples of the great Acharya, 
the &astravisarada Vijaya Dharma Sun, like the author, 
like Upadhyaya Indravijayaji, like the author of the 
Adhyatma Tattvaloka have begun to take interest in 
history and literature on the lines of their past Munis, 
who wrote so many Rasas and other works, is too rare to 
Wallowed to go unnoticed and hence we cannot hold 
back our meed of praise from this work, which reads both 
like a story and history. 

A printed map of the itinerary of the Muniji assists 
the reader in comprehending the difficulties of the road 
encountered by him in travelling from Gandhar, near 
Broach to Fatehpur Sikri. We trust the Muniji would 
have the book translated into English to secure it a wider 
sphere of usefulness. A foreword by the rising historical 
writer of our province Mr. Kanaiyalal Munshi adds to the 
value of the book. The Muniji has unlimited leisure, 
30 



466 


History 


and we are sure he would turn out equally welcome works? 
in the future. 

☆ 

“ PALANPUR RAJYA NO ITIHASA PART I ”-by Prince 
Taley Mahmad Khanji (1920). 

A substantial volume profusely illustrated and with 
maps, printed on fine glazed paper, this history of the 
State of Palanpur in Gujarat is the first of its kind. The 
worthy Prince who is responsible for the composition and 
publication of the volume, happily conceived the idea of 
preparing in a permanent form the chronicle of the house 
to which he belongs and he has excuted his purpose in a 
very admirable way. 

It is this sort of local work which is sadly needed to 
build up a reliable general history of Gujarat. Connected as 
this Royal Family is with Zalod on one side and Cambay 
and Junagadh and other Nawab families on the other* 
the subject matter of the volume is calculated to throw 
historical light on many events connected with those 
States. 

The State of Palanpur lying as it does on the border- 
land of Gujarat and Marwar is unique in many respects. 
It has kept up the traditions founded by Akbar, marrying 
into Hindu families ; and the present Prince is the son of 
a Hindu mother to whom he has most affectionately 
dedicated the fruit of his labors. The notes appended to 
the text are the most valuable work, as they are very 
instructive and betray an amount of scholarship. 

We congratulate Prince Taley Mahmad Khanji on 
the sterling work he has done, and we do so doubly as it 



evelopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


467 


is rare to find a Prince taking so kindly to letters, and 
that too, to such a useful subject as history. 

“ GUIDE TO BOMBAY PRESIDENCY EXCLUDING 
SIND, WITH A MAP OP THAT TERRITORY ” by P. C* 
Diwanji, m. a. ? ll, m. (1921) 

As its name implies, this book is a guide for those 
who seek information about administrative and other 
aspects of the Presidency, Information embodied in it is 
collected from Gazatteers, and has been brought up-to- 
date by means of tapping local sources. It thus pre- 
sents in a handy form and in one place, information like- 
ly to prove of use to those who have now and then to 
travel over the Presidency, owing to exigencies of service. 

☆ 

“ CHINA NI SANSKlilTI.” by G. M. Shah. B, A., LL. is* 
(1921). 

Although this book is a translation of Gile’s * Civili- 
sation in China/ the translation has been so well render- 
ed as to read like an original work. It is due to the sub- 
ject itself being congenial to the translator’s pen. 

This is one of the best books is the series both so far 
as selection and execution are concerned. It gives so 
much information about the past and present state of 
China, and there is so much of entertainment in it, that 
one would not like to give up reading it till one has 
finished it wholly. 

£ 



468 


History 


“ PBaCHINA JAIN A LEKHA-SANGRAHA ” Part II. Pp. 
58; 336; 344 Price Rs. 3-8-0. (1921 ). 

This collection of old Jaina inscriptions engraved on 
copper plates, stones, images etc., is one of the most 
valuable work we have come across, and we sincerely 
congratulate the compiler, and his two helpers Shrimant 
Kantivijayaji and Jhaveri Lalbhai ( who furnished the 
funds to publish it ). It is a unique book in so far as it 
places at the disposal of a student of the history of 
Gujarat materials of a very useful kind. The period it 
covers is nearly one thousand years, and the places from 
which the inscriptions are gathered are those invariably 
connected with Gujarat and Kathiawad, besides the two 
.Provinces themselves. 

Extensive notes of the minutest kind on each inscri- 
ption, dealing with the history of the spot, the founder of 

the institution, the event to commemorate which it was 
brought into existence and many other interesting 

matters, have helped to take away the otherwise techni- 
cal character of such a collection, and added to its worth 
as a popular historical work. 

This is one more proof of the living interest which 
some of the Jaina religious heads are taking in matters 
outside their strict routine of preaching sermons and of 
resorting to literary and historical subjects which once for- 
med their forte, say in the earlier centuries of the last era. 

☆ 

M AHWAL-E-AMBIYA : ” Vol I. By Tyab Ali Alibhai 
■Karim ji Pp. 504 Price Rs. 4-0-0 (1921). 

Written by a Borah gentleman for Borah readers this 
history of the Prophets, Jewish, Christians and Mohame- 



Development of Gnjaiati Liturature : 1907-1938 469 

dans, hardly betrays a trace of the peculiarity of langu- 
age special to the community. The author's desire is to 
dispel the stupendous ignorance that at present obtains 
amongst his coreligionists on the subject, and to carry 
out his object he is prepared to distribute this substanti- 
al volume gratis amongst them. 

The contents betray a close and assiduous study of 
the materials, though some of them secondhand, but so 
far as the general object is concerned the work does not 
suffer in any way on that account. Two general indexes 
at the end add to the utility of the book. 

☆ 

44 SAMUDRA GUPTA : ” By Bharatram Bharmsukhram 
Mehta. Pp. 95 Price As. 13. (1922). 

Sumudra Gupta was one of the most powerful Empe- 
rors of ancient India. An attempt has been made to 
narrate his life on original lines in this book, which for 
lack of suitable materials does not seem to advance our 
knowledge of the subject any further than what we al- 
ready possess. 

☆ 

44 AITIHASIKA YARTA.” By Najuklal Nandalal ChoksL 
Pp. 186. Price. Be. 0-12-0. (1923). 

The Mogul period is treated in this volume in the 
* present day approved fashion, wherein history consists 
of a continuous, informative narrative, and not a mere 
padding of dates, places, persons and events. 



470 


History 


“ HISTOY OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS ” 
YoL II ” By J. N. Yarma, b. a. ll. b. bae-at-law and 4 Bhanu- 
chandra’ Pp. 248. Price Rs. 3-0-0 (1923). 

This continuation of the history of the Indian 
National Congress brings it uptodate, in as much as it em- 
bodies the work done at its last seassion at Gaya. The 
authors have had to be at pains to collect materials for 
this volume because no authoritative reports have yet 
been published of some of the latest sessions, and hence 
it is the more creditable to them, that instead of 
waiting for transferring ready materials to their book, a 
comparatively easy task, they have elected to work 
through and sift different newspaper-reports for suitable 
matter. A Gujarati reader can now have a complete 
history of this National Institution at his elbow whenever 
wanted. 

44 champaranya man MAHATMA GANDHIJI ” 

{ Mahatma Gandhiji in Champaran ) :-By Baba Rajendraprasad, 
translated by Bhimjibhai H. JParikh ( Sushil ) and published by 
the Yugadharma Karyalaya, Ahmedabad. Pp. 308. Pried. 
Re. 1-8-0 ( 1923 ) 

This narrative of the work done by Mahatma Gandhi 
in Champaran in 1917 and 1918 is of absorbing interest. 
It was first given a book-form in Hindi by one of his co- 
workers. It is now published in Gujarati and loses noth- 
ing of its interest and charm in the translation. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


471 


4 4 INDIAN HISTORY-THE TURK AND THE PATHAN 
PERIODS”: — By Najuklal Nandalal Choksi. Pp. 196. Price 
Re. O-HW) ( 1923 ). 

This is a text-book of history prepared for nationa- 
list schools. It has been written after a close study of 
authorities bearing on this period and the effect of the 
rule of the dynasty is summed up in an intelligently 
written epilogue. 

“ PURVA RANGA” :-By Datfcatraya Balakrisna Kalelkar and 
Narahari Dwarkadas Parikh. Pp. 290. Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 1923 ). 

This is an attempt to reconstruct Northen India as it 
was in the past say before the Mohammedans came there. 
It has eminently succeeded in giving in a small compass 
a picture of old India, political, religious and literary, 
unburdened with any technical notes. We find it both 
interesting and instructive. 

☆ 

MARANIYU IRELAND ” :-By Jhaverchand Meghsni. b. a. 
Pp. 181. Price Re. 0-12-0 ( 1923 ) 

The title of the book-Desperate Ireland-is enough to 
explain its subject matter. The plight of Ireland and its 
struggle for freedom are depicted in Mr. Meghani's inimi- 
table style. 

44 ASIYA NO US'AHKALA ” :-By Jagajivan Harikrisna Yyas. 
B. A., Printed at the Union Printing Press, Ahmedabad, Cloth 
cover, Pp. 96 Price Re. 1-4-0 (1923 ). 

M. Paul Richard's book translated from French into 
English as “ The Dawn over Asia u is well known. His 



472 


History 


inspiring lectures and encouraging messages are translated 
into Gujarati in this book, the income from the sale of 
which is to be used to help the Asiatic League. 

& 

“ APNA DESHA NO ITIHASA ” Part II.— By Prof. 
Nrisimhaprasad Halidas Bhatt M. a. Printed at the Saraswati Print- 
ing Press, Bhavnagar. Paper cover, Pp. 86 Price Re. 0-4-0 ( 1923 ). 

This history of our country is a continuation of the 
first part, and gives a succint story shorn of dates, etc. 
thus making it pleasant for study. 

•£r 

“ ASIA NUN KALANKA ”:-By Amratlal Dalpaibhai S'eth; 
Pp. 104. Price Re. 0-8-0 (1923) 

The tragedy enacted in Korea by Japan, is by now- 
well known. The history of that unfortunate country, 
which the author calls the ‘ Stigma of Asia,’ is so 
feelingly told that one does not like to leave off this 
little book without reading it from cover to cover. 

☆ 

“ KOREA NI LAD AT ” :-By Nandalai Manilal Shah Pp 51 
Price Re. 0-3-0 ( 1923 ). 

We noticed only very recently a small book on the 
very subject- Korea’s fight against Japan ’ issued from 
Ranpur. This book also follows the same source as the 
other one. It is good in its way, but not so impressive as 
the fiast one. We doubt if there is room in our literature 
for two such books. 

☆ 



Development of Gojarati Literature : 1907-1958 475 

4< BOMB - YUGrA NUN BENGAL OR BENGAL DURING 
BOMB OUTRAGES 9 *-By Natvar M. Yimavala Pp. 200 Price 
Re. 1-0-0 ( 1925 ) 

Mr. Natyarlal Vimavala is connected with both these 
books, as his name occurs in both of them* Barindra 
Kumar Ghose’s “Atmakarhino Dharpakader Yuga” has 

furnished the subject-matter of both the works and the 
stories of mothers who also suffered like him, Ullaskar, 
Upendra, etc. are also embodied in them. 

The original, when published had made a great stir 
and in these books, too, we find a sustained interest kept 
up by the narrators as the tales unfolded are of abiding 
interest, in so far as they narrate the unspeakable hard- 
ships endured in jail by members belonging to the higher 
strata of society, but endured even then with a stoicism 
and a welcome which have only now become the vogue 
because of Mahatmaji’s propaganda, Both the books are 
certainly very well written. 

☆ 

“ PURATATTYA VOL. I •* :-Pp. 509. Price. Rs. 5-12-0 (1924) 

A substantial work; full of valuable, linguistic and 
antiquarian research work; this is the idea that rises uppe- 
most in one’s mind in handling this volume. Concerted 
action in this direction is a new departure in our province 
and though the workers are few, the work they do is on 
proper lines, and the perseverence in it, even though 
now and then discouragement is sure to be encountered, 
is bound to succeed in the end. The subject is technical 
and the number of persons interested in it are infinitesima . 
still it has its useful side and hence deserves prosecution 
without any break. 

☆ 



474 


History 


“ PRACHINA GUJARAT ” By N. V. Thakkar Pp. 319. 
Price Rs. 3-0-0 { 1925 ). 

A fascinating chapter in the early history of Gujarat 
of the 8th century, is narrated in this novel. Surapal, Vana- 
raja, Anahil, Chamaksimha were some of the heroes who 
undertook to free Gujarat from the foreign yoke of Bhuvada 
Solanki, and the book deals with their adventures and 
struggles. The writer has gone to original historical 
sources for his subject, and tried to present it in a popular 
form; the greatest obstacle, however, in his way, is his 
stilted, artificial language, which scares away those very 
classes of readers whose sympathy he wants to enlist. 

☆ 

“THE HITGRY OF RAJASTHAN VoL I and II ” .-by 
the late Ratansinh Dipasinh Parmar. Pp. 776 each, Price Rs. 5-0-0 
each (1925) Second edition. 

Those two substantial volumes with suitable illustra- 
tions being a translation of Col. Todd's ‘ Annals of 
Rajputana* priced Rupees five each are cheap enough. The 
translation contains footnotes comprising observations in 
the light of recent research. That a second edition had 
been called for in eleven years is significant of the popu- 
larity the work has secured. 

☆ 

u THE SHIPPING OF GUJARAT /T : by Ratnamanirao 
Bhimrao B. A. (1927). 

This is the reprint of a contribution by the 
writer to the ‘ Vasant Silver Jubilee Memorial Volume 
This subject of the shipping of Gujarat is virgin 
soil and Mr. Ratnamanirao has by his faculty for research, 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907 : 1938 


475 


approached it in a very interesting way. He is slowly 
forging ahead, as a writer interested deeply in the anti- 
quities of Gujarat and we see in his work the promise of 
sound scholarship. He has ransacked various literatures 
to arrive at a correct history of our shipping terms and 
of our shipping. The vocabulary of our vernacular ship- 
ping terms and of the ship-building yard is indeed very 
useful. The illustrations are nice also. 

☆ 

“ BUZATO DIPAKA-PART II ” by Kakalbhai Kothari 

It narrates the pathetic details of the life of the last 
of the Moguls and his family members. It is affecting 
and well translated. 

☆ 

44 MATERIALS FOR A HISTORY OF GUJARAT” ;b y 
N armadasankar Vailabhaji Trivedi. Pp. 252. Price Re. 1-0-0 (1928) 

The Forbes Gujarati Sabha had a mass of materials 
in its possession bearing on several historical incidents of 
the province. They required sorting and sifting. Mr. 
Trivedi has done it and produced a volume which besides 
being interesting even if read for its own sake, furnishes 
helpful information on the subjects dealt within its pages. 

44 THE VOICE OF CHINA ” : by ChandraSankar P. Shukla. 

<1928) 

This is a translation of " Letters from John China- 
man. M The letters breathe the spirit of “ China for the 
•Chinese ” and would no doubt furnish interesting reading 



476 


History 


in the present times when her nationalistic tendencies are 
actively coming to a head. 

☆ 

“ THE HISTORY OF GONDaL AND LIFE OF MAHA- 
RAJA SHRI BHAGYAT SINHJI. 55 : by Rajavaidya J. R. 
Shastri. (1928) 

Gondal is one of the premier native states of Kathia- 
wad and is ruled by an enlightened Ruler who during his 
sojourn in England and Scotland unlike other Princes,, 
utUlised his time, instead of frittering away it in studying 
Medicine and obtaining the degrees of M. D; H. C. P. E, 
F. R. C- P. H. H. Shree Bhagvat Sinhji has made 
Gondal an ideal State and so far as administration is con- 
cerned he does not spare himself. 

The history of his State and his dynasty as set out in 
this bulky volume is complete in every detail from the 
times of &ri Krisna up-to-date. The incidents of his reign 
are also very fully described and they furnish eloquent 
proof of the different stages through which H. H. has 
developed the resources of his State so as to make it a 
model one. The author is a medical man by profession 
still he has turned out a book which does him credit in 
every way. Altogether the book fulfils a want so far as the 
State was concerned. It must find a permanent place 
among its valuable archives. 

☆ 

“ GUJARAT NO RAJARANGA. ” by B. P. Bhatt and M. 
D.Joshi. (1929 ). 

' A book giving all round inforination about Gujarat, 
geographical, historical, and artistic. It is written with 



Development} of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 477 


the best of ambitions and is packed with information 
about Old and Modern Gujarat. 

☆ 

‘TJAKBAR-E-AKBARI 5 ’ : By Sadik. Pp. 308 Price Re, 3-8-0 
(1930). 

An illustrated history of the times of Akbar, this 
is how the writer describes his book. A very learned 
introduction by Prof. Kamdar of the Baroda College, sets 
out the salient points of Azad's book of which this is a 
translation, and criticizes the attempts made by Vincent 
A. Smith and others to belittle the great of work Akbar. 
He was the first to start both in theory and practice, . 
the doctrine of Hindu-Moslem unity, if India is to be 
governed peacefully; and this feature of Akbar’s activity 
deserves both prominence and accentuation, particularly 
in these days. 

It is with this view that " Sadik ” has published this 
translation. It is entirely readable and it is cast more in 
the form of an interesting narrative told in simple 
language than a collection of complicated historical facts 
and events. 

☆ 

“ A FEW HISTORICAL WEAPONS ” : by Prof. Manik- 
rao. (1931). 

The life-history of the different weapons of offence 
and defence-mostly of offence or attack - is set out in this 
pamphlet. It has a couple of illustrations, one of them 
explaining and giving the names of the different parts of 
the sword genus. Saif and Teg ( both of them mean a 



478 


History 


a sword in Arabic and Persian respectively ) Swords, the 
Bhavani Sword of 6ivaji Maharaj, the Nimacha ( Half- 
sword ), the Jamdhar ( a dagger ), said to have been used 
by 6ivaji against Afzal Khan, ( the writer thinks that it 
must be a short sword like a dagger and not the bigger 
sort), the Wagh-nakha and various other kinds of identical 
weapons are described, in respect of their manufacture, 
original users and owners; the descriptions though neces- 
sarily short and scrappy are still such as to enlighten the 
ignorant-and many of us are ignorant-on the use made of 
those weapons on historical occasions. So, as the first 
book of its kind on this somewhat technical subject it is 
sure to receive a hearty welcome. 

Q 

« LOHI NI IMARAT ” : by Prof. C. B. Jhori. (1981) 

Spain in the 16th century was as great an imperial 
power in Europe as Britain is to-day. She used to hold 
sway over many a nation. The people of Holland resolv- 
ed to ovorthrow the yoke. Their efforts were crowned 
with success and only the pen of a Motley could record 
the glorious events of the brave struggle of the Dutch 
people. 

Only last year India was engaged in a death-grip 
with an equally well-organised Imperial power. Motley's 
History of the Dutch Republic would under the circum- 
stances, be only a beacon- light to the struggling human 
mass of this vast Continent, trying to free itself from 
Britain's grip. At the suggestion of Mahatma Gandhi,. 
Prof. Chandra Bhal Jhori of the Gujarat Vidyapitha 
adapted the immortal work in Hindi in a concise form 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


479' 


reducing the original 1,500 pages to 500, thus making it 
more readable to those who are hard pressed for time. 
The Hindi ‘Naramedha* was warmly received by the 
Hindi reading public. 

‘Lohi ni Imarat’ is a Gujarati rendering of Hindi 
‘Narmedha* of Prof. Jhori brought out by the Gandiva 
Sahitya Mandir of Surat and will be greatly welcomed 
by Gujarat. The translation is lucid and affords delight- 
ful reading. Besides it is very opportune. The get-up 
and printing leave nothing to be desired. The book is 
priced very cheap at Rs. 2 only. 

* 

"CUTCH NA KALADHARO i. e., CHANDRA VAMSA 
CHARITRA ” by D. L. Karani (1932). 

This substantial volume of the history of Cutch — an 
important Native State of Western India — is based on 
many sources, specially bardic literature and folklore, 
both of which exist in a large measure in Cutch and 
await sifting, .sorting and discreet discrimination at the 
hands of those who are interested in history and chroni- 
cle. Cutch is an ancient land and has undergone many 
vicissitudes of fortune, and thus possesses interesting 
history. It is connected on one side with Sind and on 
the other with Kathiawad and Gujarat, Its history there- 
fore, would throw light on the history of those provinces. 

One source for writing the history of Cutch is chroni- 
cles and poems written by Mohammedan writers. As re- 
marked by Mr. Thakkar in his Foreword — and Mr. Thak- 
kar is an attentive student of such chronicles and poems 



* 480 


History 


in the original — these chronicles and poems having been 
written with the object of exalting their own creed and 
depressing that of the Hindus do not at all times represent 
true facts. The greater is the need therefore of sifting 
the material from amongst that source. This book repre- 
sents great labour and trouble, and is very valuable for 
the future chroniclers of Cutch, as it has brought together 
in one place much useful matter. 

☆ 

“ BENGAL BE'HAL ” : by Gopaidas Patel ( 1932) 

This is a narration of conditions in Bengal under 
Clive and serves as a companion volume to an earlier 
publication : ‘‘Battle of Plassey.” It is a harrowing 
tale of how indigenous industries were ruined in 
Bengal, how artisans were crushed and Bengal’s tremen- 
dous wealth steadily drained away. The author has 
made a very good attempt to do full justice to the 
subject. 

“KAThIAWAD man saryabhatjma satta and 

GAEKWADI MAJMUDAR ** : By Nayansukbrai Yinodrai 

Majmudar Pp. 465 Price. Rs. 2-0-0 (1933) 

The writer of this book — a sort of family history of 
the Majmudars who served the Gaekwads, principally in 
Kathiawad during the period of the Maratha Sovereignty 
in that Province -belongs to the family of that great Bha- 
kta poet of Junagadha, Narsimha Mehta. 

The book is replete with first-hand information 
about those ancestors of the compliler, who in various 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 


481 


capacities, as fighters and as administrators* contributed 
their share in the bringing about of orderliness out of the 
chaos that reigned there in those stirring times, between 
Samvat years 1780 and 1890. The narrative comes as 
far as Samvat Year 1941. 

Every statement is supported by documentary evi- 
dence* which is interesting from a historical point of view. 
Besides being State servants the writer’s forbears were 
great V aisnava Bhaktas and poets. Altogether the book 
is sure to prove helpful as shedding some light on the 
later history of the Province. 

# 

7 ‘TAW ARIKH A NI TE JA-CHH A YA” — by Gunavantrai 
Acharya. (1935). 

‘The Lights and Shades of History : Part P consists of 
a well executed translation of Pandit Jawaharla.1 Nehru s 
Letters on the History of the World written from jail to 
his daughter Indira. The translation maintains very admi- 
rably the spirit of the original. 

☆ 

“HISTORICAL INSCRIPTIONS OF GUJARAT : Part II’ < 
editej by Oirijasankar V. Acharya B. a , (1935). 

The Forbes Gujarati Sabha has undertaken very valu- 
able work, in the shape of publishing the Inscriptions— 
stone, copperplate etc., of Gujarat, text and translation— 
from the earliest times to the end of the Vsghela dynasty. 
The work has been entrusted to Mr. Acharya, than whom 
na one else is more fitted for the job. He has very credi- 
tably acquitted himself in the first part. 

31 



4S2 


History 


This is the second part and it takes up the period, 
beginning with the Gujarat dynasty and closes with the 
close of the Chalukya dynasty. The translation is well 
done, but the notes are very defective, even in some 
cases they fail to come up-to-date. He has in all up to 
now dealt with 206 such Inscriptions. The treatment in 
spite of being technical has successfully made the sub- 
ject interesting. 

☆ 

“Bharatiya jaina shramana sanskriti axe 

LEKHAN KALA; LEKHAN KALA VIBHAGA”— by Mnni S'ri. 
Ptrnya Yijayaji (1936). 

This is a most interesting and comparatively exhaus- 
tive research work, so far as the origin and the develop- 
ment of the art of writing in India is concerned. Though 
the research was made particularly through the medium 
of the Jaina Bhandars, the results are such as also can be 
accepted commonly for the art; of writing of the other 
communities. 

Palmyra leaf, birch bark, and other materials used in 
the writing and binding of books in the dim old ages of 
the past all find their place here. The illustrations make 
the work; most informing and instructive and the three 
schedules at the end add to its value. 

☆ 

“PRACHINA BHARATVARS’A-Parfc II” by Dr. T. L. 
Shah, L- M. & s. (1936). 

The first Part of this remarkable work, remarkable- 
because of a man of medicine delving deep into the and- 



DoTeiopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 #83 


ent history of India — has already been noticed. This subs- 
tantial volume of five hundred pages deals with numisma- 
tics — old coins i. e., coins current in ancient India. In addi- 
tion, the period covered by the Maurya dynasty and the 
onslaughts of foreigners — Yavanas — have been handled 
with the precision of a scientist. The indexes are very 
use'ful and furnish a key to the varied contents of the 
volume, 

* 

“PRA CHINA BHARAT VARS’ A— Part 111” by Dr. T. L. 
Shilh, h, m. & s. i(1938). 

This excellent history of Ancient India deals in this 
Part, with the decline and fall of the Maurya dynasty, 
the rule of the Sungas and the invasions of India by fore- 
igners, such as Huns, Scythians, Parthians, &c. Incident- 
ally, the author traces the origin of Porwal(d) s, Oswals, 
and S'rimalis, important sections of the Hindu inhabitants 
of Gujarat, and theorises also on the origin of the word 
Gujarat (Gujaratra) itself. It continues its admirable 
feature of basing every statement on some authority or 
other and the index at the end serves a ve^ useful 
purpose. 

☆ 

“GUJARATA FIVE THOUSAND YEARS AGO’ -by Muri 
bbai Dwivedi. (1338). 

Mr. Dwivedi has tried to recreate Gujarat as it exist- 
ed five thousand years ago from archaeological finds as 
well as coins, idols, and texts from the Vedas. The boun- 
daries of the Province as they existed then, and the tribes 
that dwelt there, have been referred to in a way, which 
makes his little book very interesting to read. 



484 


History-Topography 


The ‘Asuras* of those days were great navigators and 
cognizant of many arts and sciences. In fact the Aryans 
who came later and conquered them absorbed a great 
part of their culture. This is the writer's conclusion. 

**DE VAKULA PATaKA” — by S’ri Yijaya Dharma SmtL 
(1923 ). 

This small pamphlet prints extracts from several cop- 
per-plates and stone-inscriptions and thus fixes the site 
of the present village of Delvada, in the territory of H. H. 
the Maharana of Udepur, as that of the ancient town of 
Devkula Patak, Great credit is due to the Acharya for 
having turned his attention from religious matters to the 
investigation of historical questions by means of modem 
methods of research. 

☆ 

“DWARKA DARSHANA”— by H. A. Patel Pp. 136. .‘Price 
Re. 1-0-0 (1925). 

This book is more than a guide to Dwarka, as it 
treats of this celebrated place of pilgrimage from various 
points of view, and puts in a plea for improvement in the 
administration of the different charities where he finds 
room for the same. 

& 

“PRAKRITXK BHUGOLA”-* by C. B. Purani M. a. Pp. 99 
Price Rs. 0-12-0 (1925). 

This is a text-book of Geography intended for the 
students of the Gujarat Vidyapitha, but likely to prove 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 485 

useful to all. The subject has been very intelligently 
handled, and the different aspects of Physical Geography 
well brought out. 

& 

“BHAGAYAN JADES’ WAR 5 * — by Popatliil Punjabhai Shah 
Pp. 18 : 144, 96 Price Re. *1 (1929). 

There is a very wellknown temple of S'iva near 
Wankaner in Kathiawad, to which pilgrims flock in large 
numbers in the month of Havana for worship. It is a 
pretty place, picturesquely situated away from inhabited 
towns, and is utilized as a sanitarium also. The origiji 
of the place is mythological and the little book narrates 
that origin. 

☆ 

“SIHOR NI HAKIKAT” — by the late Devasankar Y. Bhaii 
edited by Munikumar M. Bhatt, B. a. Pp. 115. Price Rs, 1-8-C 
(1933). 

Sihor was the capital of the ancestors of the present 
rulers of the Bhavnagar State before it was removed to 
Bhavnagar to escape the tyranny of Maratha invaders. It 
is a very ancient town and its known history goes back 
to the days of King Mularaj of the Solanki dynasty when 
it was given in gift to Brahmins by him. 

There are references to it even in works earlier than 
that. The late Mr. Devasankar, though a school-master 
by profession, had an antiquarian's inclination and 
qualifications. He therefore set about collecting mate- 
rials for a Gazeteer of Sihor and the result is this book. 
Before he could publish it he died and it fell to the lot of 
the present young editor to edit and publish it. 



m 


History-Topography 


One sees in it the touch of the modern writer, the 
spirit of the researcher. Although a part of the subject- 
matter is necessarily folk-lore and tradition, Mr. Muni- 
kumar has followed certain principles ( see p. 7) the in 
setting down of other historical facts connected with the 
town and thus tried to change its background from a folk- 
tale one to a historical one. We welcome the attempt and 
call for repitition of such attempts. 

XvHAMBHAT NO ITJLHAS” By Katoamani Rao Bhimraao 
B. A. Pp. 270 Price Ra. 4-8-0 (1935). 

This splendid monograph, consisting of the history of 
Cambay, from the earliest time to the present owes its 
existence to the (1) idea of its ex-Dewan, Dewan Baha- 
dur N. D. Mehta, (2) the liberality of H. H. the reigning 
Nawab Saheb and (3) the pen and assiduity of the com- 
piler. He is not a new hand in this line. He has to his 
credit an exemplary monograph on ‘ Ahmedabad/ the 
Capital of Gujarat, and a treatise on ‘ Shipping in 
Gujarat/ 

Cambay has played a prominent part in the ancient, 
and mediaeval history of Gujarat, on account of its 
geographical situation. Its harbour having silted up in 
modem times and during the later Mohammedan and 
Maratha rule in Gujarat no one having cared to restore it 
to its former state, the place has lost its pristine impor- 
tance. Jainas in earlier days and Mohammedans later 
made it what it was, and every important detail of that 
making has been set out in an interesting way, but not 
without chapter and verse, by the writer. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 487 

Old Sanskrit and recent Persian and all other availa- 
ble sources like the English Factory Reports have been 
ransacked, and the materials thus laboriously collected 
have been presented in a form, which should serve as a 
model to other workers in the same field. 

Besides Jainas and Mohammedans, Bohras and 
Parsis have in their own way lent glory and importance 
to C&mbay; their writings bear testimony to it and they 
could have been consulated with advantage and the de- 
fect of absence of reference to them removed. A number 
of maps, and illustrations of persons and places, appen- 
dices and bibliographies bear witness to the thorough- 
ness with which the task has been accomplished. We 
sincerely congratulate the author. 



ECONOMICS. 

☆ 

« cooperative credit societies or village 

BANKS ” by M. V. Naik (1910). 

This is an attempt to inform the varnacular reading 
public of the principles on which Village Banks have to 
be started and the profits that are likely to result to the 
cultivating community from such institutions. It is not 
a translation but an original writing of the author, who 
has well assimilated the pros-there are hardly any cons- 
of the situation in simple language. 

There could be no question of the utility of such 
measures, which are mainly intended for the good of the 
agriculturist class, and any effort in the direction of popu- 
larising them could not but be welcome. To those who 

care to interest themselves in this ^question, it forms a 
useful guide. 

☆ 

VYAPARA Nl KALA ” by the late F. A. Patel (1911). 

We have been supplied with some advance-forms of 
this book which is to be published as a sort of guide to 
•all commercial matters. Business will be treated from all 
points of view, economic, as well as from the point of view 
of seller and customer, with practical hints. The extracts 
forwarded to us show that they are written in a style 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 491 

■which is very simple. There is absence in it of all tech- 
nicalities, and it is such as would fulfil its purpose of be- 
ing understood by those in whose hands it is likely to be 
placed* Such a book has long been wanted and when 
published we hope to find it really useful* 

☆ 

« JINDAGI NO VIMO ” by B. J. Oza, B. a. (1918) 

This, we believe* is the first book of its kind, in 
Gujarati, in which Life Insuranace is treated in its busi- 
ness aspect, and scientifically, in a way to guide and ad- 
vise those who are inclined as well as those who may not 
be inclined to have their lives insured. Based on several 
English works quoted in the preface, it gives all up-to- 
date information on the subject. Its merit is, that in 
spite of having to write on a technical subject, the writer 
has been able to put into it great interest and attraction, 

☆ 

"(L) HIND NI UDYOGA-STHITI”-by K. M. Farikh (1920). 

The book is remarkable in its English shape as 
showing the practical sympathy of an Englishman for the 
various struggling indigenous industries of the country. 
Mr. Glyn Barlow’s ‘Industrial India’ is well-known by 
this time to all those who are interested in the economic 
condition of India, The translator, who we understand 
is now no more, was himself a pioneer in several indus- 
trial walks and he has thus been able to grasp the spirit 
of the original which he has reproduced in a simple, easy 
style which is sure to impress the mind of a the readei, 
without any special trouble. Although the work refers 



492 


Economics 


to technical matters, still they are so well treated that 
we find no difficulty in following the writer nor does the 
interest flag at any time. 

* 

•• SPECULATION ON THE SHARE MARKET by 
Raman Pp. 1B9 Price Rs. 6-0-0 (1921). 

The fever of speculation is raging all over "India, 
specially in Presidency Towns. The writer, himself, is one 
intimately acquainted with the working of the Stock 
Exchange, and has tried to give his readers an idea of its 
mystery, its romance, its science and its experience. 
Speculation has ruined more persons than it has benefit- 
ted as it partakes of all the elements of a gamble or 
wager. All the same, its votaries have evolved certain 
rules which they think the game follows, and this writer 
has also given us a picture of them. 

This is the second book on the subject from his pen, 
and we think he was more successful in the first than 
here, as he was dealing with certain actual facts there. 
However, this book is also worth reading, if for nothing 
else, at least for the insight it gives into the working of a 
market which makes and mars peoples* fortunes in a day. 

It reveals the inner working of the man and the 
market. It is illustrated and thus rendered attractive. 
Photographs of the late Premchand Raichand and Sir 
Shapurji Broacha, the doyens of the Bombay Stock Ex- 
change, aptly introduce the reader to the subject-matter 
'Of the book. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Lifcerature : 1907-1938 493 

“AfALUN TO JANAJO” : by N. D. Parikh, Pp. 99 Price 
•6-0 ( J922 ) # 

The title of this book is very expressive, It means 
’‘This much at least you must know'*. It tells m a 
popular form how we are situated at present politically 
and economically. Its closing pages, describing the 
prosperity of the Indian weaver and artisan, a century 
ago, and the deliberate policy of The East India Company 
to kill the trade of India should not be missed. 

“HIND KEM PAYMAL THAYUN ?” By Narhari DwSrka 
Das Parikh, B. A., LL. B. Pp. 138 Price As. 0-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

This is a continuation of Aialu to Jana jo ( know this 
much at least ) and shows how India declined in pros- 
perity. 

☆ 

“THE INDIAN NATIONAL EXPENSE” : By Prof. K. T. 
Shah, B. Sc. ( Londan ) Pp. 103 Price As. 0-8-0 ( 1923 (. 

Prof. Shah is one of the authorities on Indian finance 
and in this publication, which is a collection of his lectures 
delivered to the students of the Gujarat Mahavidyfilaya, 
he has ably exposed the weakness of the Indian financial 
administration and shown that unless the national budget 
is placed under the entire control of the Assembly, no 
change for the better is to be expected. 

☆ 

“COMMERCIAL EXPERIENCE OF BOMBAY” ; By 
Mulji Nathji Kotkari. Pp. 454, Price Rs. 3-8-0 ( 1925 ). 

This is a remarkable work as it shows an encyclopae- 
dic knowledge of the trade and commerce of this big city. 



494 


Economics 


Not a single branch of its various commercial activities is 
omitted, and it is bubbling over with every kind of use u 
information for the student of commerce as well as for one 
who wants to commence business with and in Bombay. 


☆ 

“HIND NA EARANU ADHUNIK ARTHA-S’ ASTRA’' 
By M. P. Gandhi, M. A. Pp. IK) Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 192o ). 

At best books on economics, taxation and other 
similar subjects are not many in the Gujarati literature, 
and good books are few. The present book is a pnze- 
essay, in the name of Sir Manubhai Nandashankar, t e 
Diwan of Baroda and it treats of the present economic 
state of Indian taxation from an understandable point of 
view, understandable because every layman would be 
able to follow its interesting exposition without, any 
difficulty. The rising young writer has a thorough grasp 
of his subject, with a promise of better work in future. 

“ANKARA S’ ASTRA NAN MU LA TATTVO” : By 

C. B. Dalai, Price Rs. 1-4-0 < 1926 ). 

This manual on the Science of Statistics is intended 
as a text-book for schools where the subject is to he 
taught in vernacular. It is based on several wellknown 

authors’ talented works, and illustrated with charts. It 

is a fairly good attempt for a subject yet in its infancy. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 495 

(1) URBAN CO-OPERATIVE BANKS : (2) BANKING” : 
By V. C. Jadhav, B. A. ( 1926 ). 

These two small pamphlets mark a departure in the 
history of Co-operative work in Gujarat. The Co-operative 
movement is making rapid progress in Gujarat, thanks 
to the organising capacity of men like Dewan Bahadur 

A. V . Malji. 

Mr. Jadhav is also a District Organiser and as such 
having felt the want of books in Gujarati on the subject 
in order to facilitate the dissemination of the knowledge 
thereof, he has produced these two pamphlets, which 
give complete information in simple language, both about 
these Banks and the banking system observed there. They 
are priced moderately 0-4-0 each. 

☆ 

“ GRAMAJIVANA MAN;SAHAKARa.” by K. A. Thakkar 

B. A., LL. B. ( 1931 ). 

Co-operation in village life, is a book meant for 
the uplift of villagers. It is written by one who is 
in immediate touch with villagers and with the Co-opera- 
tive Department of H. H. the Gaekwad. He has thus 
been able to present his case with first-hand knowledge 
and drive his lessons home. 

☆ 

“ GRAMYA HINDA NI PUNARGHATANA ” by T, M. 
Desai, b. a. ( 1931 ). 

F. L. Brayne's “Remaking of Village India” has been 
translated very intelligently by one who has been familiar 



496 


Economics 


with village life in Gujarat. The translator's object has 
been to keep the language as easy as possible so as to 
facilitate the task of any one who has to move amongst 
villagers with a view to their uplift. The original has 
been translated into several vernaculars. Gujarat lacked 
it, and the defect is now remedied. 

% 

KHADI NUN VYAPAKA ARTS AS' A STB A.” by N. N. 
Parekh. ( 1982 l 

R. B. Greig of Kotagarh, Simla Hills, wrote a book 
called * Economics of Khaddar ’ reviewing the “ Home 
spun” movement not from a political standpoint, nor with 
the sense of heart-burning engendered because of the 
“ economic drain ” due to the commercial exploitation of 
India by foreigners, but from a dispassionate, natural and 
scientific point of view. 

The above book is a translation of that one, and 
gives in great detail the reasons which go to show that 
the economic salvation of India lies this way; it also 
discusses the limitations of machinery and altogether 
makes out a strong case for Gandhiji's favourite theory of 
the homely spinning wheel -Charkha. 

☆ 

“ VIMA NO SANDES’A.” by Manibhai Desai. ( 1986 ). 

Everything relating to Life Insurance would be found 
in this little book including the disabilities under which 
Indian Insurance Companies labour. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 497 

w S'ERATHA m ARTHIC TAP ASA,” by V. M. Kothari, 
< 1938 ), 

A typical small village in North Gujarat was selected 
for Economic survey of its industries and the mode of life 
of its inhabitants. The result is a valuable pamphlet 
which notices the difficulties of the workers in this line, 
even in these days, due to mistrust engendered in 
consequence of the ignorance and illiteracy of the villagers. 
It is a very useful record of facts and interesting from 
several points of view. 

☆ 

‘^FUTURES IN TRADE” : By Hiralal Vardhaman Shah, 
Pp. 156 Price Rs. 5-0-0 { 1928 ). 

This book feeds the passion of those who are specula- 
tors in various commodities trade, such as cotton, yarn, 
silver, gold, wheat, seeds, rice, opium etc. It is based 
on astrological calculations, and as the speculator’s 
mentality is such that it would grasp at anything in the 
shape of a hint or prognostication to serve his purpose the 
book, even though priced so high, is sure to sell well. 

☆ 

“TAKXr’sBy Rasik ChuoilalBhayani Pp. 30 Aa. 0-2-0 (1930) 

Gandhiji has given to his followers a substitute for 
the spinning wheel, called “Takli”, which can be plied 
even while walking. All the intricacies or simplicities of 
this form of producing yarn are explained by the writer 
from personal and practical experience, which however, 
is of short duration and he therefore invites suggestions. 

☆ 


32 




POLITICS 

☆ 



POLITICS 

* 

“HIND NUN RAJYA BANDHARANA” : by Prof. H. M. 
Bhatt, M. A. ( 1913 ). 

This book is the first fruit of the action contemplated 
by the Third Gujarati Sahitya Parishad held at Rajkot. 
Prof. Bhatt's name is a sufficient guarantee of the work 
being accurate, interesting, and informative. There is 
no such book at present existing in Gujarati ; it is an 
original production based on standard works in English 
and supplemented by the author's own views, on the 
constitution of the present Government of India, as 
formulated and regulated by statutes. 

Each and every Department of the Government of 
India, from the Council of the Secretary of State to the 
Sanitary and Medical Departments, has in a separate 
chapter received such popular treatment that it is a 
pleasure to peruse it. Statistics and figures are not neglec- 
ted, butt hey are used so sparingly, although not 
inopportunely that they never come in the way of the 
reader’s enjoyment of the subject in hand, even to those 
persons, to whom the source of studying this matter in ’ 
English is open. 

We could recommend the reading of this book, as 
the information collected from many authoritative sources 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 501 

is placed in a small compass and made available in one 
place, thus obviating the necessity and trouble of 
reference in numerous directions. 

& 

"SATYAGRAHA AND MRS. RESANT”: by H. K. Mehti 
< 1918 ). 

Mrs. Besant's views on Satyagraha are wellknown. 
This little pamphelet is written by one from her own 
camp, and may interest those who look to its academic 
side. 

& 

-BRITISH RASHTRIYA SANSTHAO” : by Hsrilal 
Madhavji Bhatt, M. A. Pp. 185 Price Ag. 0-13-0 ( 1919 ). 

The book is based on Anna Buckland’s "Our National 
Institutions.” Its writer is Prof. Bhatt who has already 
won his spurs in writing on an allied subject, the Consti- 
tution of the Indian Government. In thirteen Chapters 
he has put before the reader in a popular form, the 
institutions political, administrative and constitutional* 
of our rulers- Beginning with an explanation of the 
foundations on which their liberal institutions are built, 
he treats of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, 
the Privy Council, the Army, the Navy, and lastly of the 
Empire. In a succint form, the book gives all possible 
information on this important matter, and as each Chapter 
has been written after close study, it would prove of 
great assistance to students in making them familiar 
with a subject which every Indian should know well. 



502 


Politics 


(1) “ HIND SWARA JYA ” Pp. 167 Price Re, 0-8*0. (2) 
“ A-SAHAKARA ” Pp. 132 Price As. 0-6-0. (8) “ RAS'TRA 
GITA ’* Edited by Induial Yajnik, B. a., ll b. Pp. 216 Price As. 
0 - 8 - 0 . 

All the three are the result of Mr. Induial K. Yajnik’s 
labours as an editor. The first is a collection of Mahat- 
maji's works, and the second a collection of his speeches. 
The utility of both of them is beyond question and there 

would be found no Gujarati reader but would welcome 
the publications in this handy and cheap form. 

The last is a collection of national songs and poems, 
beginning with the well-known ‘ Bande Mataram ’ and 
ending with several Gujarati verses. Urdu and Hindi 
songs, which have now become the common property of 

all Indians, find a place here and as such make the 
collection extremely serviceable. 

4< KHEDA NI LA DAT” by S’ankartal Dwarkadas Parikh, 
Pp. 568. Price Re. 1-8-0 (1922). 

There was no connected account of the ,c Fight of 
K'aira put up at the instance of Mahatma Gandhi. 
Only scattered and unconnected accounts were available, 

and therefore the full force of the fight could not be 
properly gauged. Now it is possible to follow, under- 
stand and appreciate in these pages the significance of the 
sacrifice made by the inhabitants of the district, and 
hence as such a narrative, the book is valuable. 

“ THE PRESENT POLITICAL SPATE OF RUSSIA ” Pp. 
S Price 0-6-0 (1922). 

It was necessary that those who do not know Eng- 
lish should become acquainted with the present “Soviet” 



Development of Gujai&ti Liturature : 1907-1938 


503 


state of Russia. William Foster’s book is one of the lat- 
est productions on the subject and this translation fur- 
nishes a very good picture of that unhappy country at 
the present moment. 

☆ 

<{ HINDA SWARAJYA”(in Mss.letters) by Mahatma Gandhi, 
Pp. 213 Price As. 0-4-6 ( 1922 }. 

This is a reprint of the articles contributed by Maha- 
tmaji to the * Indian Opinion * when in South Africa. 
They are full of his innate sagacity and sincerity and 
our literature has gained much by this reprint. It is 
printed on Indian paper. 

* 

" HIND A SWARA JYA 95 By M. K. Gandhi, Pp. 271. Price 
Rs. 2-8-0. ( 1923 > 

This is one of the best books published till now in 
Gujarat; the idea is novel, original, and happy, of publish- 
ing in manuscript, i. e., in the hand-writing of Mahatma 
Gandhi himself, his opinions on the subject next to his 
heart. The whole big volume is in his hand ( that is, a 
transcript of his hand-writing ), he wrote it in 1908 when 
he was returning from England to South Africa. 

When he was tired of writing with his right hand, he 
wrote with his left. Besides being a storehouse of politi- 
cal maxims and fully thought out statements, its chief 
attraction is its style simple, straight-forward and chaste. 
It should be kept by every Gujarati as a memento of the 
great man. 

☆ 



504 


Politics 


' 4 HIND A NUN RAJYA BANDHARANA” By Prof. Harilal 
Madhavji Bhatt, b. a., Pp. 366. Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1923 ). 

This is a second edition of a book on the administra- 
tion and governance of India which we had welcomed 
when it had first appeared. It has still further increased its 

value and usefulness by embodying in it the latest 
changes and phases thereof. 

4 ‘ BHARATIYA SWARA JYA " By RSjgor Bhagwanji 
Bhimji of Jtma Savar. Printed at the Bharat Seva Press, Bombay. 
Pp. 402 Price Rs. 4-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

This is a comprehensive essay, written in simple 
language, with apt historical and other illustrations, on 
the past and present state of India. The writer wields a 
practised pen and he takes us back to the old days in 
which people lived simpler, and far more religious lives 
than in these times. 

☆ 

44 BRITISH (INMAN) ADMINISTRATION AND THE 
NATIONAL CONGRESS : By C. B. Bhatt Pp. 18a Price Re. 

The different departments of our country's adminis- 
tration and their functions examined in relation to the 
demands made by the National Congress are handled by 
the writer, to show us wnere we stand. It is intended 

as a text-book for the National schools and is a useful 
publication at that. 

☆ 

44 GANDHI’S EVIDENCE BEFORE THE HUNTER 
COMMITTEE 7 ' : (1923) 

. The translation into Gujarati of Mahatma Gandhi's 
evidence before the Hunter Committee by the Navajivan 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 .005 

Printing Press, Ahmedabad, (Price 0-3-0) will no doubt 
help those who do not know English to understand what 
Gandhiji wished to emphasise* 

☆ 

u A-SAHAKAR ” Published by the Navajivan Press, 
Ahmedabad. Pp. 815. Price Rs. 2-8-0 (1923). 

* ‘‘Non-co-operation/' (that is the title of this book), is 
a collection of the speeches and writings of Mahatma 
Gandhi, dating from June 1920 till he was free to speak 
and write. It is a pretty large collection and apart from 
serving its primary purpose of preserving his handi-work 
in a permanent form and presenting as a connected whole 
his political ideal and creed, it serves to show, from a 
literary point of view, the style of writing Gujarati prose, 
which he has made his own : terse, direct, unsparing, 
homely such as would appeal to the uneducated masses 
(who were his first objective), it has the flavour of inti? 
macy, i* e., of one soul speaking to another. 

Its simplicity is its predominating feature, and 
though rugged in places, and very rarely classical, it has 
its own grandeur. He has found imitators in style as in 
his other activities, but Brummagem is Brummagem, it 
can never take the place of the genuine article. 

☆ 

“SWADESHI NO GHBRO” -.—Published by the Nav divan 
ress, Ahmedabad. Pp. 67. Price As. 0-4-6 (1923). 

The title-page makes out the subject of the book to 
be the Swarupa or true form of the fight against ( i. e.. 



506 


Politics 


picketing of ) foreign cloth shops. It is a collection of 
newspaper-articles bearing on this much discussed weapon 
of offence, and has a preface by Mr. Abbas Tyabji, the 
aged leader of the movement in Gujarat. 

☆ 

“THE HISTORY OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IN SOUTH 
AFRICA : Part I”. Pp. 270 Price As. 0-6-0 ( 1924 ). 

While in Jail at Yeravda, Mahatma Gandhiji had 
commited to paper the history of the struggle in South 
Africa led by him. It had appeared in instalments in 
his paper the Navajivan , It is now brought out in book- 
form. There cannot be two opinions as to its utility and 
value. It is an inspiration for all time to come, and surely 
required being narrated in Gujarati. 

“LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT INDIA” .* 
By C. L. Mehta B. A., LL, B. Pp. 200 Re, 1-1-0 ( 1924 ). 

Dr. Radha Kamal Mukerjee’s researches into our old 
books have resulted In an admirable treatise on the 
subject of “Self-government in Ancient India" ; and this 
translation very well brings out the important points of 
the thesis. 

☆ 

“SWATANTRATA NA SlDDHlNTA” : By K. G Thakors 
Pp. 178 Price Re. 1-4-0 ( 1924 ). 

A translation of Terence Mcswiney’s “Principles of 
Freedom” with a foreword by Dr. Chandulal Manilal 
Desai* who in every way is entitled to write it, as he has 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


507 


sacrificed every worldly thing in the service of the Pro- 
vince, shows how quickly the face of things is changing 
in Gujarat. The translation is well-done, and will reach 
many hands, as it is given away as a present to the 
subscribers of the ‘Traja-bandhu”, a widely-circulating 
weekly. 

4 

“THE BIG CONSPIRACY IN THE PUNJAB” : By 
a N. Sanyal Pp. 116 Price As. 0-15-0 ( 1925 ). 

This is ah interesting story of a prisoner caught up 
in the eddy of the revolutionary times in the North. 

“OURS FOR OURSELYES” : By Mangaldas Manchharam 
Pakwasa, B. A., LL. B. Solictor Pp. 106 Price As. 0-12-0 ( 1925 ). 

The state of Ireland in many ways resembles ours. 
English domination for 800 years drove the Irish to “Sein 
Feinism which the author translates is “what is our is 
for us for ourselves A handy history of that feature of 
Irish politics is necessary for every vernacular of India. 
And Mr. Pakawasa has provided it for Gujarati in a style 
which is both simple and precise. 

It does not read like a translation, it is an independent 
original work, in which intelligent comparisons of inci- 
dents in India and Gujarat resembling those in Irish 
History have been thrown in to drive the points he makes 
nearer home. It is a most creditable work for a first attempt 
and still more so in the case of a busy attorney. The 
introduction is as incisive as the book and readers would 
appreciate the description of the English nation as not 



508 


Politics 


only a conquering one but as the “eater up of ( old ) 
civilizations”. 

“SATYAGRAHa NI MARYADA” ; By MaUdeva H. DesaL 
B. A,, LL. B. Pp. 303 Price Rs. 1-4-0 ( 1926 ). 

This is a translation of Lord Merley’s “Compromise.” 
One with a philosophic turn of mind can only do justice 
to the subject, and the translator having had the turn got 

plenty oi leisure in the Jails of Agra and Lucknow ; the 
result is this addition to the philosophical literature of 

Gujarat. The subject is both technical and difficult, but 
Mr. Mahadeva has tackled it welL 

He has entered thoroughly into the spirit of the 
original and the notes at the end of each chapter show 
how successfully he has done so. It is not again a trans- 
lation pure and simple. In the light of present 
circumstances some of the problems had assumed a 
particular aspect and in the footnotes and other notes the 
writer has given his own reading of the signs of the times. 

* 

INTRODTJGTARY MANUAL OF INDIAN ADMINI- 
STRATION”: By Pandya and Trivedi, Pp. 172 Price As. 0-8-0 

* 1926 ). 

Many works exist in English giving the outlines of 
our present system of administration. There was no such 
book in Gujarati and though written obviously for the use 
of candidates preparing for the University School Leaving 
or Matriculation Examination, it is likely to prove of 
use to others also. It is well written. 

❖ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907 : 1938 509 

‘INDIA IN WORLD POLITICS” : By Dr. Taraknath Das. 
‘( 1928 ). 

This Gujarati translation of a book on Indian Politics 
is made, printed and published in South Africa by an 
individual who calls himself “Swattantra'*. We are 
greatly pleased to see Gujarati so flourishing in that part 
of the world as the transtation is really intelligently done 
and the rendering bespeaks great care on the part of the 
writer. 


“HINDUSTAN NA YEPAR-UDYOGA NO NAS’ A” : By 
' 0. J. Patel Pp. 164 Price As. C— 8— 0 ( 1930 ). 

Major B. D. Basu I. M. S. ( Retired ) has written 
“Ruin of Indian Trade and Industries’' a store-house of 
information as to how the trade of India came to be 
mined step by step. The book under notice is a transla- 
tion of that work, and Major Basu, had he been living 
would have felt very gratified to see that the work he 
liked the best was translated into the vernacular of a 
province where he served years ago and for which he still 
has a warm corner in his heart. 

The publication comes at a very opportune time, as 
the past history of the min of India's trade and its know- 
ledge is an important element in the campaign of boycott 
of British goods which is growing stronger every day, The 
translation is very well done and is sure to be appreciated 
by readers and workers who do not know English. 



510 


Politics 


“ HINDU SANGATTHANA ” translated by : Narayana 
Thakkar. (1931). 

The late Swami ^raddhananda had written in 1925, a 
few months before his murder, ( in 1926 ) a book called 
4 * Hindu Sangatthana The Saviour of the Dying Race. ” It 
is a powerful plea for Hindus, if they desire to save their 
race from being wiped out to coalesce and throw away 
those artificial conventions which prevent them from so 
coalescing. It has already been translated into Marathi 
and Hindi and a translation into Gujarati was certainly 
overdue and it has now come from the pen of Mr. 
Thakkar who feels equally keenly on the subject as the 
late Swamiji, too, like him, condemns the passivity of the 
Hindus, and is alive to the danger of the active inroads 
made and being made on Hinduism by non-Hindus like 
the Christian Missionaries and Mahomedan Da’iss. 

* It is for this reason that he has not satisfied himself 
by merely translating the book but has added interesting 
notes of his own to elucidate the subject further. He is a 
voracious reader and hence has been able to reinforce his 
convictions and views by extracts from works of well- 
known scholars, which leave no doubt as to the motives 
of those who seek to wipe out the Dying Race/' All 
those who feel proud at being called Hindus should 
read the book. 

☆ 

" AKHABI FESLO : PARTS I AND II ” (1932). 

“ Akhari Feslo * is a collection of Mahatmaji’s 
speeches delivered at different places in Gujarat at which 
he and his valiant band of pilgrims halted during his his- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


511 


toric march to Dandi and after till the time of his arrest- 
The book takes its name from Mahatmaji’s assertions so 
repeatedly made in course of those speeches that that was 
to be their last fight. 

The second part includes all the speeches and writ- 
ings since his release from Yeravada and also the corres- 
pondence relating to the memorable Gandhi-Irwin Pact. 
They make a very valuable addition to the political lite- 
rature of our time and ought to find place on the library 
shelf of every house. 

* 

“ SARAL RAJYA S’ ASTRA ” by Dr. Jyotindra M. Mehta, 
M. a., PH. n., bar-at-law. Pp. 272. Price Re. 1-6-0 (1935). 

H # H, the Maharaja Gaekwad has felt for a long 
time the absence and need in the Vernacular of his State 
of an easy book on the Science of Politics. He entrusted 
the work of supplying the need to Dr. Mehta who was 
eminently fitted to do it, on account of his close study of 
the subject in Europe. Dr. Mehta envisages the subject 
from both points of view old and new, and traces its 
gradual development from the times of Aristotle and 
Plato to Adam Smith and later authorities in the line. 

The ideas underlying the subject are alien to Eastern 
minds and therefore he has, with the help of friends, 
managed to evolve a vocabulary in Gujarati, which ren- 
ders very good service; however, we wish to point out 
that a more cultured word could have been used to des- 
cribe coalition Ministry than * Khichadium Mandal * and 
that Jurisprudence is more a ‘ Kayda Shastra * than a 
* Dharmasastra*. 



512 


Politics 


A novel and very useful feature of the book 
is the appendix which gives a succinct account of 
the European authors quoted in the works with the 
names of tbeir books. There is a very good index at the 
end. Altogether the book has been very carefully and 
ably compiled. 

☆ 

“ AKEtARI FESLO : PARTS I AND II ” by N. M. Dave. 
{1935). { Second Edition ) 

“ The Last Shot ” : This is how Mahatma Gandhi 
regards his present effort to obtain Swaraj for India. 
Both the parts of this book give a continuous history of 
the movement since the time when at Gauhati at its 41st 
Session the Congress changed its demands from self- 
government to independence till the time when Gandhiji 
went to the Yeravada prison. 

It is a compilation of the speeches, writings and articles 
of Gandhiji himself and of others who are always near to 
him like Mahadeva Desai, Pyarelal and others. The 
famous march to Dandi and the innumerable incidents in 
connection with it, are given here in detail, and alto- 
gether we find it a very useful compilation, cheap for the 
price. 



SOCIOLOGY. 




SOCIOLOGY 

☆ 

“ A HISTORY OP THE RISE OF THE MOHAMMEDANS 
IN POLITICAL AND LITERARY MATTERS, AND THE 
CAUSES OF THEIR DECLINE,” by Mahbub Miyan Imam 
Baksha Kadri, B. A., ia. b , Subordinate Judge of Chiplun, Ratna- 
giri District : Published by the Gujarat Vernacular Society of 
Ahmedabad. Pp. 70 Paper bound. Price Re. 0-12-0. (1906) 

The book is not of large dimensions, but we have 
thought fit to notice it for two or three reasons. We have 
had only very recently to review a small Gujarati book 
written by a Mohammedan gentleman of Ahmedabad, 
and the present work only adds to our gratification that 
in spite of the cry of sectarian “ Patriotism ” of each one 
for himself, Hindu for Hindu and Mohammedan for 
Mohammedan, it is possible to find gentlemen, who do not 
scorn to use the vehicle of the Hindus, -Gujarati in this 
particular case— for the expression of their ideas. 

The second fact is that this book is one of a series, 
which has been financed by Memo? Haji Suleman Shah 
Mohammed Lodhia, himself a writer, a native of Kathia- 
wad but long resident in Cape Town, South Africa, as a 
merchant. Here is a Mohammedan gentleman giving 
money for the encouragement of Gujarati Literature 
followed happily by another, who gives him back the full 
value of his money. The Gujarat Vamacular Society, 



516 


Sociology 


under whose auspicies the book has been published, 
deserves congratulations on the selection of the writer. 

At the best the work is but an epitome of the subject 
but what strikes us most is the remarkable way in which 
a complete survey is taken, in such a small compass, of the 
rise and fall of Mohammedan supremacy and civilisation 
in its different centres, Asia Minor, India, Africa, Spain, 
and Turkey in Europe. The civilising work of the Moors 
as exemplified in the Universities of Toledo and Seville 
and Cordova or in the architectural beauties of the 
Alhambra, or the graceful influence of the Moguls on the 
manners and customs of India, are all treated in such a 
connected and all-embracing manner and withal in such 
simple language, that one cannot grudge the author his 
meed of praise. 

The subject is very vast and volumes have been 
written on it in European languages. The present work 
is a* digest, no doubt, of them, taken from Urdu sources, 
but in doing so Mr. Kadri has shown a strong grasp of his 
subject. Causes of the decline, viz., luxury, fanaticism, 
sloth, indulgence Etc., are also unsparingly set out, and 
we have found the little book altogether a very enjoy* 
able one. 

☆ 

“ A HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF THE VADANAGARA 
KUNBI CASTE, THEIR CUSTOMS AND USAGES” By 
Ditay&bhai Lakshmandas Patel. Pp. 219. Price Re, 1-0-0 (1906). 

. The writer is not an unknown man, and he has pro- 
duced a work which is admirable in more than one res? 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 517 

pect. The Kunbi 'caste in Gujarat, though extremely, 
rather entirety-backward in all that is called modem or 
recent, in education, in style of living, in mode of enjoy- 
ing life, is the model of thrifty and laborious com- 
munity, and well-versed in its avocation which is prima- 
rily that 'of a cultivator. The meekness of a Kunbi 
tiller and his childlike innocence are proverbial and his 

backwardness and conservative usages have passed into 
a by-word for jungliness. 

But the worm is turning even there, and this work 
takes us through the onward march the class is making 
in learning, in commerce and in social reform. It opens 
with a mythical account of the origin of the caste from 
the amours of &iva and Parvati, and a historical resume 
connected with the incidents of its stronghold, the town 
of Vadanagar. It then sets out the various occasions in 
the life of a Kunbi, marriage, remarriage-which is happily 
allowed-birth, death and the usages, the customs, and 
the rites, connected with them. 

It gives the origin of a very unique and strange 
custom obtaining amongst this section of the caste, viz., 
that all marriages therein have to take place on a parti- 
cular day fixed by means of the drawing of lots in the 
presence of their Kuiadevi once only in twelve years ! 
And then, when the day is known the hurry and skurry 
with which parents marry their children, can only be 
appreciated by those who have seen the sight in Gujarat. 
Children en ventre sa mere are married on the off chance 
of one of them being born a male and the other a female. 
Even where that cannot be done, the brides are married to 



518 


Sociology 


a ball of flowers. After marriage the ball is thrown into a 
’well, the fiction being that the ball represents the 
husband, and the husband being dead, the girl is at 
liberty to remarry. 

This would strike anyone to be so ridiculous as to be 
untrue; but it is not so. Parents are so afraid of keeping 
back their girls from marriage for the long period of 
'twelve years, that they descend to any absurdities. The 
caste rules which have been given in the book-form a 
code of life, where almost all contingencies are provided 
for, from the standpoint of the Kunbi, but it is not a 
high one. 

The new Sabha, of which the writer is an honorary 
Secretary is trying its best to lay the axe at the root of 
many evil customs, such as the singing of obscene songs 
on marriage occasions, unequal matches, and others; and 
in the course of his writings also, he has not missed a 
single opportunity to point out where the evil lies and 
how it has to be remedied. All these no doubt augurs 
well for the caste, who will find in the book all that is 
useful to them. 

J* HINDUSTAN NA SAMAJIKA JIVAN MAN STBl NUN 
STHANA ” — by Mrs Vidya, Ramanbhai Nilkanth, b, a. and Mrs. 
Sharada Mehta, b. a. Pp. 288 Price Rs. 1-0-0 (1912). 

There is an appropriatness in the work under review. 
It is a translation by two well-educated ladies, the very 
first lady graduates of Gujarat—of the wellknown work 
of a lady viz., H. H. the Maharani Gaekwad of Baroda, 
We have had occasions to notice before now favourably 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


519 


the literary work of both these cultured sisters, who 
seem in all important literary ventures to work hand in 
hand, and with admirable sympathy. 

The original book is no doubt, far in advance of the 
present times, and fulfils more the function of a finger- 
post showing the way, rather than the way itself. Many 
of its suggestions are unworkable in the case of Indian 
women at present, and the translators have been cons- 
cious of the same. As a translation, it is pretty well 
done, and will be the means of introducing H. H/s work 
to many thousands of the inhabitants of Gujarat who 
know no other language except their mother-tongue. 

☆ 

“SAMAJlKA SEVA NA SANMARWA" by Dabyabhai 
Lakshmana Patel ( 1912 ). 

This book is based on the Rev. Mr. Fleming’s ^Sug- 
gestions for Social Usefulness”. It is not a translation 
but an original work, following the lines laid down by the 
English author. It takes note of almost every institution 
in India which works for social uplift. The Seva Sadan of 
Bombay, the well-known Math at Belur, the Nishkama 
Karma Matha at Poona, and all cognate societies have 
been taken into consideration and whatever useful and 
practical suggestions have been found necessary, they are 
given in the most concise, but effective form. 

The work is written, not only in a very intelligent 
way, but it bears the stamp also of having been written 
by one who knows the needs of the task he has undertaken 
to write about. First aid, ambulance work, night schools^ 



520 


Sociology 


village sanitation, and a number of such subjects of 
public utility have been treated and handled in a fashion 
which is simple, and therefore, giving promise of making 
the book popular. 

☆ 

“LOHANA JNATX NI UT A PATTI AS1E TENO ITIHASA 5 ' 
By Thakkar Odhavaji Tulsidas Tanna. Pp. 282 Price Bs. 1-8-0 
( 1914 ). 

The Lohanas form a very important part of the popu- 
lation of the Bombay Presidency. In fact Kutch, Kathia- 
wad and Sindh are the busiest centres of the activity of 
this community. In Northern India they are spread far 
and wide, and in Central Asia and Afghanistan, one finds 
their colonies. They claim to be descended from the old 
Aryan Kshatriya stock, and their descent from that 
stock is historically traced in this work. 

We have found it very interesting and the writer has 
studied every available work to support his thesis. We 
hope every Gujarati speaking Lohana would take the 
trouble of perusing this work and thus learn what a splen- 
did past he possesses. 

11 SPARS’ ASP AES’ A 17 By S’ambhuprasad S’ivaprasad 
Mehta, b. a. Pp. 143 Price Be. 1 (1914). 

Mr. S. S. Mehta contributed a series of articles to a 
local daily, on this subject. They are now collected and 
published under the above title. His object is to con- 
vince his readers that the policy of keeping the depress- 
ed and untouchable classes at a distance is suicidal, and 
that Hindu society must rouse itself and stop the evil. 



Development of Gujarati Literature 1 1907- 1§38 521 


He draws his arguments from many sources, the 
Hindu ^astras included. The work must set one think- 
ing, that is the least one cafi say. 

☆ 

“ S'RIMALIO NA JNATIBHEDA” by Manilal Yyas 
Pp. 282. Price Rs. 3 (1921). 

This book represents a very welcome phase of the 
present tendency of Gujarati literature, viz., antiquarian 
research. Mr. Manilal Vyas although unacquainted with 
any European language, instinctively took to the study, 
and took to it on the right lines, of antiquities in Gujarat, 
Mss., copper-plates, stone -inscriptions, etc. 

There are various castes and subcastes in our Pro- 
vince and very few people have tried to find out their 
origin and history on antiquarian lines. Mr, Manilal is 
one of those few persons; and this very interesting work 
now placed by him in the hands of those who care to in- 
vestigate the subject, will greatly facilitate their task. 
Many of the useful materials collected here should fur- 
nish food for thought to those who are in favour of up- 
holding caste restrictions. 

☆ 

(1) S'RI SAUBHAGYA S’lKS’AVADHI ” (2) “SAGAR- 
BHA STRI NI SAMBHALA ” (3) “ SHRI-MATA FARAJ ” 
(4) SHRI JNANAYAOHANA ” by Natwarlal Kanaialal Yaisnava. 
(1922). 

This batch of four books is noted here as indicating 
the activity of a province, -Kathiawad-which was till 
now considered backward in matters educational and 
literary and which is now trying to fall in line with ad- 



522 


Sociology 


vanced Gujarat. The author is a young man of twenty- 
one, dependent for the development of his education and 
parts on such facilities as are afforded by a small town in 
Kathiawad, and still he seems to have used his opportu- 
nities well and gathered an amount of information and 
knowledge displayed to advantage, here. 

He has written all these books with this high object 
in view, viz., that until the female is educated there fe no 
hope of progress for the country. As their very titles show, 
they are concerned with the instruction domestic, 
social and educational of women, and the author 
has imparted it, mostly in words wiser than his own, by 
apt quotations from various well-known writers. 

The Sikrfobdhi specially goes through a very exhaus- 
tive list of all female requirements and rules of conduct, 
where Mr. Vaisnava has in his own words filled up the 
gaps between the several quotations stringing together 
their point and purport. It is further enlivened with 
several small stories which are entertaining and written 
in simple style such as even ordinary educated girls and 
women can enjoy. We are glad that second editions of 
these books are already being called for. 

* 

“EKA DHARMA-YUDDHA” by Mahadedeva Haribhai 

Desai b. a m ll. b. Pp. 145. Price As. 8. (1918-1922). 

This is a reprint and a collection of the letters on the 
subject of the “fight” of the mill-hands of Ahmedabad 
by means of strikes, with their masters, published by the 
Navajivan. The fight ended with the intervention of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 523 

Mahatma Gandhi. It is good to .have a permanent re- 
cord of the subject. 

☆ 

** MARRIED OK UNMARRIED ?” by DaySfcnkar M. 
Bhatt (1925). 

The question is propounded to ridicule the present 
state of Hindu Society where a girl of six is married to a 
mamof thirty-five and who on growing up wants to 
marry a young man of her choice, under the impression 
that her first marrige being without her consent, was no 
marriage at all. The presentation though crude is sure to 
attract readers. 

14 BABA RAM NI VARTAO ” by Maganlal Mehta, (1925). 

A small book of twenty-four pages, written in the 
language of patois of the Bhils. It is an exact reproduc- 
tion of the way in which these aboriginal inhabitants of 
Gujarat's forests talk and serves incidentally to portray 
the sort of religious life they lead. 

44 STRIO ANE SAMAJ SEVA ” by Bhogindra Divatia Pp. 
151. Price Re. 0-6-0 (1917). 

The newly established Bhagini Samaj works by 
means of lectures and writings towards accomplishing its 
objects. This little booklet, which opens with a preface 
by Mr. Gandhi contains short stories from the pen of 
Mr. Bhongindra Divatia, illustrating the useful parts 
which women can play in the uplift of society. 

☆ 



524 


Sociology 


“WHAT SHALL WE DO ?”— by Pandnrang Vitbal Valame. 
Pp. 242. Price Re. 0-12-0. (1925). 

One of Tolsoy's most engaging works on the social 
miseries of the poor of Russia, and the difficulties lying 
in the way of social service in large towns, has been 
translated in vivid language by Mr. Valame. The pro- 
blem is identical in all civilized places now; and the book, 
therefore, furnishes much food for thought and action. 

☆ 

* NAGAROTPATTI”— by Manasankar P. Mehta. Pp. 102. 
Price He. 1-0-0. (1925). 

The Na ;ar Brahmins of Gujarat and Kathiawad are 
a most important and intelligent community-almost the 
premier one in this Province. No systematic attempt 
was still made to trace their origin. Mr. Manasankar 
certainly deserves to be congratulated for the way in 
which he has utilised all available sources to compile this 
book, though one may not agree with all his .conclusions. 
It is sure to furnish interesting reading to members of 
other communities also. 

☆ 

“RAGHUVANST RATNAKAR OR IDEAL HISTORY” by 
Day Mm Khatau Gangadhar. Pp. 509. (1926). 

The Lohanas are a very important and considerable 
community on this side of India. They claim descent 
from Lava, one of the two sons of Rama. Prize essays 
and other books have been written in Gujarati to fix their 
descent exactly. This book is a sort of ollapodrida 
where the writer has gone to the different mythologies 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


525 


and Puranas and other relegious works to prove his point 
about the descent from Lava, and incidentally controvert 
several statements of two previous writers on the subject, 
Ganatra and Varma, 

The controversy however, still remains about their 
origin, — whether they are descendents of Rama Raghu- 
Vam|i or Banvadhas ( those whose hands are cut off ). The 
community will surely feekgreatly interested in this work. 

“GRIHAVYAVASTHA” — by Gangsdhar M. Vaisnva ( 1926 ) 

Mr. Vaisnav has written two or three works for juve- 
nile use. This little book besides treating of home hygi- 
ene, deals in a dialogue-form with many other useful 
subjects, which though scientific are set out in a lucid 
and popular way. 

“A CLARION CALL TO CASTES” — by Nanji Lalji ParmSr 

(1927) 

The writer wants to preserve castes and not uproot 
them. With that view he has written this book in which 
he offers suggestions in animated and feeling language as 
to how to destroy those evils which have crept in and 
made them engines of oppression instead of means of 
happiness. 

“PARDES’AGAMAN NIRNAYA"— by M. T. DalaL (1927) 

This translation of Babu Shrish Chandra’s epoch — 
making judgment in the 'Benares foreign travel case’ is 
presented to a Gujarati readers, by the editor of the 



Sociology 


m 

4< Satya”. It is preceded by a short sketch of Shrish 
Babu’s life and his photograph. The erudition of the 
learned Judge, his linguistic attainments and his persona- 
lity are so well known to the readers of the Modern 
Review that we need not dilate on them. The transla- 
tion is very well done. 

☆ 

“MANGALA SuTRA” — by Padrakar. (1930). 

Mangalasutra is the symbol tied round the neck of a 
married woman to denote that she has entered the holy 
state of matrimony. In this very interesting book 
Mr. Padrakar has treated the whole business of marriage 
in Gujarat from a chronicler’s point of view. In the 
preface and the notes written at the head of each song 
composed by him he has traced the origin of the various 
details of the ceremonies and rites of marriage as seen 
and performed amongst orthodox and non-orthodox 
families. 

He has tried to amalgamate the spirit of the old 
with that of the new ; by new, we mean a marriage that 
can be performed before the Registrar in half an hour, 
in contrast with a marriage which takes nearly a week 
to accomplish with prewedding and postwedding rites. 
The various stages in this business of marriage are set 
out systematically and to each is annexed a song which 
breathes love, harmony, romance and domestic happi- 
ness. 

To appreciate the value of the labor undergone 
and intelligence displayed in the composition of the 
work, the reader is required to read it in the original. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


527 


“REPORT OP THE SECOND BEAHMA HS'ATRlYA 
MAHILA PARISH AD”. ( 1931 ) 

The Brahma K^atriya community is one of the impor- 
tant and advanced communities of Gujarat, and this 
report collects in a book-form the proceedings of the 
second Conference of that caste, held exclusively by 
ladies at Ahmedabad, one of the well-known centres of 
the caste. It draws attention to several odious social 
customs obtaining amongst them and which are such 
that only ladies, if they can make up their minds to do 
so, can put a stop to. 

On reading the report there seems to be a consensus 
of opinion on stopping at least two customs, one being 
the weeping and beating of their bosoms in open street 
by ladies when a death occurs and the other, the compul- 
sory eating of very spare and coarse food for several days 
after death in the house. 

The action taken by the ladies is admirable and 
exemplary in every way. We hope it would prove last- 
ing. We also mark that efforts are being made to grapple 
with many other evil customs too, e. g., the demand of 
high dowries. This is a work of time and education and 
as education progresses it is sure to assist the community 
in carrying out all these reforms. 

“RATNA MANJuS’A AND AKS’AR PARIDHANA OR 
DAMPATYA YOGA” : By Ramachandra Adhvaryu Bardolikar. 
( 1932 ) 

The writer of this “Advice to his son’* is a widower 
and not blessed much with the goods of this world. 



528 


Sociology 


Being therefore unable to give any very costly present to 
his son on the occasion of his wedding, he wrote out this 
treatise which is meant to guide him in his future career 
as a married man and a man of the world. The advice 
tendered is homely and sound and partakes of the 
features usually found when an elder speaks to his 
juniors. 

The language is however, very high and stilted, and 
this takes away entirely whatever value this book 
possesses ; such young people as his son and the latter’s 
bride who are supposed to be the recipients of this advice, 
would hardly possess the knowledge required for follow- 
ing the Sanskritized language in which the thoughts of 
the author are couched. There are other similar published 
books and the advice may well have been given to the 
members of his family alone instead of being inflicted 
upon the public. 

& 

“SAUBHAGYA RATRI PART P' : By Narayana V. 
Thakkar and B. B. Sharma. ( 1932 ) 

Saubhagya Ratri, is the first night of the honey-moon 
of a newly wedded couple and Pandit Krishna Kant 
M&laviya has hung on that peg, a number of pieces of 
advice to the bride as to how she should conduct herself 
or behave on the threshold of her married life, 

In a series of letters in Hindi and addressed by her 
friend to the bride, a number of subj'ects have been 
handled, the combined aim and effect of which is to 
make the bride an ideal housekeeper and wife ; no 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 1907-1938 


529 


aspect of the household or domestic life of a Hindu is 
left untouched ; illustrations from the literatures of the 
East and the West have been used to reinforce the truths 
told by the writer. 

Panditji’s own foreword is a very clear exposition of 
the matter, and the capable translators have been for- 
tunately able to preserve the force and effectiveness ef 
the original Hindi ; this is what makes this book valu- 
able. 

☆ 

“ADYA ANTYAJODDHARAKA RAJAYI”: By Nagajibhai 
Arya. ( 1936 ) 

This illustrated book contains a vivid picture of the 
steps taken by H. H. the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda 
for the uplift of the depressed classes amongst his subjects. 
H. H. had to contend against many difficulties and old, 
orthodox prejudices, but he slowly overcame them all, 
and the result is that men like the writer, a man belong- 
ing to such classes, are able to look up and write books. 

☆ 

“RAGASHIYU GADUN” : By Manilal Jhaveri. Page 553. 
( 1936 ) 

The thirteen sections into which the book is divided 
treat of the various domestic and social practices 
prevalent amongst the orthodox Hindus which keep them 
down so far as civilised life is concerned. The writer 
has laid his finger on real plague spots of our current life 
at home. The sooner they go the better. 

4 


34 



530 


Sociology 


“DES’ A BARS’ ANA” : By Kuroari Sumitra Dayalji Mehta. 
Pp. 384 Price Rs. 3-0-0. 

The original of this translated book by Thakkur 
Shri Ramadas Sinha, B. A., in Hindi requires no introduc- 
tion. The social state of our country as well as its 
economic condition, as viewed from the principles of 
Eugenics and Birth-Control, and the miserable picture it 
presents are set out in the most forceful way by the author. 

He has selected a mass of statistics and instances to 
illustrate his points; the ill-matched life of India's 
married couples and the way in which in consequence 
thereof, both men and women go wrong, are particularly 
discussed and the details though nauseating vividly 
colour the picture. The lady-translator, a fine student 
of Hindi and a bom Gujarati has boldly tackled the task 
and not shrunk from referring to the most nonsavoury 
details. We like the book and wish it good luck. 

☆ 

“SAMANYA DHARMA” : By Rajyaratna Atmaram. Pp. 23 
Price As. 0-2-0 ( 1938 ). 

In this little pamphlet, Mr. Atmaram holds forth on 
his pet subject, and marshals arguments in favour of 
removing the brand of untouchability from the lower 
castes, with force and vigour. 

☆ 

“STRI-SWATANTRYA VADA” translated by Mrs. Saroiini 
N. Mehta. ( 1929 ) 

Young Mrs. Sarojini has long since been engaged in 
crusade against all that is evil and oppressive in the 



Development of Gujarati Liturature : 1907-1938 531 


Hindu society as far as her own sex is concerned. She is 
a plucky and uncompromising fighter, and has armed 
herself with facts and incidents which cannot easily be 
controverted. Her grievance is that woman has too 
long been treated as an underdog in our society and that . 
must cease. It suits her case to ignore any little good 
that might be put down to the credit of our society in 
respect of women. But unless you are a zealot in a cause, 
you can make no effect. 

Prof. A. R. Wadia of the Mysore University has 
written a book on the “Ethics of Feminism’’ and 
Mrs. Sarojini has translated it. The translation is 
a model one and very ably done. Frankly she does not 
agree with many of the author's views and is prepared 
to write out a book herself controverting them. Failing 
that the whole translation is interspersed with interesting 
foot notes showing her differences with the author's- 
views. They are the best part of the book ; they are 
stinging observations showing us the unfairness of 
man-made laws and usages. Altogether it is a most 
refreshing performance and a harbinger of much more 
we expect to come and she promises to give. 

☆ 

"JNATI SUDHARANA” : by S, C Bhimaji ( 1929 ) 

The writer of this small book hails from Cutch and 
belongs to a community known for its orthodoxy. The 
evils of the caste system, however, have so prominently 
been impressed upon them that they have been moved 
to put down their thoughts on paper, and the book 



532 


Sociology 


deserves to be read more for the spirit it typffies than for 
anything else. We are sure the racy language in which 
they have exposed social evils would help their object 
most. 




education. 

☆ 


- “SELECT STORIES FROM THE HISTORY OF GUJA- 
RAT” : Illustrated. By Karmali Rahim Nanjiafli, B. A., ( Late) 
Deputy Educational Inspector, Eaira : Ahmedabad, Aryodaya 
Press. Price As. 0-7-0 ( 1907 ) 

This is an extremely interesting little book, which 
reminds one of the Royal Series of English History for 
schools, and works of the type of Marshman’s “Easy 
Lessons in Indian History/' The stories are told in a very 
pleasant way, and they take away much from the tedium, 
which at present attaches to the teaching of history, 
which is made to consist of a list of dates and names and 
battles. Its extensive use in all Gujarati schools is much 
to be desired. The illustrations add to the usefulness of 
the book. 

Q 

“REVABAI DHARMA-S’IKS’ANA MALA: PARTS I & IP* 
by K. G. Sh&atri. ( 1907 ) 

The fame acquired by Mr. Bhaishankar Nanabhai as 
a member of the Bar is so overwhelming that it has 
completely obscured his leaning in favour of literature, 
of which he was a votary in his younger days, and of 
religion, which he never gave up. It is pleasant to find 
him reverting to his old associations. The above two 
books were caused to be written by him firstly to 



536 


Education 


commemorate the name of his deceased wife and second- 
ly to teach children, lessons on Nlii i. e., morality, social, 
domestic and public, 

For this commendable purpose the learned Shastriji 
has culled suitable examples from our old books and made 
them interesting and instructive enough. But we are 
afraid the language in which they are couched and the 
“high subjects” like marriage and its philosophy chosen 
by him make the book not of much use to those for whom 
it is intended. 

The marriage ceremonies and customs all belong 
to Kathiawad and many of them are not prevalent 
among and so not familiar to the people of Gujarat. 
However it is a slight blemish. The book has got three 
fine photographs of Mrs. Revabai, Mr. Bhaishanker and 
the Shastri, and is well got up. 

☆ 

“HIND NO BALABODHA-ITIHASA” : By Kri&aaprasftd 
S’ivaprasad Mehta, B, a. Pp. 264 Price As. 0-8-0 { 1907 ). 

The book is written obviously for the use and 
instruction of little children. In a tolerably well written 
preface, the writer has enunciated sound principles on 
which histories for such a class of learners are to be 
written. They should be instructive, interesting and 
informative. Unfortunately most of the histories of India 
have assumed the form of a mere dry chronicle of dates 
and names, dynasties and battles, and in spite of the 
laying down of sound lines in his preface we regret to see 
that the author has at times fallen into the very pitfalls, 
which he should have in following his own lines avoided. 



Development of Gujariiti, Literature : 1907-1938 


537 


The opening portion of the book treating of ancient 
India is cast in an interesting narrative form and had 
the writer carried out the same form to the end, he would 
surely have produced something out of the run of our 
ordinary chronicles and been entitled to our admiration. 

No doubt, there are parts of the book where attempts 
have been made to enliven these dry bones; but we are 
afraid they are beyond the comprehension of the boys, 
who are supposed to be its readers. It has been brough up 
to the most recent times and Lord Curzon and the Partition 
of Bengal duly figure in it, but the treatment is too scanty 
and scrappy to give the reader an idea of the far-reaching 
results of the policy of the late Viceroy. 

☆ 

“KARTAVYa BH UGOLA” Part I. Pp. 36, Part II. Fp. 52 
By Jivabhai Amichand Patel, Price As. 0-4-6 ( 1908 ). 

The aim of the writer is to completely do away with 
the system of learning geographical names and defini- 
tions by rote obtaining at present in our schools. He 
substitutes a system of catechism by means of which the 
child student is taught to look about him intelligently 
and note what he observes on paper provided in the 
book. 

The first part gently leads the learner from his own 
locality and school-room up to the island geography and 
topography of Bombay. The second part is illustrated 
with a map of the Town and Island of Bombay ( the 
subject-matter of the compilation ) and also a sketch 
showing its physical conformation* 



538 


Education 


The attempt is a praiseworthy one, and bespeaks an 
observant nature in the writer, which he has tried to 
utilise for the benefit of his brother teachers. 

☆ 

“KAVYA MANJARI” : By Jivabhai A. Patel Pp. 888 
Price .Re. 1-0-0 ( 1908). 

We had one such collection already, and larger in 
size, in the shape of the "Kavya Dohana” and hence so 
far as the form is concerned, there is no novelty in it. 
But the great merit of the work lies in the Notes to each 
poem which are appended at the end. On perusing them 
we find that they are too high for any of the High School 
Classes, to whom reference has been made in the preface 
and in whose interest the poems are graded. 

But we say this is no spirit of detraction or deprecia- 
tion. The mastery over the several philosophical and 
allegorical aspects of the selections which the Notes 
display, is of a very high order, Mr. Patel must have 
read much and read that to great advantage or else he 
could not have ransacked all the sources, which we find 
utilised in the Notes. They are a study in themselves and 
bound to prove of great help to those who have to do 
with and work in the sphere of higher vernacular litera- 
ture, such as the Normal Training College for Teachers 
and Students. 

“GEOMETRY PART I, BOOK 1 " ; By G. R. Kaik ( 1909 ) 

This book is prepared in the light of modern English 
works on the subject for the use of teachers, undergoing 



Development of Gujaia^i Literature : 1907-1988 


589 


instruction in Gujarati in Normal Training Colleges, and 
those candidates and students who have to submit to 
examinations in the vernacular. It contains the proposi- 
tions of Euclid and several other cognate matters arranged 
in a graduated form, likely to prove of use to those 
for whom it is published. 

☆ 

“SANSKRIT BHASHA PRADIPA" : By T. J. Panji 
( 1910 ) 

This is an original work in Gujarati on Sanskrit 
grammar which it claims to have treated in such a simple 
way, that one can study it by oneself without any 
extraneous help. The author is a private gentleman 
who has an abiding love for this noble language and has 
been at pains to teach it to his young children of both 
sexes from their very infancy. It is not a manual but a 
book of condiderable size and in every line displays the 
deep erudition of the author. It opens out various 
vistas of utility, but circumstanced as we are, in respect of 
both our primary and secondary education, we doubt if 
it can secure extensive patronage. 

It is rare to find such devotion to Sanskrit amongst 
non-Shastric or non-Brahmin classes in Gujarat, like 
Mr. Panji’s, though it is the other way with the men from 
the Deccan ; and all honour to him therefore for the 
creditable efforts he has thus made to introduce, facilitate 
and popularise the study of Sanskrit amongst Gujaratis. 
We wish him success. 

☆ 



540 


Education 


"GEO ERA PHY”: B.y Himatlal Gafcesaji Anjaria m.a,, LL.fc. 
Pp, 73 Price As. 0-4-0 ( 1914 )„ 

Mr, Anjaria has gained experience of matters educa- 
tional as the Superintendent of Municipal Schools in 
Bombay. In writing the above book for the use of 
students in the schools of Bombay he has had assistance 
of that doyen of the corps of private educationists in 
Bombay. Mr. Jalbhai Dorabji Bharda B. A. and he has 
therefore been able to produce a work which is likely to 
be of great use to those for whom it is intended. 

☆ 

"GUJARATI VANCHAN MALA”: First Book By K. G. 
Delvadakar Pp. 24 Price As. 0-2-0 ( 1916 ). 

The writer calls himself a kindergartenist and he 
has written this book according to his lights. There is 
nothing special in it. 

r* 

“SIX PAPERS ON KINDERGARTEN” : By H. G. Anjaria 
M. A , LL. B. Pp. 82 ( 1916 } 

In his foreword the writer admits his lack of know- 
ledge and experience, sufficient to enable him to write 
with authority on the subject of infant education. The 
papers which follow are, we think, too difficult to put an 
outsider into the currect path without extraneous help. 
We can therefore only echo the pious wish of Mr. Anjaria, 
that his book might assist others in making the subject, 
more attractive. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


541 


“IS IT POSSIBLE TO TEACH IN INDIA ACCOEDING 
TO THE MONTESSOEI SYSTEM ?” By S. S. Mehta ( 1916 ). 

Mr. Mehta having propounded the above question, 
answers it in the affirmative and has shown several 
methods which can be adapted to the needs of India. 
This we think, is the first attempt in Gujarati in this 
direction. As to how far this system can be successful 
in practice, one cannot say at present. 

Q 

“ADHUNIKA KELAVANP : By Hargovind Kanji Bhatt, 
Pp. 81 Price As. 0-4-0 ( 1917 ) 

As its name implies this pamphlet contains an essay 
on modern education. It is well stocked with statistics 
and figures, and points out, according to the lights of the 
writer, the excellences and defects of present education. 
We do not know if he is connected with any educational 
institution. 

☆ 

“BALA S'HIKS'ANA” : By Mrs. G. K. Upadhyaya ( 1918 ) 

Originally a prize essay and being written by a 
woman, it very well sets out the chief points in the educa- 
tion of a child. It is divided into thirty-seven chapters 
and each one of them bears on some phase of child-life 
regarding which useful instructions have been given. 

Q 

“S’lKS’A NO AD AES’ A” : By Dalpatrfim Bhaishankar 
Raval, Price Re. 1-0-0 £ 1921 ) 

The trenchant and effective papers of Dr. Rabindra- 
nath Tagore on Education are widely known. From 



542 


Bducafciou 


Bengali they have been translated into Hindi and from 
Hindi into Gujarati by Mr, Raval. A valuable Foreword 
by Mr. Chhaganlal H. Pandya, the Head of the Education 
Department at Junaghad enhances the utility of the 
work. 

$ 

“KELAVANI NA AKHATARA OR EXPERIMENTS IN 
EDUCATION”, ( 1921 ) 

There is a Society in Bhavnagar, called the Dakshina 
Murti. Its object is the spread of sound education on 
r ational lines and it is served by several self-less educa- 
ted men, like Prof. Narasimha Prasad Kalidas Bhatt, who 
have sacrificed a life of ease and earning to devote 
themselves absolutely to the cause. 

The pamphlet is rightly called “Experiments in 
Education” as some of the branches this Society runs are 
hardly a couple of years old. All the latest ideas in 
education such as the kindergarten and Montessori 
methods are being tried and the results watched. The 
Society is certainly doing creditable work and is deserving 
of every encouragement. 

“TRIYEDI VACHANA MALA 9 ’ : By Rao Bahadur Kamala- 
shankar P. Trivedi B* a, Pp, 32 and 66 Price As. 0-2-6 and 
As. 0-4-0 ( 1921 ). 

The Rao Bahadur and his son are both connected 
with education, the one is a retired Principal of the 
Normal Male Training College and the other, a Professor 
in the Baroda College. There is a want of a good vema- 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


543 


cular reading series for children in Gujarati, and it is the 
opinion of many, that no series attempted and accomp- 
lished, has been able to come up to the Hope Series, 
which they all want to supplant and improve upon in 
many respects. 

. These two educationists have turned their hands 
to producing a still newer series, and in our opinion, it is 
not quite up to the Hope Series inspite of improvements 
in the way of pictures, etc. The word Pravesika itself is 

likely to frighten away little children for whom it it 
meant. 

Some of the lessons, e. g., the one on moonlight in 
the introductory work, and on Viveka in the first book, 
would be found much over the heads of the juveniles, so 
far as the style and the words are concerned. The verses 
are also such as would not prove attractive to them. 
However, as an experiment it is far from discouraging 
and we would ask the authors to proceed. 

☆ 

“THE GO- CART”: By Gijubhai, Pp. 122 Price As. 0-3-0 (1922) 

These two little books, called the small and the 
large go-cart, are intended for children, and written by 
an experienced educationist who has made a practical 
study of the subject. A guide to teachers is separately 
supplied and it tells them how to teach the books. 

They are very simple and the subjects chosen are 
such that they are bound to interest their juvenile 
readers. Birds indigenous to the province, and other 
phases of our domestic life are described most pleasantly, 



544 


Education 


though some of the sports are peculiar to Kathiawad, 
and not known to the children of Gujarat proper, Alto- 
gether the books are most useful and sure to be utilised 
extensively. 

“KAVI VANI” : PARTS 1, 2, S. Published by the Yile Parle 
Sahifcyc. Sabha ( 1922 ). 

The New National schools required Text books 
of select Gujarati poems, old and new, and these three 
parts furnish a very representative selection. 

“GANDHI SHIKS’ANA : Part I” by Nagindas Amulkharai, 
Pp. 70 Price As. 0-5-0 ( 1923 ). 

As its name implies this book is concerned with the 
teachings of Gandhiji. The compiler has collected passages 
from his writings bearing on Satyagraha and presented 
them in a collected form, which of course is very 
effective. 

‘ # 

“PATH A SANOHAYA : Part I” by N. D. Parekh Pp. 804 
Price As. 0-13-0 ( 1923 ). 

This collection of lessons is intended for fourth form 
boys in National schools and is easily teachable. The 
subjects chosen are easy to understand, and interesting 
to the boys of the age generally attending these classes. 
The information sought to be imparted is selected with 
an eye to its usefulness in the present and future life of 
the students, 

* 



Deve’.opment of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1938 


545 


“RAS’TRIYA VACHANaMALA’’ : By Nagindaas Amulka^ 
rai Pp. 236 Price As. 0-12-0 ( 1923 ). 

Extracts from the writings of Mahatma Gandhi are 
arranged in the form of a class book. They necessarily 
are concerned with his views on Indian Nationalism ; to 
those who have had no opportunity of going through the 
whole literature on the subject, they furnish useful 
summary though one does not feel sanguine about their 
use as a school book. 


☆ 

“S’lKS’AKA AND S’ IK S’ A N A” : By Teachers of Bhav. 
nagar, Pp. 475 Price Rs, 2-8-0 ( 1923 ). 

Those who know the sacrifice of this noble band of 
teachers and the self-denying ordinance under which 
they work at Bhavnagar, do not require to be told how 
valuable the book must be which comes from the pen 
not only of the high-souled Prof. N. K. Bhatt or the 
unmatched story-teller of the juveniles Adhyapaka 
Girijasankar Badheka, but is the result of the combined 
effort of the whole staff of preceptors there. They have 
produced a book recording the evolution of the methods 
they have employed in teaching the childern under them, 
based on experience and not on theory. 

It is a work on pedagogy, perhaps the first of its 
kind in India in so far as it is the result of personal 
experience of men who have devoted their lives to the 
subject, men nurtured in and equipped with western 
traditions but bending them to be useful to the circums- 
tances of our country. The book is a landmark in that 
35 



546 


Education 


most important subject and will repay perusal even by 
a lay mind. 

“THE THIRD GUJARATI BOOK” : By Chhotalal Bala* 
krigna PurSniis projected for the use of Vidyapltha students. It 
contains very good lessons which are boih instructive and inform- 
ing, 

“SAHITYA YANCHAN MALA”: By Pritamrai. Yrajrai 
Desai, Pp 111 Price As. 0-7-0 ( 1924 ). 

This is the first Part of selected readings from modern 
prose and poetical writers so arranged as to be useful to 
students, as well as to non-students. The selection is 
representative. 

' ☆ 

‘•KAVYA SAMUCIICHYA: Part II” by Rarmugrajana 
V. Pathak Pp. 2 84 Price Bs. 1-8-0 ( 1924 ). 

A very good and representative selection of the 
poems of the modern Gujarati poets, with a very able 
and tersely written but pertinently critical Introduction, 
this book adds one more laurel to those already won by 
Prof. Pathak, in different branches of learning. It is a 
pleasure to read this collection. 

“COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY” ; Part I by C. B. Dalai, 
Pp. 472 Price R?. 2-8-0 ( 1924 ). 

Being the first book of its kind in Gujarati, we wel- 
come it heartily, as it betokens an advent of such useful 
books from the pen of the teachers of the Vidyapitha. 
Everything pertaining to the Commerce of India would be 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907 : 1938 547 

found in this book as almost all the literature on the 
subject seems to have been studied in writing it. It 
will prove of use not to students only but to other 
commercial men also. 

☆ 

‘‘TOLSTOY AND EDUCATION’’ : By Pandurang Vithal 
Yalame, Pp. 118 Price Rs. 1-8-0 ( 1925 ). 

Tolstoy had original ideas on education and he put 
them into practice at Vasnaya Poliana. His methods 
are revolutionary of the orthodox methods of teaching 
and enforcement of school discipline. But on going 
through this pleasing little volume, one would find that 
they are not impracticable in the case of small colonies 
of children. 

☆ 

“KELAVNI NA PAY A” : By Kishorilai G. Mashruwala 
B. a., ll. B. Pp 248 Price Be. 1-0-0 ( 1926 ). 

These are most thoughtful essays on the foundations 
of education by one who is born an idealist and a practical 
teacher, and who has learnt his lessons by experience. 
The essays are replete with hints and suggestions on the 
teaching of various subjects which are sure to prove of 
great value to those who are in the " line 

* 

“ENGLAND NO ITIHASA” : By A. N. Joshi B A. ( 1934 ). 

This is a very readable history of England. 
Although it is meant for students of the School Leaving 
and similar other examinations, it would be found equally 
usefiT by others not concerned with the Education Tepart- 



548 


Education 


ment. In addition to the political history of England, 
one finds in it many other interesting features, as the 
writer has been at pains to set out the biographical 
aspect of England's wellknown Kings* Queens, and 
politicians and has also included in it the universal 
aspects of history, such as the social tendencies of the 
period, its artchitectural bent etc., We will give only one 
instance of work in this direction. See Sections 9, 10, 11, 

12 of Queen Elizabeth's reign. It is also an up-to-date 
history. 

“J I VAN A VIKAS A” : By Kakii Kiilelkar, B. a. ( 1937 ) 

Kaka Kalelkar though a Maharastriyan by birth and 
education has after joining Gandhiji's movement become 
a Gujarati for all practical purposes. It is well known 
that he was the life and soul of the Gujarat Vidyapltha 
where his experience of education at almost all the well- 
known institution in India, the Guru Kula of the 
Aryasamajists, the Shantiniketan of Dr. Tagore, the 
Rishikula of the Sanatanists and other si:nilar teaching 
centres, stood him in good stead in directing its work 
and classes. This substantial book of 800 pages contains 
very valuable thoughts on education, embodied in various 
speeches and writings. 

His sincerity and his right to speak as an educationist 
would be obvious to any one who cares to go through 
even a part of the book. The work consisting of eight 
chapters and containing discussion on 133 subjects relating 
to education in its various aspects is a rich store-house of 
information and will meet the great want existing till 
now of such a book in the Gujarati language. 



GRAMMAR AND LEXICON 
☆ 




GRAMMAR AND LEXICON 
☆ 

“’ELEMENTARY' GRAMMAR OF THE GUJARATI 
LANGUAGE” Parts I, II : By Rao Bahadur Kamalashankar 
Trivedi. Price Rs. 2-0-0 (1916). 

Nearly a generation spent in the Educational 
Department has fitted Rao Bahadur Kamalashankar to 
write with authority on this subject. It is needless to 
say that he has treated this difficult subject in a very 
able way, and in spite of some lapse here and there, we 
are of opinion that the books would serve their purpose 
very well. 

☆ 

“ PAIALACHCHHI NAMAMALA ” : By Pandit 

Bechardas Jivraja. Pp. 104. Price Re. 1-12-0(1917). 

Pandit Bechardas Jivaraja a native of Kathiawad, is 
a great student of Prakrit and Pali. It is he who has 
published this well-known Prakrit vocabulary of Maha- 
Kavi Dhanapala, with its Gujarati equivalents. In the 
short biography of the author appended to this book, 
Dhanapala is said to have written this Kosha to teach 
his younger sister Sundari, in her mother tongue. 

☆ 

“ SAMOCHCHARA-S’ABDA SaMGRAHA. ” by R, H. 
Mistri. (1917). 

The Parsi Lekhak Mandal is always well-intentioned 
and works to the best of its lights for the encourage- 



552 


Grammar and Lexicon 


ment of Gujarati Literature, We felicitate the body on 
harbouring such intentions. The small book under re- 
view is the practical carrying out of their desire to help 
the cause. 

It is called a ‘‘ Collection of Gujarati Homonymns. ” 
Now the very essence of homonymity is that the words 
should have the same sound when pronounced; there 
should be no confusion between dentals and palatals aud 
labials. By no stretch of the laws of pronunciation, can 
you say that Atu and Adhi, Ada and Adha, Shuddhi and 
Shudhau emit the same sound when spoken ? 

The non-observance of this simple rule, in fact of the 
first principles of the laws of pronunciation, has marred the 
whole work and we wonder what those one or two Hindi 
scholars, to whom the editor says he had referred, been 
doing when they passed the collection. Searching for 
correct homonyms in this collection is like searching for a 
couple of pins in a box of nails. In words like Surat and 
Surat one finds that the collection has hit upon the right 
path. We are sorry to see all this trouble of collection 
wasted and energy misdirected. 

☆ 

" GUJARATI BHAS’A NUN BRIHAD YYAKARANA.” 
by R. B K. P. Trivedi. b. a. (1920). 

This is what the author calls a * Higher Grammar of 
the Gujarati language/ and is very comprehensive in its 
scope. After Rev. Taylor’s larger grammar, which was 
written years ago, there was need for such a work in 
order to bring the subject in line with recent researches 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1038 


553 


in Oil Gujarati in its various aspects. All modern books 
and writings bearing on this rather dry and in several 
places thorny subject, have been consulted by the writer 
and although there is room for difference of opinion on a 
goodly number of views urged by him, on the whole, as 
we have said, it is a comprehensive work. An index at 
the end is a feature of the book. 

☆ 

-'GUJARATI S’ ABD ARTEL A-OHINTAMANI ’* by J, A. 
Mehta Pp. 473 and 772 Price Rs. 5-8-0 (1926). 

The crying need of our literature is a good Gujarati 
Dictionary. A series of attempts of varying utility, are 
being made from time to time to bring out a really repre- 
sentative work but none has reached the goal. All works 
fall far short of that. Mr. Jivanlal has exerted himself 
greatly and utilised the labours of several scholars work- 
ing for the Gujarat Vernacular Society's Kosa. He has 
therefore, succeeded in bringing out a book which for 
the present, is the last word on the subject so far as 
school boys and students are concerned. 

☆ 

“ CHHATROPOYOGI GUJARATI S’ABDAKOS’A.” by L. 
Gr. Patel. Pp. 863 Price Rs. 6-4-0 (1925). 

After the Narma Kos'a , two generations old, there 
is hardly a good Gujarati Dictionary to be found. The 
present effort therefore of Mr. Patel deserved felicitation 
not only because of its pioneer work but because of its 
intrinsic worth and labor. Although meant to be useful 
only to school boys, it reflects the expansion of the lang- 



554 


Grammar and Lexicon 


uage, and the consequent addition of words therein, to its 
fullest extent and is thus up to date. 

☆ 

“ SARTHA GUJARATI JODANI KOS’A”. by M. P. Desiii. 
(1938). 

One of the abiding salutary results of the working of , 
the Gujarat Vidyapltha founded by Mahatma Gandhi would 
be this Dictionary in Gujarati, composed on the most ap- 
proved standards of spelling in the language. For short 
and long vowels each one spelt as he liked. In fact chaos 
prevailed and no one was concerned to remove it. 
Several attempts have been made to standardise spelling 
but they failed for lack of authority to enforce the 
standard. Gandhiji felt it to be a stigma on the language 
and set about to remove it with the help of some scholars 
of his Vidyapltha, and the result is this very valuable 
volume. 

The spelling of each word is based on the greatest 
common factor obtaining in the different views till now 
prevailing and is based on reason or rational lines. The 
attempt has been well received, and the University of 
Bombay has adopted the system. It would work down 
at least to the Secondary or High Schools from there and 
thus ultimately reach primary institutions. After'Narma- 
dashankar’s monumental Kosa published in A. D. 1873, 
nothing equally valuable and authoritative has come out 
till now, and the very fact that a third Edition has been 
called for during the course of eight years testifies to its 
great utility. We congratulate the authors heartily. 

☆ 



SPEECHES AND LETTERS 
☆ 




SPEECHES AND LETTERS 

☆ 

“ GRIHlNI SU-YICff ARA.MALA' 1 edited by Mcs. Katan- 
bai t^allabhnji Bodani : Tadaev, Jubilee R»g, Bombay. Pp. 24D 
Price Re. 1-0-0(1905). 

The Editor is the daughter of Mrs. Manekbai 
Kahanji Kavi, whose work as a public lecturer in 
Bombay is so well known. She is a familiar figure at al- 
most all the public meetings where matters of social and 
domestic reform are discussed. This work is a collection 
of some of her public utterances. She is a fluent speaker, 
and clothes her speeches in very simple language, illus- 
trating and emphasising her points with apt and homely 
instances and stories. She further fortifies herself with 
examples drawn from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and 
the Puranas. 

Altogether the collection represents very useful work, 
and when we bear in mind, that it has been accomplished 
by a lady, with very little school-education and wholly 
nurtured on home instruction, we cannot withold our tri- 
bute of praise for the same. 

☆ 

u SAD-VAKTA ” By Fatehchand Kapurckand Lalan. Pp. 
164, Price Re. 0-S-0. (1912). 

This book is called First Steps for Beginners in the 
Art of Public Speaking. It is written by a well-known 



558 


Speeches and Letters 


Jaina traveller, writer and speaker, of simple and Spartan 
habits, who has visited Eirope and America a great 
many times. 

Having heard famous speakers and orators there, he 
was struck by the absence in Gujarati of any work, which 
would help a beginner in that line. He has tried to sup- 
ply the want. It certainly puts the beginner on the way, 
and is well worth studying. 

☆ 

« SWAM! RAMATEERTHA-HIS WRITINGS PART V ” 
by Madhubhai Bhaurao (1913). 

The continuation of the translation of the speeches of 
Swami Ramatlrtha reflects great credit on the work of 
the Society, and we find this translation particularly well 
done, the author having fully identified himself with the 
spirit of the Swami. 

☆ 

“SWAMI RAMATIRTHA’S SBRMOKS” Part YII. pp. 
233, Price Re 0-8-0 (1914;. 

This part comprises about ten sermons of the Swami 
and is in keeping with the previous volumes in the ex- 
cellence of the translation. 

☆ 

(1) “ SHRI RAMAKRIS’NA VAKSUDHA ” Part I. 
Translated by Dwivedi Jaysgankar Ambslal Changakar. Pp. 9G. 
Price Re. 0-2-0 (1914). (2) “VADODARA NE VADALE ” by 
Janmasankor Lalita : (1914). 

On the analogy of the Society for the encourange- 
ment of cheap literature a series-called the two anna 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 1907-1938 


559 


series in the name of H. H. the Gaekwar of Baroda is 
projected by Mr. Joshi. The first work in the series com- 
prises the talk and dialogues of Ramakrisna Parama- 
hansa, whose works are not unknown to the Gujarati 
reading public. 

The second is a collection of songs-for they are 
'meant to be sung rather than read-written by ‘ Lalita ' 
who is now in Baroda. They are sweet songs certainly, 
and short as they are, they never fail to inspire the feel- 
ing that they are meant to inspire. Many of them derive 
additional value when set to music, and we are sure, we 
are not wrong in saying that in this new crop of his poems 
he has not lost his hold on the special characteristic of his 
work -viz., its musicality and Rhajana-like background. 

☆ 

*« SAMANTA ” by Tribhovandas Damouardfta. (1915). 

This is a translation of the Bengali article written by 
Kashi Chandra Ghoshal, of the teachings of Chaitanya. 
The style is grandiloquent and labored and not likely to 
be liked by the masses. 

☆ 

RAMAKRIS’NA KATHAMRITa” Part I. by NT. B. 
Pandya, (1918). 

Shrijut Mahendranath Gupta, one of the most devot- 
ed followers of Ramakrisna Paramahamsa, has written so 
much about the Saint and his life as almost to amount to 
a literature in itself. This * Kathamrita ' narrates vari- 
ous episodes and incidents in the Saint's life, together 
with the sentiments and opinions expressed by him. They 



560 


Speeches and Letters 


remind one of the precision, assiduity and loyalty of 
BoswelL 

The translation is so happily done that it preserves 
all the spirit of the original, with its unflagging interest. 
The very simplicity and the directness of the narrative 
are so well brought out, both by the author and the 
translator, that even one who is moderately educated 
can follow the trend of it. 

☆ 

“ S "EECHES AND WRITINGS OP DIWAN BAHADUR 
AMRALAL SAKARLAL DESAI. M. a., L L. b. fp. 72, 277, l64 
Price Rs. Rs. 2-8-0 (1918). 

The late Dewan Bahadur was one of the batch of 
the first graduates of Gujarat and was known as the 
Prince of its graduates. He was also known as a practi- 
cal economist, a sound lawyer, a high class educationist, 
and above all, a possessor of robust and heal hy character. 
The introduction of Prof. Thakore is mainly taken up 
wi'h the elucidation of these points, and stocked as it is, 
with incidents and stories, derived first hand does full 
justice to the hero of the story. 

The speeches and writings which follow, both English 
and Gujarati, by their fearless tone, logic and argument, 
straight talk and sturdy independance give a vivid 
picture of Ambalal Bhai, as he was in flesh and blood. 
There was great need to preserve in book-form the public 
utterances of one who was a valuable asset of our 
Province, and Mr, Thabore deserves our thanks for having 
done so. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


56 1 


“PARISH AD TRIVENl” :«~-By Vidy&rfchi Bhimashankar 
Sharma Pp. 38 Price As. 0-4-0 ( 1918 ) 

These are three essays in the form of speeches at 
conferences, all made in high-flown language, and padded 
with extracts from well-known authors. The same student- 
writer noticed in a preceding review, has pleased 
himself by trying to influence his fellow-students by 
piloting them to this sort of pilgrimage to a literary 
Triveni Sangama. 

* 

“'SWAM! VI VEKANANDA” Part II Pp. 323 Price 

As. 0-8-0 ( 1918 ). 

Mr* Vasanji Dayalji Ganatra has based this work on 
the English book of the Swamiji called “From Colombo 
to Almorah ,> and a Bengali version of it “Bharat Viveka- 
nanda” It contains the stirring addresses of the Swami, 
delivered enroute to Almorah, while travelling thereto 
from Colombo. 

☆ 

“GOPALA KRIS’NA GOKHALE NAN VYAKHYANO” : 
Vol. I by Mahadeva H. De&ai b. a., l l. b. < 1918 }. 

This is a translation of speeches made by the late 
Mr. Gokhale on Dadabhai Navroji, Ranade, Mehta, 
W. C. Bonnerji, S. K. Ghosh, Sister Nivedita, Hume, Sir 
W. Weddurburn and Lord Northbrook and Home Charges, 
in different parts of India and England. It is embellished 
with fine portraits of some of these celebrities. The best 
part of the book is the short but most valuable Intro- 
duction written by Mr Gandhi ji replete w ith his unboun- 
ded admiration for and devotion to Gokhale, 

36 



562 


Speeches and Letters 


It traces the history of their acquaintance which 
ripened into friendship though Mr. Gandhi always main- 
tained that he looked upon Gokhale as his master and 
guide and sat at his feet as his pupil. The translation is 
very well done, and will surely supply a want long-felt 
in the language. 

☆ 

“SWAMI RAMATlRIHA NA SADUPADES’A” Transla- 
ted by Kripaslianker Beehardas Pandit Pp. 462 Price Rs. 2-0-0 
( 1919 ). 

This is the second volume of the speeches etc., of 
Swami Ram Tlrtha. The very fact that it has run into a 
second edition shows the popularity that the publication 
has attained and the hold it has taken of the people’s 
minds. The translation is well executed. 

<S SHRI RAMAKRISHNA PARAMAHAMSA NAN SAD- 
VACHANA” Translated by K. M. Dave ( 1920 ). 

This is a translation from English of the compilation 
of M., a disciple of Ramakrishna. The work is of absorb- 
ing interest, and was needed to acquaint the Gujarati 
reader with the fact that the age of great religious men 
in India like Nanak and Kabir and Chaitanya has not 
ceased, but that our century has also produced equally 
great men. In the midst of a very busy practice and 
struggle with bad health we must say that it is greatly to 
the credit of Mr. Kevalram that he has found time to 
present a translation to Gujarat, which is simple in lan- 
guage, and useful from more than one point of view. 

☆ 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


.563 


"SWAMI VIVEKANANDA PART V/.’ 1 Translated by 

N. B. Pandya. ( 1920 ) 

This is a further instalment of the lectures of the 
Swamiji, rendered into excellent Gujarati. The utility 
and the popularity of the series of which this book is only 
a part is too well known to be repeated. 

'U 

“ARYA VIDYA VYAKHYANA MALA ” : by Gujarat 
Puratattva Mandir Pp. 244. Price Rs. 2-0-0 ( 1922 ) 

It is a collection of eight lectures, all bearing on the 
antiquities, either of Gujarat or of India in general. The 
subjects are of great interest; e. g., those of "Ancient 
Mathematics/' ‘‘Prakrit Language and Literature/' "Umar 
Khayyam/' and they have been treated with much 
intelligence and acumen. 

‘ MANUS'HYA MANTHI MAHATMA ” : by Harjivan 
Kalidaa Mehta, Pp. 100. Price Re. 0-10-0 (1922). 

Mr. Harjivan Mehta is well-known as the preacher 
and a sincere preacher and worker in the cause of Theo- 
sophy. This book gives the substance of seven lectures 
delivered by him on the subject of the evolution of the 
mere man into attaining the highest Beatitude of 
Mahatmaship, The subject is religious and metaphysical 
and he has tried his best to make it popular; but we are 
afraid few people will understand it. 

14 PREMA ” (1925) is a translation of the late Babu 
A^winikumar Dutt's lectures before the Bandhava Samiti 



564 


Speeches 


on Love in its most extensive sense. The translator Mr. 
Kalianji Bhailal Bhai has added notes and a small biogra- 
phy of the Babu to make the book more useful. 

☆ 

“ KNOW THE (Present) TIMES ’ : by Muniraja Sri Vidya 
Vijayaji. Pp. 339. Price Re. 1-8-0. (1923). 

Muniraja Sri Vidya Vijayaji is a great student of 
Gujarati and a forceful speaker. As a speaker, he generally 
speaks on the subject of the improvement and uplift 
which the domestic and social life of the Jainas requires, 
and the twenty-six different topics on which he effectively 
expresses himself in the book relate to that subject. It 
is a bugle-call to the Jainas to put their house in order 
and thus know the times in which they live. 

Q 

“ JIVANA VEDA ” : by M. 0. Parekh, B. a . (1936) 
Sixteen Bengali speeches of Brahmarshi Keshav Chandra 
Sen have been translated into very simple Gujarati, a 
characteristic of all his works, by Mr. Manilal Parekh, 
under the title of “ Jivana Veda ” a title given by Keshav 
Chandra Sen himself, in so far as they reveal autobio- 
graphically the spiritual development in the life of the 
great Indian Saint, 

Mr. MamlaFs Preface succintly gives the history of 
the Brahma Samaja in Bengal and the share that some of 
its founders contributed to it. To serious minded people, 
the work gives much food for thought, and the translator 
has done well in putting the book before the Gujarati 
reading public. 



£>eveiopment of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 565 


“ SWAMI VIVEKANAND NA PaTRO " : Tranelated by 
MohanlSl Daliohand Desai, b, a. ll. b. Pp. 158, Price 0-5-0, 0-10-0, 
0-15-0 accordii.g to style of cover. (1912). 

Only a short while ago we have noticed another transla- 
tion of the Epistles of Swami Vivekananda. We doubt if 
there is room in our literature for two such translations. 
The pen of an experienced individual of culture and 
cheapness of price, are however, in favour of the one 
under review. 

☆ 

« LETTERS OF SWAMI VIVEKANANDA ” : by B. F. 
Karbhari. (1912) 

This neatly got-up volume will help the Gujarati 
readers much to understand the great individuality and 
personality of Swami Vivekananda. It is a collection of 
70 letters and many more are promised in the near future. 
Mr, Bhagubhai could not have done a more useful work. 

☆ 

“ the jaina niti pp.avesha and kumarika ne 

PATRO” (1915). 

Are two little brochures published by Mr. Mavji 

Damji Shah. The first teaches morals, and the second are 
pieces of advice given to a girl in the shape of letters. 

☆ 

“HINDI LEKHA MALA Part I ” : Fp. 298. Price Re. 0-8-0 

(1916). 

This volume consists of a collection of papers written 
by wellknown Hindi writers in their own language, and 
printed in Gujarati character. This is an entirely new 



566 


Letters 


departure on the part of this Society, and is, we expect, 
put forth in the nature of an experiment. We do not 
know how far the experiment would succeed, as the 
cultured Hindi in which the papers are written would not 
be easily followed by the inhabitants of Gujarat. There 
are in all forty-one papers and they range over .a 
variety of subjects including the military exploits of our 
Indian soldiers in the present war in Flanders. 

This paper is one of the best and should be read 
widely, so that people at large might know how our brave 
brethren acquitted themselves on the battlefield of Europe. 

* 

“ PRA'VASINA PATRO ” : by K, H. Sbeih, (1916), 

The price of this book is out of all proportion to its 
worth. In the form of “ Traveller’s Letters ” the writer 
has tried to combine entertainment with instruction on 
the social and domestic phases of a Hindu’s life. The 
subject is treated in such a way that the reader does not 
feel fagged but on the other hand is drawn to it and likes 
to pursue it. 

☆ 

“ KAMALA N A PATRO "—translated by S. U. Yagnik. 
( 1920 >. 

Letters of Kamala are well-known in English. They 
portray a perfect picture of Hindu domestic life generally, 
and more epecially of Southern India. A translation of 
these letters was published in parts in the monthly 
“ Samalocha k’ * years ago. The translation now appears 
in book-form and furnishes delightful reading. The In- 
troduction, which is really meant to say a few words in 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


567 


praise of the translator possesses however the appearance 
of faintly 'damning’ him. 

“MAHATMAJINA PATRO” — Pp, 96. Price Rs. 0-4-0 
( 1922 ). 

It is a collection of Mahatma Gandhi's letters and the 
second describes his trial at Ahmedabad. The letters 
begin from the time he was in South Africa and are add- 
ressed to his sons and friends. The saintliness, sincerity 
and straightforwardness, which rule all his actions at the 
present moment, appear in their full vigour even then 
( say in 1909 ) and the letters reflect the writer in full 
glory. They are a lesson in themselves and no Gujarati 
should miss reading them. 

“SAKHI NA PATRO ! ’ — By Mamlal Nathubhai Doshi 
Pp. 100 Price Rs. 0-4-0 (1924). 

These are letters supposed to be written by one girl- 
friend to another. They contain useful pieces of advice 
for being virtuous and chaste, supported by arguments 
from various sources, 

THE LETTERS OF SUSHILA *'■ — By Chimanl&l Jeehand 
Shah. Pp. 202. Price Re, 1-4-0 ( 1925 ) 

These letters are stated to have been written by a 
young wite to her husband, a College student. They 
breathe the atmosphere of the modern education of girls 
and the sentiments appear to ;be artificial, but all the 
same creditable for a beginner from whom we cannot 



568 


Letters 


expect ripeness of opinion or sobriety in statment. Time 
is sure to improve the seed; the beginnings of a good 
harvest are there. They furnish pleasant reading for 
young boys and girls. 

“ JAWAHARLAL NEHRU » A PATRO ’’—Translated * by 
M. M. Mehta. ( 1932 ) 

Pandit JawaharlaFs letters to his young daughter. 
Indira are well known. They are translated in this book. 
They range over thirty-one subjects-every one of them 
important-from the Book of Nature and creation of the 
Universe to the Coming of the Ary as into India and the 
Ramayana and. the Mahabharata. They bring out the 
Panditji as a deep scholar and a facile expounder of 
difficult subjects like natural history and the evolution 
theory. They are rather above the head of children like 
the ten years old Indira, but on the other hand sure to 
benefit every one old and young who reads them. The 
translation is intelligently done. 

“ KALAPI Nl PATRA-DHARA ’’—Published by JivauUU 
Amarsi Mehta, ( 1932 ). 

This is a companion volume to Kaldpi no Kekdrav . 
The poet’s epistles throw a flood of light on his life and 
supply a clue to a real understanding of his poetry and 
ethics. The publisher has therefore, done a great service 
by bringing all these letters together under one cover, 
and placing them at the disposal of the public. 



TRAVEL 




TRAVEL 

* 

“KASMIR NOPRAVASA ANE KALAPI NA SAMYADA’'- 
{ 1912 ). 

This is a work from the pen of the late Thakore 
Saheb Surasimhaji of Lathi in KathiawaL He was an 
educated prince who died in the prime of his youth. He 
wrote under Nom de plume of Kalapi, and his poems 
especially have taken rank amongst the first class poems 
of Gujarat. 

The prose works of this prince-poet which comprise a 
description of travels in Kashmir and reviews of Sweden- 
burg’s books, are here published in book-form and they 
furnish very good and instructive reading. Kalapi' s poems 
with annotations are promised by this Society also. And 
if they bring them out in this cheap form they will surely 
do a great service to our vernacular literatnre, 

☆ 

“PRAVASA Y ARN AN A 5 7 — by the late Shivalal Dhaues’var. 
C 1916 ). 

It must be very gratifying to the son of the late 
Kavi, who had during his lifetime attained some measure 
of success as a writer of verse, to be able to bring out a 
second edition of the book after thirty years after it was 
published first. 



672 


Travel 


As the tutor to a brother of H. H the Rao of Cutch 
he had to travel to several places with him, and the 
natural scenery of places like Poona and Mahableshwar 
appealed to him. He has catalogued such sceneries in 
his book of verses supplementing the list with many words 
of admonishment. This kind of poetry is now passing 
away-going out of fashion. 

☆ 

“ AMERICA NO PRAVASA 5 ’— By Ratansimh Dipsimh 
Parmar. Pp. 299. Price Re. 0-8-0 ( 1917 ). 

A translation of Swami Satyadev’s experiences in 
America, [written in Hindi. The book furnishes most 
interesting and instructive reading. We would recom- 
mend every one to read it from cover to cover, as he would 
find much that is useful and much that is inspiring in it. 

« ALAKA NO ADRHUTA PRAVASA by J, P. Joehipura 
M.A. (1918). 

“Alice’s Advetures in Wonderland”, a most delightful 
children’s book in English is sought to be adapted to 
Indian life by the writer. He is fully conscious of the 
difficulties;©! conveying the exact situations, the inimitable 
humour, and the surpassing delights of [this innocent 
narrative into his work. The woodcuts with their English 
associations add to them. So thxt it is no wonder if this 
production lacks the attractiveness of the original. 

However as a first attempt there is much to recom- 
mend it, and we are sure that in spite of its deficiencies 
it would appeal tv children and that its style, suited more 



Development of Gujarati Liturature * 1907-1938 573 


to educated and cultured minds, would not stand in their 
way. 

☆ 

“EUROPE AMERICA NO PRAVASA”— Sakarlal Dayabkai 
Yakil Pp. 158, Prica Re. 0-8-0, ( 1921 ). 

The writer has thrice visited Europe and once 
America. He narrates his experiences and thoughts in an 
extremely chatty style-just as he speaks, and consequent- 
ly the language and style call for revision. He is fired 
by the present patriotic aspirations and claims to be an 
industrialist, and as such mercilessly exposes the weak 
spots in our methods of trade and commerce, and 
incidental'y in those of sanitation, public and private 
hygiene and many other things. 

He has passed a number of strictures on Indian Mill 
Agents, Steam-ship Company Agents, and other mag- 
nates which are well deserved. The book faithfully 
reflects the individuality of the writer, who is fond of tub 
thumping and as such known to many in Gujarat. 

* HINDUSTAN Nl TIRTHA TATRA ” : JethaiaJ Dev- 
shanker Dave* Pp* 617* Price Rs. 7-0-0, (19zl), 

This book is a very valuable guide in Gujarati for 
intending pilgrims to holy places. It gives almost every 
information requ red. and is up-to-date. We are sure it 
would be extensively used by those who desire to travel 
throughout India. 

☆ 



574 


Travel 


“KAILASA MANASA SARQVARA DARSHANA ” : by 
Girjashankar Badheka (Gijubhai). Pp. 186. Price As. 0-10-0. (1928). 

This is one more translation into Gujarati of the 
Marathi book of Swami Hams a, who has written a fasci- 
nating story of his visit to the Manasa Sarovara in the 
Himalaya. 

☆ 

* £ HIMALAYA N 0 PEA VASA” : by Vrajlal T. Kamdar. 
Printed at the Bombay Fine Art Printing Works, Calcutta, PP. 128- 
16. Price Be. 0-12-0. (1928). 

t€ HIMALAYA NO PRAYASA NE UTTAR A KHANDA 
NI YATRA ” : by D. B. Kalelkar b. a. Published by the Nava- 
jivan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad, Pp. 170. Price Re. 0-12-0 
(1928). 

“NEPAL NO PRAVASA” : by Naranji Puishottam Sangani. 
Printed at the Gujarat Printing Press, Ahmedabad. Pp, 61. Price 
Re. 0-4-0. (1923). 

We had only recently noticed a small book on 
travels into the regions of the Himalayas. It was written 
by Mr. Sangani and we did not know at the time that his 
companion on that arduous pilgrimage was Mr. Kamdar, 
the writer of the first book. What was given in a brief 
narrative form by Mr. Sangani has been expanded by his 
friend and he has been successful in producing an interest- 
ing and useful guide to future travellers. There are few 
books in Gujarati on this subject. 

Mr. Kalekar*s narrative has a beauty and individua- 
lity of its own, and interests the reader by its homely and 
personal touches. It has been left incomplete as the 
writer has had to go to jail. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 575 


The travels in Nepal ” bring home to the Gujarati 
reader the conveniences and inconveniences of penetrating 
into that difficult region, and make him familiar with the 
traits and characters of its inhabitants. 

☆ 

" IN THE RUINS OF SAURAS’TRA * : by J f K. Meghani 
b. a. (1929). 

The book is a description of the peregrinations of 
the writer, on camel-back, in carts and other old«world 
vehicles into the interior of Kathiawad, which contains 
many romantic places. 

☆ 

45 MUNGO PARK’S TRAVELS ” ; by Sumant Nathji Bha-ft 
B. A., LL. B. (1931). 

Mungo Park's travels into the interior of Africa, and 
the narration of the work that he did as a pioneer in that 
direction, have had a fascinating effect on those who read 
the book in English. The risks and perils of such a 
travel and the adventures due to such a sort of life ren- 
dered into easy and flowing Gujarati are calculated to 
excite equal fascination in the Gujarat reader also. 

☆ 

“KUDRAT ANE KALADHAMA MAN VISA DIVASO” 
: by Dhirajlal T. Shah. (1932). 

“ELLORA NANA GCJFA MANDIRO. 5 ' : byD* T. Shah. 
(1932). 

The title of (1) means “ Twenty days amongst places 
full of natural scenery and art, " and of (2) •« The Cave - 
Temples of Ellora, " with introductions by Kaka Kalelkar 



57G 


Travel 


and N. C. Mehta L C. S. respectively. A twenty days’ 
tour in the Dang jungles of Surat, on the banks of the 
Godavari and the Narmada with places like Daulatabad, 
Khulbad ( where Aurangzeb lies burried ) and Ajanta 
thrown in is described here with the eye of an artist. 

The power of observation and description displayed 
in both these books are of a high order, and the subject 
is so well treated as to arouse a keen desire in the minds 
of those who have not yet visited the places described 
in them to do so at the earliest opportunity. 

& 

“KHUS’KI AND TABI” : by Vijayrai Kalyanrai Vaidya. b. a. 
Pp. 152. Price Re. 1-0-0. (1933). 

Mr. Vijayrai has vowed to devote his life to the up- 
lift of Gujarati Litarature. To accomplish it money is 
required, and he had to start in search of it. He therefore 
had to travel both on land < Khuski ) and by sea ( Tari }. 
He travelled with open eyes and noted incidents, both 
grave and gay, important and trifling. 

Having the faculty of wielding a happy pen, he has 
been able to set down his experiences and observations 
in a delightful vein, Karachi, Rangoon, Jubbulpore, Cal- 
cutta, and other places have been so described that they 
actually seem to be living before our eyes. We are glad 
that Mr. Vijayrai has not kept his diary to himself but 
published it. 

☆ 

“PRAVASA VINODA” : by Prof. A. K. Trivedi, M. A. LL, B. 
Pp. 240. Price Re. 1-0-0. (1935). 

Prof. Trivedi has already written two “Vinodas” 
*‘Niyritti Vinoda” and “Sahitya Vinoda/ 1 both books of 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 577 

a high order, the first having been translated into Marathi 
also. The book under notice describes in chatty and 
simple prose and in equally simple verse, in part, the 
several incidents, humorous and otherwise, of the pilgrima- 
ges made by him in the North and the South with his 
relatives. 

* The verses remind one of those of Kavi Narmada- 
shankar who has described some of his travels in poetry, 
in as much as the verses put down mere matter of fact 
statements and seldom rise to any high level. However, 
for the purpose of “Vinoda” — amusement-they fulfil 
their object. They describe events of over two decades. 
Had Prof. Trivedi followed his present bent, the work 
would have shown, both in delineation and expression of 
ideas a higher ideal. He admits as much in the Preface. 

☆ 


37 




FINE ARTS 




FINE ARTS 
ft 

“KALAVANT OE THE SCIENCE OF INDIAN MUSIC”:- 
By D. N. Patel G. B. V. C., Cherag Printing Press, Bombay, 
Pp. 194 Price Es. 2-0-0 ( 1905 ). 

Dr. Patel is well-known in Bombay as an expert in 
Indian Music, and :as a public lecturer on the subject. 
This book is a collection of his lectures, to which Ye has 
added certain mythic tales, such as the powers wielded 
by the different Ragas, e. g., Shri, Asavari, Dipaka, the 
miseries that King Vikrama had to endure on account of 
his having slighted a certain Raga, etc. The book makes 
pleasant reading though its form interferes with the 
continuity of the subject and consequently fails to sustain 
the interest of the reader. But the impression left at 
the close of its perusal is that the author is proud of his 
subject* 

To those who live on this side of India, this statement 
means much. The tendency of the bulk of the Parsi 
community to which the author belongs, has of late been 
to slight and look down upon everything Indian and 
hence to find in their midst an individual, who cultivates 
Indian music and the Gujarati language, is a most gratify- 
ing circumstance. He makes one more of the already 
thinned ranks of Parsi Gujarati writers. 



582 


Fine Arts 


The language at times rises to poetry, though it 
must be said, that it is neither cultured nor easy. The 
author has travelled over various parts of India, and the 
appendix at the end describing the several vogues of 
dances observed in India, is very informative. The 
description of the Tanjori dance is simply fascinating. A 
more sustained and systematic work on popular lines 
from the same pen would be highly welcome. 

“STRIYQ NO SATHI /. E., GUNTHANA KALA” Pp. 
180. ( 1908 ). 

The authoress has chosen her models from various 
English works on Knitting, and has illustrated her 
instructions with drawings and pictures to guide the 
hand of the beginner. It is remarkable as a production 
in Gujarati coming from the pen of a Parsi lady. We 
say remarkable, because in spite of the efforts in several 
directions in the community to part from all the moorings 
which bind them to this country, its language, its dress, 
its customs, works like this show that it is difficult to 
do away with the heritage of centuries and that Gujarati 
will have to serve as their mother-tongue for some time 
to come. 

☆ 

“THE PICTURE RAMAYANA” ;-Ry Balasakeb Pandifc 
Pant-Pratinidhi, B. a. Chief of Auadh. Price - s, 0-12-0 { 1916 ). 

That an Indian Prince should so far be an expert 
in the art of painting, that he should evolve the whole 
story of the Ramayana in a series of striking coloured 
pictures from his own brush is indeed a matter which 
should be noted with pride* 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


583 


This is an edition de luxe of the Ramayana in pic- 
tures printed on art paper ; its get up is in every way 
worthy of its princely author, in order to make it useful 
over the whole of India, the letter-press giving the 
descriptions of the episodes forming the subject of the 
pictures, besides being in Sanskrit ( the original S’loJcas 
being quoted ) is printed in the six chief vernaculars of 
our country. Marathi, Gujarati, Canarese, Tamil, Hindi, 
and Bengali. The introduction to the Gujarati edition 
is written by the Hon’ble Mr. Lallubhai Samaldas, c. I. E. 
and it gives a very good idea of the subject. 

“CHITRA VIDYA SHIIvSHIKA’’ :-By K. A. Patel. (1917) 

This is the only work of its kind in Gujarati, and 
the writer is therefore, hopeful that it would prove very 
useful to the student-class as well as to their teachers 
and to those interested in Fine Arts. It owes its origin 
to the desire of H. H. the Maharaja Gaekwad to have 
school-manuals prepared on all such subjects. 

☆ 

“BHARAT S'JLPA” .--Published by Manibhai Dwivedi, 
Navsari, and printed at the Anavil Press, Surat. Pp. 96 Price 
As. 0— 10— 0 ( 1923 ). 

This is a translation of Shrijut Abanindranath 
Tagore’s book on “Indian Art.” The subject is technical, 
besides it is rendered into Gujarati in such high-flown 
language that very few people are likely to under- 
stand it. 

☆ 

* SHRI KRISHNA CHANDRODAYA GHITRA-KATHA’V 
By Shah BalubhFd Fulchand. { 1924 ) 



584 


Fine Arts 


It is a small book of 19 pages of a most disappoint- 
ing kind. Its object is to illustrate several incidents in 
the life of Krishna by means of pictures, but the pictures 
are miserable and sloppy, and the letter-press hardly 
better. 

“LOKA SANGITA” :-By Narayana Mores war Khare. Pp. 80 
Price As. 0-12-0 ( 1925 ). 

This attempt to find out the Sangita or music lying 
concealed in popular songs and treat of it on scientific 
lines is the first of its kind in Gujarati. As a pioneer, it 
is an excellent performance, and those who are familiar 
with the technique of the subject will fully appreciate it. 
The intimate knowledge of the writer of the art and 
science of music peeps out from every line. 

Q 

<fi NRITYANJALL ” — Published by Sbayda Sadik & Co. 
(1929). 

Ragini Devi is trying her best to familiarise America 
with the conception of the art of dancing and the science 
of music as cultivated in India. This is a translation of 
her work with a short Introduction from the pen of Mrs. 
Lilavati Munshi. Pictures of Ragini Devi in various 
poses of Indian Dance are an attractive feature of this 
small book in addition to the explanations of the techni- 
que of the art, attempted to be rendered into language as 
simple as its subject-matter would allow. 

☆ 

** SANGITAKALA DARSHANA ” — by Pandit Maharani 
shankar sharma. ( 1981 ). 

Kavi Maharanishankar Sharma, a Gujarati poet and 
a teacher, appears here in the role of a music artist, He 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 585 

furnishes a long felt want in Gujarati literature by his 
present treatise on Indian music. Music as an art 
occupies a prominent place in the cultural life of a nation. 

The author of this scientific treatise on Indian music 
has made a very laudable attempt to compose songs in 
simple Gujarati and set them to music in different tunes. 
The notation that has been adopted is such as can be 
easily understood. The ascending and descending notes 
are given in case of every Raga and their amplification 
is also shown. A statement of particulars of different 
times is given at the outset. The theme of the songs is 
varied, covering from pure devotional songs to those 
inspiring patriotism. This happy combination of a poet 
and a musician has created enough material for a music 
student. 

With the help of experts like Messrs. Jambekar and 
Bapat Mr. and Mrs. Maharanishankar managed to achieve 
mastery over the science and the present work 
has been the product of their combined effort. The work 
will supply a gieat want in the Gujarati language and 
will certainly be valuable to those wishing to have a 
training in the art, 

☆ 

“ KALAPI CHITEA-DARSBANA ( 1933 ). 

The eleventh Session of the Gujarati Sahitya Parish at 
was held during the Christmas holidays ( 1933 ) at Lathi 
in Kathiawacl. Lathi has been immortalized in Gujarati 
Literature as the place where the Prince-Poet Surasinhaji, 
whose nom-de-plumc was * Kalapi/ reigned and wrote 
his poems. Taking advantage of this event, the publi- 
shers have brought out this sumptuous volume of c Kalapi 



586 


Fine Arts 


Album/ containing excellent illustrations of the life and 
life-work of the Poet, both of them being romantic in so 
far as he married his wife’s maid -servant and made her 
the queen of his heart. 

It contains 30 photos from life, 15 pictures depicting 
Kalapi’s poems and scenes from those poems, 6 illustrar 
tions of places of interest connected with him. an appendix 
containing the letters of the Prince to his wife and friends, 
and an introduction in English from the pen of the 
wellknown writer Kanayalal Munshi. The get-up of the 
work is excellent from an artistic point-of-view, and the 
publication furnishes a land-mark in Gujarati literature 
in this direction, 

‘ SANGlTA M AN J A R l ” — Parts I and II by D. Knlkarni 
( 1936 ). 

This book contains songs adapted to music, such as 
would interest school children. The technique is given 
by one who knows his subject well and teaches it in 
schools, 

☆ 

4< UTTAR HINDUSTANI SAN GITA NI AIXIHASIKA 
SAMALOCHANA ” — by Pandit T. N. Bhafcakkan&e. (1936). 

Mr. Bhatkhande is known all over India as an 
expert in the art and science of Indian Music, as well as 
its technique. He delivered a very learned discourse on 
the subject at the Baroda All-India Music Conference. 
This translation of it into Gujarati is done very well and 
will interest those who ha^e to do with the subject. A 
short biography; of Mr. Bhatkhande and an Index add 
usefulness to the book. 



SCIENCES 




SCIENCES 

☆ 

“ AROG-YA YISHE SAMANYA JNANA ” — by Mohandas 
K. Gandhi. ( 1913 ). 

These hints on health by Mr. Gandhi are the result 
of his own varied experience in the preservation of health. 
His stay in England, his numerous imprisonments and his 
simple Spartan life has made him acquainted with many 
hygienic truths; truths about food, dress, cleanliness etc, 
and he has set them out here, in a very “taking” style* 

We are sure that whoever reads this little book would, 
when he finishes it, find himself wiser for the exertion. 
He says, avoid tea, tobacco, avoid rich food, and idle life, 
and then see how you prosper. 

☆ 

“ AEOGYA YISHE SAMANYA JNANA ” : by M, K. 
Gandhi. (1917). 

fC General hints on health ” is a small book written 
and published by Mr. Gandhi years ago. Like his life- 
work it bears the stamp of close study, thorough under- 
standing of his subject, and fearlessly outspoken advice. 
He explains in language which even a child can under- 
stand, the constitution of the human body and the means 
of its preservation. He is an out-and-out supporter of 
fruitarianism, and he himself has been subsisting upon 



590 


Health and Hygeine 


food ( fruits and nuts ) which require no cooking even* 
Every word in the book is well thought out, and the ideal 
of plain-living is set out in such an easy way that one 
finds it difficult to resist the temptation of giving it a trial. 

Some of his views which border on the extreme, as 
for instance, that every man should become his own 
scavenger, or that all males should live celibate lives, 
would have to wait for a pretty long period-perhaps for 
good-to be accepted in practice by the world at large, 
still they should not be allowed to obscure the immense 
good that lies in the many maxims of health he has 
enunciated in the book. 

We wish every household in Gujarat possessed a copy 
and studied it and that every vernacular of India had a 
translation thereof. 

☆ 

** CHCHALO PALO MARI MASALO ” : by D. P. Madan 
& Co. (1916). 

This book which contains numerous recipes for 
ordinary complaints and serious diseases, is a very useful 
work. It points out a number of household remedies, 
whose chief recommendation is their cheapnes, and easy 
procurability since only indigenous drugs are referred to. 
We wish it to be widely known, specially as imported 
drugs and medicines are becoming dear and scarce. 

☆ 

“AROGYA NI YARTAO Part I.” : by Dr. Hariprasad 
Vrajarai Desai. Pp. 59. Price As. 0-4-0. (1919). 

This is a small book but it contains very valuable 
matter. The importance of cleanliness reqqires to be in- 



Development of GujarHli Literature : 1907-1938 591 

culcated into the minds of juveniles in a way which 
should impress and appeal to them without boring them, 
and that has been done here by the writer. As to why 
the teeth should be kept clean or as to why we should 
take exercise or live in well-ventilated houses, and many 
other equally important things have been stated in such a 
simple way, that they are sure to go home to the readers. 

☆ 

“ VADODRA m SHARIRIKA SUDHARANA ANE 
AROG-YA MANDIR ” : by Prof. G. Y. Manikriio. (1919). 

The writer is the director of a well-known gymnasium 
at Baroda, and is known all over Gujarat as one devoted 
to his art and profession. Such a person is not necessarily 
a good exponent of his art on paper nor can he be 
always to the point. The book furnishes very discursive 
reading; its main purpose, the cult of physical exercise, 
takes up only a small portion of the contents. 

☆ 

“ OUR TEETH by Kaikbusru Dorabji Jila. Pp. 37. (1921). 

This book is an attempt by a lay-man to impress 
upon children and elders the care they should take to 
keep their teeth sound and healthy. It is intended for 
free circulation amongst children and furnishes both 
instructive and interesting reading as it is written in a 
simple style. 

☆ 

« akruta jivandori or the way to become 

LONG LIVED ; by C. I. Gordhandas. Pp. 202. Price Re. 1-0-0. 
(1923). 



592 


Health and Hygeine 


The author is a retired Government servant. He 
came in contact with Mahatma Nijabodha Swarupa, the 
polyglot Swami and through him acquired certain recipes, 
which, if followed properly, tend to increase human life. 
The chief of them is judicious fasting. Besides this, 
other very simple remedies, with and without household 
drugs, are suggested and the book is altogether an 
interesting collection. 

☆ 

“ CARE OF THE TEETH AND THE MOUTH : by K. D. 
Jilla. Pp. 145. (1923). 

Everything relating to these very important mem- 
bers of our body is treated in this book in a very simple 
way which would appeal to a lay mind and if the direc- 
tions given therein are followed they would no doubt give 
good results. 

☆ 

“ VAUAR A DOKADA NO VAlDA * : by Ravishankar 
Ganeshji Anjaria. Pp. 379. Price Rs. % 0-0. (1928). 

The title of the book means “A Doctor without Fees’ ’ 
and it aptly describes its contents. If it is properly studied 
it is sure to make good the claims it makes as so much 
information about our body, its ailments and remedies 
is given in it, that a layman can easily pick up sugges- 
tions suitable to his cure and act accordingly. The writer 

is an admirer of the fasting cure. 

s /. 

* SHARlRA VIJNANA ” Pp. 240. Price Re. 1-0-0 (1924). 

This Model Dakshinamurti Vidyarthi Bhuvan of Bhav- 
nagar caters for the bodies as well as the minds of its 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 593 

pupils. A series of interesting papers on all that goes to 
make up a sound body written in the simplest of styles is 
to be found in this book. Students are told how and 
why to take care of every member of their body, and the 
lessons on these subjects are driven home with apt 
examples. 

☆ 

“ AROG YA SHASTRA 5 ’ Pp. 143. Price Re. 1-0-0. (1924). 

This is one of the school-books published by Mess. 
Macmillan & Co. Ltd. Bombay; it is a translation of Major 
Hutchinson’s Hygiene for Girls. We have found it very 
well done and the important points of domestic hygiene 
and sanitation are well brought out. 

☆ 

(1) BALA CHIKITSA. (2) RASAYANA SARA SAM- 
GRAHA. (3) YAIDYAKA CHIKITSA-SARA : By Vaidya 
Gopalji Kuvarji Thakkur. Pp. 116, 238 and 316 Price Re. 1-0-0, 
Rs„ 2-0-0, Rs. 3-0-0. ( 1925 ) 

Ayurvedic treatment of diseases is slowly making 
progress, and one comes across many patients, who desire 
to know what the indigenous treatment for their comp- 
laints is and how it can be had. To such persons, 
these three books furnish a mine of information ; the 
last book, for instance, gives five hundred and one 
prescriptions, with the cases to which they apply. The 
Vaidyaraja owns a pharmacy and edits two medical 
journals, besides being a successful practitioner. Books 
written by him should, therefore, prove of great use. 


38 



m. 


Health ana Hygeine 


"NIGHAKTU ADARSHA” Fart I. :-Ry Vaidya Bapalal 
Garba&das Shah. ( 1928 ) 

This substantial book is a treatise on the Vegetable 
Materia Medica of our country, and contains various 
valuable prescriptions of renowned authors with critical 
notes. Ample quotations are given from various 
Literatures and the utility of about 700 different medical 
plants discussed, their names in the different Vernaculars 
and their Latin equivalents find a place in this book, 
which on the whole is a most remarkable work turned 
out by a native Vaidya, on the most up-to-date research 
lines. It is bound to prove useful to the profession and 
to those laymen who take an interest in medical drugs 
and there are many such amongst us, 

☆ 

“BRAHMACHARYA SANDESHA” :-By Hardeva Prabhu- 
ram Vaidya. Pp. 208. Price Re. 1-0-0 ( 1930 ). 

"Confidential Talks to Young Men” : This is how 
the author describes his book. It is an attempt to 
explain to young men the mystery of sex-relations, and 
is a translation of a Hindi book written by Prof. Satya- 
vrata Siddhanta Alankar of the Kangdi Gurukula. The 
cause of Brahmacharya is vigorously pleaded and young 
men are told many unpleasant things, which they are 
earnestly asked to eradicate from their character and 
behaviour. The translation is made in simple language. 

☆ 

"SuRYA NAMASKARA” :-By H. L. Shah. ( 1931 ) 

The Pant-Pratinidhi-Chief of Aundh— has revived 
an old method of physical culture and called it Obeisance 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-^1938 T>95 

to the Sun. He has written both in Marathi and English 
on the utility and the excellence of the system. Its 
exercise entails no expense ; it is simple and can be 
performed at home ; it takes very little time and has 
already produced remarkable results and cured many 
complaints, both amongst men and women. 

The Chief Saheb has made the Namaskaras compul- 
sory in his State School. This Indian method of physical 
culture deserves to be widely known and hence this 
translation should be considered a welcome step in the 
direction. 

☆ 

“MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE” :~By Vaidyaraja B. G. 
Shah. ( 1931 ) 

Till now no good book was written in Gujarati on 
this highly important subject though Bengal possesses 
two such books. Lyon’s “Medical Jurisprudence” is one 
of the best text-books in India for this purpose and 
Vaidyraja Bapalal has mainly followed that book, though 
he has consulted many others also — in preparing the one 
under notice. He has done his work extremely well and 
supported his conclusions by reference to Sanskrit works 
also, 

“LING-A VICHARA” :-By Dr. Chandulal Sevakial Dwivedi, 
M. B. B. S. ( 1931 ) 

This is an independently written work on the life of 
man from birth to old age, i. e., it gives hints and sugges- 
tions as to how a child should be brought up, how one's 



596 


Health ami Hygeine 


youth should be passed, what an old man should do to 
make his old age comfortable and happy, 

☆ 

“ABHINAVA KAMASHASTRA” :~By Yaidyaraja Rapalal 
G. Shah Pp. 369 Price Rs. 2-8-0 ( 1930 ). 

The English equivalent of the title of the book is 
“The Laws of Sexual Philosophy.” The writer is a 
medical man, well-versed in his craft, as he has published 
works bearing on his profession, which show a deep study 
of his subject — Indian Medicine. 

In writing !the book under notice, he has made use 
of standard works of the East as well as the West; all 
throughout, he has taken care to give his own 
suggestions and observations, which are shrewd and 
valuable. The treatment of the subject is technical. 

AMP ATI BHASTiiA” ;-By Natayaaa Visanji Thakkur. 

( 1932 ) 

The author has considered the causes of a happy 
and an unhappy married life from different points of 
view and has read about 11 Sanskrit, 13 English and 
American, 3 Bengali, 5 Hindi and 5 Marathi books on the 
subject of Sexology before venturing to write this work. 
He has grasped the essentials of this important topic 
very well and expounded them in a practical way. As 
is usual with him, he never makes a statement without 
quoting his authority in original. He has, with his 
admirable equipment for this task been able to produce 
a good book, indeed. 

☆ 



development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 597 


‘•-DXRGHAYU KEMA THAVAYA ?’* ;~By R. B. Dr. P. R. 
Kothari, ( 1982 ) 

“How to attain Longevity V 9 This is the subject on 
which the author offers his views and observations. 
They are in Part X, a translation of Dr, Hermann Webber's 
Longevity and the means for the prolongation of life, 
and in Part II, of portions of Dr. Lorana's Life-shorten- 
ing Methods. But the recommendations of those European 
doctors have been modified so as to suit Indian conditions 
and the result is a book of great use to social and public 
health workers. 

☆ 

SS SANGHA Y YAMAHA” :-By Prof. Mariikrao. ( 1932 } 

Prof. Manikrao of the Jumma Diida Gymnasium of 
Baroda wrote a booklet in Hindi on physical culture and 
discipline. This small book is a translation of it and 
wixl be found of great use to those who have to deal with 
masses of children and youngsters for the above purpose. 

“ANKHA ANE CHASHMA” :-By Dr. T. L. Shah L.M && 
( 1936 ) 

Dr. Shah’s little volume on “Eye and Spectacles ,, 
is crammed with information relating to the structure of 
the eye, eye ailments and the help given by glasses. 
Shashikant & Co., are manufacturers of spectacles and 
therefore in a position to speak in detail about the 
subject. 

☆ 

(1) “ MANDAGNX ” (2) “ M AND AW ADA KEM MAT A- 
DAYO ? ” (3) “ MANASA MANDO KEMA FADE CHHE ? 
(4) “ BRAHMAGHABYA (1937) 



598 


Astrology and Agriculture 


These four pamphlets are from the able pen of Dr. 
Jatashankar Nandi n. d. ( New York ). n. d. ( Bezwada ) 
M» M. s. A. (N. Y.) Vice president of the Academy of the 
Indian Naturapathic Association, and form parts of a 
series called ‘ Jeevanprakasha Granthamala * published 
by a Society with a suggestive title ic Arogyarakshaka 
Jnanapracharaka Granthamala ” and available at a ve’ry 
cheap price from Sabarmati ( Ahmedabad ). The pam- 
phlets are designed to preach the natural laws of health 
among the masses, and discussion on Brahmacharya, loss 
of appetite etc. 

☆ 

‘ JYOTXSH SHIKSHAK-PARTS I and IX ” : by H. G. 
Master, Bombay. (1918) 

The writer of this book claims that a perusal thereof 
is likely to acquaint the reader with the principles of 
Astrology. The exposition of the Science seems at least 
to have been made by one who understands his business. 
Otherwise the work is a bit technical. 

☆ 

‘‘HINDUSTAN MAN THATAN YAVETaR KAEVANI 
RITA ” : by Dulerai C. Anjaria. (1910). 

The book treats of the various methods followed by 
the Indian cultivator in producing his crops of cereals, 
oil-seeds, pulses, vegetables, etc. It suggests a number 
of improvements all of them being the result of practical 
experience, as the author, for the last fifteen years, has 
been in the line itself. It is a moot point whether the 
very conservative and illiterate class for whom this useful 
book is written would ever be moved to take advantage 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 1907-1938 599 

» 

of it; even to a lay reader, it is likely to prove an interes- 
ting and instructive treat. 

☆ 

<J KHEDUTA NU PANCHANGA ” : by R. B. G. H. DeSai , 

B. A., LL. B. (1916). 

Rao Bahadur Govindbhai Desai, the Suba of Kadi 
District in H. H. the Gaekwad's territory is well-known 
as a practical well-wisher of the agriculturist, and this 
Almanac of the agriculturist which comprises many sub- 
jects useful to that class is the result of his labor. It is the 
cultivator's vade mecum , and contains guidance for the 
use of a novel and economic plough, and other agricultural 
implements, 

& 

« THE ABT OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING ” : by B. 

C. Amin ? f. r. s. n. (London). Pp. 183 Price Re. 1-8-0. (1922). 

Mr. Amin has studied Horticulture in England and 
adapted his knowledge to the condition and climate of 
Gujarat. To those, therefore, interesed in horticultural 
pursuits, the book is sure to prove of great help, as the 
writer has writen on practical and not on theoretical lines 
about the requirements of the subject. 

☆ 

“ KALMI BORO NO BAGICHO ” : by Dahyabhai Chhota- 
bhai Amin,' f. R. H. s. (London), Napeun Sea Road, Bombay. (1922) 

This is a small book of twenty-six pages, and treats 
of the way in which plantations of Bor fruits ( Jujubes ) 
can be made to yield profitable results. The fruit grows 
wild in Gujarat and practical hints for its cultivation are 
given by the author who is familiar with such work, 



600 


Astrology and Agriculture 


“ KHETRA-VASTI NAN MANDALO ” : by Chhotal&l 

b« A* Pp. 257. Price Re* 1—0—0. (192*3). 

This book, big in size, and solid in matter, contains a 
very thoughtful statement, based on Pratt's “Organisation 
of Agriculture'' and “Transmission in Agriculture" and 
various other books and magazine articles in English on 
the subject, and from cover to cover bristles with statistics 
and suggestions for the improvement of the agricultural 
community. Only a few of the contents of its Chapters 
would give the reader an idea of its comprehensiveness. 
Chapter 2nd deals with the enormous increase in the egg 
trade of Europe and its reasons; some of the subsequent 
Chapters deal with the state of the tillers in Denmark, 
Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Hungary, 
Switzerland, Siberia, Servia, Luxembourg, America, 
Ireland, Australia, England and Japan. 

The state of Agriculture in India has a whole Chapter 
devoted to it and the Baroda State is similarly honored, 
while the book winds up with many useful suggestions. 
The much discussed problem of Co-operative Credit Socie- 
ties is not neglected and on the whole we have no hesita- 
tion in saying that Mr. Patel has produced a work which 
must prove useful to those who are interested in the 
improvement of the condition of the agriculturist but are 
ignorant of the English language. 

Still one thing, unfortunately, is certain, viz., that it 
will not prove beneficial to the class for whom it is promi- 
nently meant, because firstly, most people belonging to 
the cultivator class are illiterate, and secondly, even for 
those who can read and write from amongst them, the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1988 6dl 

» 

treatment of the subject and the rather cultured and high- 
pitched language of the book, would prove a stumbling 
block as being entirely above their powers of comprehen- 
sion. The lay reader, therefore, only would find in it 
much food for thought and instruction, without being 
bored, although the subject is a bit technical. The price, 
thanks to the patronage of H. H. The Gaekwar, is kept 
so low as to make the work generally available, and 
hence we recommend it strongly. 

•• VANSPATISHASTRA ARTHIKA DRISHTI ” by Prof. 
Chhotalll B. Purani. M. A. (1915). 

Books on scientific subjects are so few in Gujarati 
that this book deserves more than a passing notice. It 
contains a readable and yet a scientific account of the 
various economic botanic products of India with special 
reference to Gujarat and the Bombay Presidency. Detailed 
treatment is given in Part II of the important products 
like Rubber, Vegetable Fibres, Tannins, Lac, etc. and of 
the technical processes involved in their industrial utilisa- 
tion. 

The author deserves great credit lor his care in the 
selection and coining of new technical words for which no 
corresponding Gujarati expressions were available, and 
for the general clearness and lucidity of explanation. It 
is needless to say that there is great scope for work in 
this direction and that popularisation of the methods and 
results of science deserves greater attention than hither- 
to accorded to it. 



602 


Botany 


The book should prove useful to the general reader 
in understanding the industrial possibilities of botanic 
products of the country and also should appeal to all 
teachers as providing material for nature-study and for 
combining scientific knowledge with daily experience. 
How few of our young boys and even men know of Indian 
plants, their names and their uses ? 

There are one or two defects in the book that could 
have been easily avoided. The Contents could have been 
better arranged than in the order followed by Watt in his 
Dictionary of Economic Products; a few pages out of 540 
could have been well spared for introducing the reader to 
the elements of Botany; and the morphological description 
of the mono - and di-cotyledon plants given in “Vegetable 
Fibres” could have formed the part of the separate Ex- 
planatory Chapter. 

However these defects do not mar the general utility 
of the book; and it is hoped that the Gujarat Vernacular 
Society will take steps to distribute the book to all 
village schools so that a maximum number of people shall 
know of the industrial possibilities of the vegetable pro- 
ducts which are so numerous in our land of agriculture. 

The books published by the Society are so little 
advertised and so little known among the general public 
that it will not be out of place to suggest that a campaign 
of a more thorough distribution of the new literature 
deserves a more prominent place in the programme of the 
Society. 

4 



Development of Gujarati Literature : I90J-1938 60o 

“ SRASHTI NI UT PATTI ” by Kalyanarai N. Joshi. b, a. 
(1918). 

Prof. Robert MacMillan’s “The Origin of the World” 
published by the Nationalist Press Association is the 
basis of Mr. Joshi’s book. The subject is interesting and 
the translator being himself a science man has been able 
to conserve the interest, which alone can attract a lay 
mind to instruct itself in such matters. We think the 
book is well written. 

☆ 

“ VIJNANA PRAYESHIKA ” by Prcf. a B. Purani. M. A. 
0918). 

Though this book is a translation of an English book 
called the ‘Foundations of Science’ , in the Peoples’ Book 
Series, it has been so well done that it almost reads like 
an original work; the reason being that the writer is 
himself so full of the subject-matter of his book, that he 
has had to make no effort in presenting the outlines to his 
readers. The drawbacks to be found in it are inherent in 
the subject itself, and it is always so difficult to avoid 
them. 

(1) “ PHRENOLOGY ” (2) » PHYSIOGNOMY ” by N. 
B, Pandya. (1918;. 

The study of both these sciences is fascinating and it 
is highly creditable to Mr. Pandya that living in such an 
out of the way place as Songhad Vyara and serving in the 
Postal Department as a Postmaster there, he has found 
leisure to pursue this hobby of his to such an extent as to 
publish the result of his studies in these two books. 



604 


Bctary 


We are sure that to any one with leisure enough to 
look into the practical side of their contents, the works 
will furnish a reliable guide. The pictures which illustrate 
the writer's theses have not come out well, but then it is 
open to every student to select his own model. 

☆ 

“UDBHIJVIDYA N UN REKHA-DARSHANA ” r by 
Lalitaprasad Shivaprasad Dave, B. a; b. Sc., ll. b, Pp. 181. Price 
Re. 1-0-0. (1919). 

The book, a further contribution to the Shri Sayaji 
Sahitya Mala, inaugurated by the liberality of H. H. the 
Gaekwar of. Baroda, is a translation of an English 
work, Stopes’ “Botany, the Modern Study of Plants." The 
way in which the translator has handled his subject, 
together with the glossary given at the end, is sure to 
make it interesting to those who are interested in the 
subject, and we think it is a useful addition to the scanty 
literature in science which we have at present. 

☆ 

41 KAROLIA ” ; by Bhanusukhram N. Mehta. (1920). 

Mr. Bhanusukhram seems to be facile princeps at the 
work, because not a batch of the books of the Sayaji 
Mala sent to us passes without his having a name in it. 
This time he has selected “ Spiders " : Karolia. We fail 
to understand why his choice has alighted on that little 
creature which is always inviting unsuspecting flies to 
walk into his parlor, in preference to frogs, or beetles or 
bats, for the matter of that, as they are all equally useful 
( ? ) members of creation. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907^-1938 605 

Of course, this is not his own composition : it is a 
translation of Warburton's “ Spiders 99 which he has 
embellished with his own notes and observation. We 
only hope the reading public would betray as much 
enthusiasm in reading it as the translator betrays in trans- 
' lating it. Frankly, is the magnificent amount of Rupees 
two lacs meant to be frittered away on such treatises or 
is it meant for a better purpose ? 

☆ 

(1) “SUKHI SHARI R A” : by Dr. K. B. Dive tin. l. C. p. S. 
(2) « KOSH NI KATHA ” by G. N. Mehta. (1921). 

H. H. the Gaekwad has set apart a sum of two lacs 
for the encouragement of vernacular education; the interest 
derived from this sum is being spent by the Educational 
Department for promoting various branches of school- 
education by the creation of a couple of series of books 
calling them Bala Jnana Mala and Sahitya Mala, subdivid- 
ing them into History, Biography, Science, Ethics, 
Religion etc. Some books are meant for children and 
some for adults. 

Ths two books mentioned above are intended for 
juvenile instruction; one is taken up with instructions for 
keeping up one's body sound, and the other traces the 
history of a cell. The first is all right as it does not say 
anything more than what one would find in a sanitary 
primer; but the second, we think, though written with the 
best of intentions, would never be understood by children. 

☆ 

JIYA VIDYA ” : by Prof. C. B. Purani, m. a. <1921). 



Botany 


60 o 


This book belongs to the Sahitya Mala or Literature 
Series, one of the subdivisions of which is Science, and is 
a translation of Hendersons’s Biology. To those who can 
follow the subject with the aid of the glossary of difficult 
words at the end, it would appear to be very fascinating 
as the mystry of cells, protoplasms, and other organisms, 
is tried to be explained in as easy a language as possible, 
but the translator himself is conscious of the inherent 
difficulties of his task, and we are afraid that the subject 
can never be popular. 

☆ 

“REPORT OF THE VIJNANA SAMITE’ { 1924 ) 

The Gujarati Sahitya Parishad has of late established 
a Science Section and the Report embodies the work 
done by it ; though not encouraging, it bears the stamp of 
sincerity on the part of its ! workers who have under 
discouraging circumstances tried whole-heartedly to 
prevent the section slipping into a moribund state by 
means of public lectures. As the print shows, they are 
useful and interesting. The collection of scientific terms, 
at the end, is a step in the right direction. 

☆ 

“EASY SCIENCE” : — By Dahyabhai Pitambardas Derasari 
Bar-at-law Pp. 145. Price As. 0-12-0. ( 1925 ) 

Mr. Derasari as a teacher, had to teach science to 
his pupils. In order to lighten their task he wrote out 
his subject in Gujarati and it was found so useful that a 
second edition has been called for. We want such books 
in Gujarati, as they help in the teaching of such subjects 
in our vernacular and also popularise science. 



Development of Gujarati Literature ; 19QM.9S8 


607 


‘ HYPNOTISM AND MESMERISM” By Sakarchaud 
Mamkchanci. Gha&tali Pp. 408 Price Rss. 5-0-0. ( 1925 ) 

To those who feel interested in hypnotism and 
mesmerism and who are unable to read books in English 
and other foreign languages the contents of this book 
will furnish a sure guide, because the writer has not only 
studied the science in books, but has practised it himself 
and he sets down his postures and pictures. It is his 
experience that the application of the doctrines of this 
science cures physical ailments also. 

☆ 

t; RASAYANA” By R. G-. Modi, M, a. Pp. 196 Price 1-12-0 
( 1926 ) 

Lime, salt, pearl, mercury, talc, gold, silver, copper 
and many such other articles have their medicinal uses. 
Their different preparations were being used extensively 
in old times and even now are not out of use. An interest- 
ing and scientific exposition of the processes of their 
preparation and use is to be found in this book which 
will repay perusal. 

☆ 

“VIJNANA VINODA” By Popatlal Govindlal Shah 
m. a., B. sc. Price Rs. 1-8-0 ( 1926 ). 

This is a collection of writings contributed at various 
times to periodical publications by the author. Litera- 
ture bearing on scientific subjects is very meagre in 
Gujarati and Mr. Shah has made it the object of his life 
to try to remove that blame as much as in him lies. 

Though engaged as a high officer in the Imperial 
Audit and Accounts Service and immersed up to his 



608 


Botany 


shoulders, in figure-work he still finds time to write on 
the subject dear to his heart and the result is a very 
valuable contribution in the language on the subject. 
He has treated such subjects as Water, Dust, Diamond, 
etc., in the most popular way possible and even ordinary 
readers are sure to follow them easily, and if that is done, 
the writer's object is gained. 

☆ 

“VIJNANA VICHARA” : — By Popatlal Govindliil Shah, 
M. a., B. sc. ( 1929 ) 

Amongst the very few Gujaratis who are making 
genuine exertions to build up a literature of Science 
in the language Mr. Shah is one. This book of his is 
written on the model of Thomson's “Introduction to 
Science" and the reader would feel that this model has 
been copied and carried out most successfully. The 
Chapters contain most valuable and useful information as 
to the history and development of various sciences and 
altogether this book supplies a long-felt want in Gujarati. 
This is likely to prove a landmark in the path of scienti- 
fic literature. 

☆ 

“VIJNANA NO VIKAS A” By Revashankar Oghadbhai 

SompurS, B. A. Pp. 419 Rs. 2-8-0 ( 1930 ). 

“Development of Science", that is what the title of 
the book means. Its first four sections and a part of the 
fifth are based on an American work, History of Science 
by Henry Smith Williams and his son. The history of 
Science and its essentials are well told, and whatever of 



Dsvelcpmeni; of Gujarati Lituratnrs ; 19072-1938 009 

science and art flourished in India has not been neglect- 
ed. 

A very short but an appreciative introduction by 
Dr. K, G. Naik, D. Sc. of Baroda, ought to hearten the 
writer for future work. The last Chapter of the last (5th) 
Section-the scientists of India-is an informing one and 
furnishes interesting reading. The price is heavy and 
will come in the way of making the work popular. 

☆ 

“A SHORTHAND GUJARATI PRIMER” By M. B. 
Divetia.' ( 1910 ) 

Methods of shorthand writing have now become the 
life and soul of a certain branch of literature in Europe, 
and any attempt therefore, to train the Gujarati language 
into that channel would be extremely commendable. 
Looking at the little pamphlet before us, we must say 
that the writer has made an admirable effort to adapt 
Gujarati to shorthand. He is of opinion that it is bound 
to present some difficulties in practice, and we too are of 
opinion that whatever difficulties there might be in the 
path of its success could only be seen when the method 
was extensively in use. This is the first attempt of its 
kind, and it deserves a thorough trial, especially as its 
extensive practice is bound up with great possibilities in 
future. 

☆ 

“MAGIC LANTERN” By H. G. Shastri. ( 1918 ) 

Of late the use of magic lanterns and their slides 
has become so universal that a book dealing with their 
make and their exhibition was wanted. This book 
supplies the want, 

39 



G 10 


Arts and Crafts 


“HATHA VANATA Parts I. II ”. By Tiirachand PopatM 
AdfUjS L. T. M. Pp. 138; 426. Price tts. 1-8-0., Rs. 3-8-0. 

C 1922-23 ). 

This is just the sort of book required at the present 
time, when a revival of home textile industry is taking 
place. The first Part explains everything in the process 
of cloth-making from cotton to spinning and the second 
Part from yarn to weaving. Every process is illustrated 
by means of diagrams, and the explanation given is first- 
hand, coming from one intimately acquainted with the 
working of the process. 

The art of spinning and specially of weaving is in a 
moribund condition in Gujarat, and unless something is 
done in the way of conserving it by means of books it 
threatens to disappear. We, therefore, welcome this 
genuine effort in that direction. 

☆ 

“PAKA-SH ASTRA ” :-by late Mrs. Keshav Ba. (1922) 

The recipes given in this book for the cooking of 
various toothsome dishes are simple and said to be the 
direct ^result of and tested by personal experience. The 
late Mrs. Keshav Ba belonged on her father's side to 
the gifted family of R. B. Bholanath Sarabhai, and as 
such it is in the fitness of thinge that a collection of such 
recipes should come from her. She has adapted various 
Parsi, English and Mohammedan dishes to our own, 
having eliminated their objectionable features, and as 
such it is an advance on some other previous publica- 
tions in the same line. A very interesting sketch of her 
life forms the Introduction to the book. 



Development of Gujaruii Literature : 1907-1938 


611 


« MALLA VIDYA ” by :-Bhagirath H. Jeshthi. ( & & 
Mala, Baroda ). ( 19^:2 ). 

This is a treatise on the art and science of wrestling, 
written from original sources with illustration and prac- 
tical hints on the subject. 

DESHI BANG A ” Published by Bamdas Mohandas 
Gandhi, at the Navajivana Printing Press. Ahmedabad. Pp. 56. 
Price As. 10. ( 1923 ). 

Dr. P. C. Ray's book on indigenous ( Indian ) 
colours in Bengali has furnished the text of this brochure. 
As to its inestimable value to those who are working 
for the improvement of our dyeing processes by means 
of indigenous colours, there cannot be two opinions. 

The colours, if the directions are followed, can be ma- 
nufactured at marvellously cheap prices, and from articles 
lying at our very door. The colours thus manufactured 
have been tried and illustrations given of the success 
obtained. It is a step in the right direction for the 
resuscitation of our dye-industry. 

ijL 

" PAKA-S’ASTRA ” by:-Mrs. Lalita Gauri Shamrao, and 
Mrs, Vimala Gnuri Maganlal, of Nadiad. Printed at the Unio.i 
Press, Bombay. Pp. 285. Price Rs. 3-0-0 ( 1933 ). 

This book is written by two Nagar ladies and thus 
a guarantee of the fact that whatever is stated there, 
comes from the most intelligent quarters and that the 
writers themselves being so to speak in the line of chefs, 
the recipes given are the result of their personal 
experience. 



012 


Lib aries 


The book is necessarily confined to vegetable pre- 
parations but the number and variety given are so large 
as to bewilder one. Sweets, chutnies, pickles, Sherbats 
and other toothsome viands have not been neglected. 
Weights and measures are carefully given and prescribed 
and hints on cleanliness and its preservation in the 
kitchen and the materials to be used therein have not 
been passed over. But for its prohibitive price, we think, 
the book is likely to prove greatly useful and popular. 

“CHAMADAN PAKAVAVA NO UDYOGA’' By M, & 
Niz&mi. ( 1337 ). 

The writer is a native of Madras and well-versed in 
the art and the process of tanning skins and hides. 
He has given the benefit of his experience in this little 
book to those who desire to enter the line. He himself 
manages a tanning factory and hence the facts 
mentioned are the result of hard experience. 

“THE LIBRARY ACTIVITIES OF THE BARODA 
STATE”. ( 1927 ). 

This book, the first of its kind, in Gujarati is full of 
information and readable matter. All sorts of activities 
of the Public Libraries of the State-which as every one 
knows are State-aided-are set out here and illustrated 
by charts, maps and pictures. What the Libraries have 
done to enliven the dark lives of the villagers can be 
seen as in a mirror. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-4938 


613 


It was highly necessary to publish such a book as 
very few people outside the State know the beneficial 
work it was doing to educate its own subjects in this 
commendable way. 

☆ 

“VARTAO NAN PUSTAKA NO PARICHAYA, PART V 
By Najuklal N. Choksi. Pp. 123. Price As. 0-8-0. (1930;. 

There are about two thousand or even more novels 
published in Gujarati on social, historical, detective, 
religious and humorous subjects. As a branch of this kind 
of literature short-stories also are abounding in number. 
The publishers inaugurated a scheme, under which they 
requested a number of readers to send them their opinions 
on a large number of the books submitted to them for 
perusal, as to their fitness for being read by the general 
public. As a rule, two independent opinions were invited 
on one book, while for books of well-known authors no 
opinions were invited. 

In this way the publishers have been able to recom- 
mend 372 books in this Part; they hope to bring out 
another Part shortly, as a guide to the reading public the 
importance of such works cannot be overrated and we 
welcome this useful departure on the part of the publishers. 

“VARTAO NAN PUSTAKO NO PARICHAY A. PART II” 
by Najuklal N. Choksi ( 1932 ). 

The first Part of this very useful publication dealt 
with 372 novels and this second Part deals with 447 and 



614 


Libraries 


the concluding Part would deal with the rest out of the 
1200 selected for treatment. 

The plan followed is to give the name of the 
author, the name of the novel, a short summary 
of its contents, with the year of publication and 
its price. The reader can thus make his choice. The' 
publication is already being welcomed by Libraries as 
the books selected are of an unobjectionable type. *We 
appreciate the pace at which this work is going forward. 

☆ 

( 1 ) « METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION 07 BOOKS 
FOR GUJARATI LIBRARIES. ” by tbe late C. D. Dalai. M. A. 
( 2 ) « CLASSIFICATION WITH NAMES OF 8,000 GUJARATI 
BOOKS/’ ( 1932 ). 

Both these books are landmarks in the life-history 
of Libraries in Gujarat. Libraries were opened and regu- 
larised in large numbers in towns and villages belonging 
to the enlightened ruler of Baroda, on the lines obtain- 
ing in America. A special State Department was created 
and is working for their upkeep, and steps are being 
devised now and then for still further improving them. 
Village Libraries, Town Libraries, Central Libraries, 
Public libraries. Travelling Libraries and H. H/s own 
private Library furnish a record of which any State 
would feel proud, 

Both the books under notice show in a marked degree 
the advance made by the Department. Eight thousand 
Gujarati books have been collected and classified accord- 
ing to subject and author. The first book explains the 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


615 


methods of classification, the second shows how they 
have been put into practice. A Co-operative Society for 
helping libraries has undertaken this very costly 
task and carried it out successfully; in fact no such 
guide compiled on a scientific and syste- 
matized basis existed in our language and Librarians can- 
not feel sufficiently thankful to the compilers for this great 
labo.ur of theirs. 

Even private readers would be appreciably benefitted 
in so far as there is no provision in the Province at present 
corresponding to the “National Home Reading Unions” of 
England. Our sincere congratulation to the compilers. 




SPECIAL ISSUES 




SPECIAL ISSUES 
& 

- « GOVARDHANA SMARAKA ANKA ” or the Gov tt rdhan 
M. Tripathi la Memorium Issuo ( illustrated ) of the S&mnlochctka 
( 1907 ). * 

A substantial volume of nearly 225 pages, this publi- 
cation is a somewhat unusual event in the history of 
Gujarti literature, it reminds one of the memorials of 
Byron, and Wordsworth, the Byroniana and the Word- 
sworthiana. It contains papers and articles by various 
well-known Gujarati writers, of both sexes, on the life 
and life-work of the late Mr. Govardhanram M. Tripathi. 
The idea of publishing such an issue was first started by 
a contemporary, the Vcisanta of Ahmedabad, and was 
successfully carried out. It comprised a number of 
thoughtful and informative articles and it was apprehend- 
ed that there was no room for another collection on the 
same lines. 

But the volume before us has dispersed all such 
fears, and has conclusively shown what a strong hold the 
late Mr. Tripathi had on the minds of 1 he Gujaratis. The 
papers descant at various lengths on the biographical 
incidents and literary events in the life of the subject of 
the memoir, and they all furnish interesting if not fasci- 
nating reading. At times one fears there is repetition 



but that cannot be helped when so many are invited to 
write on one and the same subject. 

This remarkable issue will, it seems to us, till it is 
supplanted by the promised biography of Tripathi, stand 
unrivalled as a mine of information, and collection of 
criticisms on his work and help to solve many knotty 
points which students felt while studying him and his 
books. 

The great popularity of Mr. Tripathi among Gujaratis 
is evinced by the accompanying picture called ^The 
Setting of the Moon of the Gujarati Literature.” It is 
described as follows : — 

The above picture has been designed to serve as a 
memorial to the everlasting obligation under which the 
late Govardhanram Madhavram Tripathi has laid the 
Gujarati-speaking community. It is an attempt to depict 
the chaste and transcendent influence which this great 
literary orb of Gujarat had for a long time shed on its 
world of thought and which influence is still continued to 
be shed through his writings. 

The Ocean in the picture is the*, ocean of 
thought which the powerful attraction of this great 
genius has bestirred and speed on to wash and 
purify the otherwise untouched shores of Gujarat, On 
the bosom of this ocean are shown carried in an onward 
course the published works of the great author, while his 
unpublished and unfinished works are to be seen lying on 
the shore awaiting the ocean to extend its arms and 
take them from the shore supporting herself by the rock. 



Development of Gfujarati Literature : 1907^1938 


621 

By her is Gujarat lost in grief and shedding burning 
tears over her irreparable loss. The spirit of her son, 
however, while about to disappear, seems to cheer her 
up by means of the poem which his hero Saraswati- 
chandra has adressed to Kumuda his intended wife : — 

‘Oh, sweet beloved night 

Do not grieve thyself by the beloved moon dis- 
appearing, - 

Take hold of the bright and pleasant rays of the day- 

causing sun and convert thyself into a smiling being 

in the shape of the glorious day/ 

And the curioo wonderingly asks, 'Where is the sun 
whose rays shall thus light the gloom and spread light in 
which the departed author has enjoined his beloved 
Gujarat to seek support ? ” 

& 

“THE JUBILEE MEMORIAL NUMBER OF THE 
STREE BODHA.” ( 1908. ) 

It is with sincere pleasure that we take note of this 
volume. It is a landmark in the history of female educa- 
tion in the City of Bombay, and in every way representa- 
tive of the great and good work done in this respect by 
Parsis and Hindus alike. It supplies most interesting and 
instructive reading, as it contains papers from the pen of 
Englishmen and Indians, in English and Gujarati. Miss 
Shirin K. N. Kabraji who raised the journal to the highest 
pitch of its utility, was the life and soul of the movement 
and it is no little credit to her to see that she has crowned 



622 


Special Issues 


it with success, as is evidenced by this number* It is 
richly illustrated with portraits of those men and women, - 
Hindus, Parsis and Europeans - who have worked in this 
noble cause, and is on the whole a volume fit to adorn a 
Library. 

"DIWALI ISSUE OF THE GUJARATI PUNCH.” (Anglo- 
Gujarati weekly. ) ( 1909 ). 

This enterprising journal has added to its venture by 
coming out in an illustrated garb in a special numbpr on 
the Diwali festival day the mechanical execution of the 
issue is tolerably good, the pictures comprising those of 
men known in various walks of life, politics, letters, reli- 
gion, social reform, etc. living and dead. It is further 
embellished by contributions from several well-known 
writers and thinkers, and on the whole, we think we must 
offer our best felicitations to the Ediior, who has, unmind- 
ful of the expence, led the way in Ahmedabad, in a new 
line of journalism. 

☆ 

“SHRI JAINA DHARMA PRASARAKA SABHA SIL- 
VER JUBILEE ANKA.” ( 1909 ). 

From a very small beginning this Sabha has reached 
a very useful state, and the volume under notice records 
the various steps by which it has attained this result. 
Those who had been watching the State of Kathiawad 
and Gujarat for the last two deades, cannot but be struck 
with the awakening which after all has overtaken the 
Jaina community and the energetic work of the Sabha 
is but one of the many manifestations of that movement. 



Development- of Gujarati Literature : 1907-1938 


623 


After giving the history of the foundation of the 
Sabha, the book embodies a collection of papers contribu- 
ted by writers of note and others on subjects cognate to 
the Jaina Literature and Religion, and some of them are 
most readable and instructive. For instance, we would 
commend Mr, Ranjitram VavabhaPs paper on the 
different ways in which Jainas at one time did useful 
work for science and art. On the whole we must say, 
we are well pleased with the issue, which contains 
weJLexecuted photographs of H. H. the Maharaja of 
Bhavnagar and his Dewan Saheb. 

☆ 

“STIALA-PATRA JUBILEE ANK A' 7 Edited by Kamda- 
shaokar P. Trivsdx, B. a . (1911). 

The Gujarat Shald Patrci has been the official organ 
of the Educational Department for the last fifty years and 
if one were to judge of its utility and worth from the 
men who have been at the helm during this long period, 
there would be only a unanimous chorus of approval for 
its work. Mahipatram, Navalram, Madhavalal and lactly 
the present Editor, have all been distinguished educa- 
tionists and the history of the periodical introducing the 
reader to the collection of the various articles published 
in the following pages, furnishes ample material for 
congratulation to the Department. 

It has furnished a most welcome facility to school- 
masters to come out with their difficulties, their grie- 
vances, and their opinions on various Departmental 
matters. The papers contributed to this volume come 



624 


Special Issues 


from some well-known educationists and literary men 
and they furnish ample food for thought, instruction and 
information. We wish its get up and mechanical execu- 
tion were better. 

☆ 

(1) PATEL BANDHCJ, DIWALI ISSUE (2) THE DIWALI 
ISSUE OF THE GUJARATI. (1912). 

There is quite a sheaf of Diwali issues of periodi- 
cals-weekly and monthly-coming out every year 
now, in imitation of the Christmas numbers of English 
papers. Their number is on the increase, but amongst 
them all, we have selected the above two as being worth 
mention, in point of mechanical get up, popular treatment 
of a diversity of subjects, and their consequent readable- 
ness. 

The first is a sectarian monthly. It represents the 
agricultural class — the Patidars of Gujarat, who by means 
of their wealth and intelligence are making rapid strides 
towards advancement all round. 

The second is however by far the best production we 
have seen in Gujarati till now. It is illustrated with 
numbers of pictures of great historical interest, of the 
monuments of old Surat and Ahmedabad and a mere 
look at them revives the memory of their glorious past. 
But more noticeable than that is the array of useful 
subjects — literay and others, treated most informatively 
by the different writers. The old romances, merging 
almost into folklore, of Kathiawad, the home of romance, 
handled here, only whet the desire of the reader to get more. 



Development of Gujarati Literature : 1907—1988 


625 


Then there is the article on fishes and fishlife 
illustrated with pictures, whose lucid and popular treat- 
ment should act as a magnet to draw out others, to follow 
in the same vein. The Bengali monthly Prabdsi, like so 
many other English contemporaries is generally always 
full of such articles popularly treating scientific subjects. 
Gujarati literature is sadly lacking in this respect. We 
■wish the void to disappear, now that a beginning has 
been made. 

An otherwise excellent work is marred by a piece of 
literary unfairness. There is a short story at the end 
by R. A. Mehta. It appears to have been clearly lifted 
from some English book. It is not written originally by 
the writer, still he has tried to palm it off on his readers 
as if he were the author of it. This tendency of an 
absence of uprightness in a rising writer cannot be 
commended, and the Editor should put it down for the 
sake of his own good name.